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Cells and Tissues
   Cells and Tissues
   Carry out all chemical activities needed to
    sustain life.
   Cells are the building blocks ...
   Anatomy of the Generalized Cell
   Cells are not all the same
   All cells share general structures
   Cells are or...
Barrier for cell
   contents
Double phospholipid
layer (fat – water)

Hydrophilic heads
Hydrophobic tails
   Other ma...
Microvilli
          Finger-like projections that
          increase surface area for
          absorption
Small intest...
   Control center of the cell
    ◦ Contains genetic material (DNA)
   Three regions
    ◦ Nuclear membrane
    ◦ Nucleo...
Barrier of nucleus
Consists of a double phospholipid membrane
Contain nuclear pores that allow for exchange of material ...
Nucleoli

Nucleus contains one or more nucleoli
Sites of ribosome production
Ribosomes then migrate to the cytoplasm throu...
   Material outside the nucleus and inside the
    plasma membrane
   Cytosol
   Fluid that suspends other elements
  ...
   Ribosomes
   Made of protein and RNA
   Sites of protein synthesis
   Found at two locations
    ◦ Free in the cyto...
   Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
   Fluid-filled tubules for carrying substances
   Two types of ER
    ◦ Rough Endoplasmi...
   Golgi apparatus
   Modifies and packages proteins
   Lysosomes
   Contain enzymes that digest nonusable
    materials within the cell
   Peroxisomes
   Membranous sacs ...
   Mitochondria
    ◦ “Powerhouses” of the cell
    ◦ Change shape continuously
    ◦ Carry out reactions where
      oxy...
   Cytoskeleton
    ◦ Network of protein structures that extend
      throughout the cytoplasm
    ◦ Provides the cell wi...
   Cytoskeleton
   Three different types
   Microfilaments
   Intermediate
    filaments
   Microtubules
   Centrioles
   Rod-shaped bodies made of microtubules
   Direct formation of mitotic spindle during cell
    division...
mbbs ims msu
mbbs ims msu
mbbs ims msu
mbbs ims msu
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Cells and tissue

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Transcript of "mbbs ims msu"

  1. 1. Cells and Tissues
  2. 2.  Cells and Tissues  Carry out all chemical activities needed to sustain life.  Cells are the building blocks of all living things  Tissues are groups of cells that are similar in structure and function  Structure reflects function
  3. 3.  Anatomy of the Generalized Cell  Cells are not all the same  All cells share general structures  Cells are organized into three main regions  Nucleus  Cytoplasm  Plasma membrane
  4. 4. Barrier for cell contents Double phospholipid layer (fat – water) Hydrophilic heads Hydrophobic tails Other materials in plasma membrane Protein Cholesterol Glycoproteins
  5. 5. Microvilli Finger-like projections that increase surface area for absorption Small intestine and nephrons of kidney
  6. 6.  Control center of the cell ◦ Contains genetic material (DNA)  Three regions ◦ Nuclear membrane ◦ Nucleolus ◦ Chromatin
  7. 7. Barrier of nucleus Consists of a double phospholipid membrane Contain nuclear pores that allow for exchange of material with the rest of the cell – selectively permeable
  8. 8. Nucleoli Nucleus contains one or more nucleoli Sites of ribosome production Ribosomes then migrate to the cytoplasm through nuclear pores Chromatin (when not dividing)  Composed of DNA and protein  Scattered throughout the nucleus  Chromatin condenses to form chromosomes when the cell divides
  9. 9.  Material outside the nucleus and inside the plasma membrane  Cytosol  Fluid that suspends other elements  Organelles  Metabolic machinery of the cell  Inclusions  Non-functioning units – fat, pigments…..
  10. 10.  Ribosomes  Made of protein and RNA  Sites of protein synthesis  Found at two locations ◦ Free in the cytoplasm ◦ Attached to rough endoplasmic reticulum
  11. 11.  Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)  Fluid-filled tubules for carrying substances  Two types of ER ◦ Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum ◦ Studded with ribosomes  Site where building materials of cellular membrane are formed ◦ Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum ◦ Functions in cholesterol synthesis and breakdown, fat metabolism, and detoxification of drugs
  12. 12.  Golgi apparatus  Modifies and packages proteins
  13. 13.  Lysosomes  Contain enzymes that digest nonusable materials within the cell  Peroxisomes  Membranous sacs of oxidase enzymes ◦ Detoxify harmful substances ◦ Break down free radicals (highly reactive chemicals)  Replicate
  14. 14.  Mitochondria ◦ “Powerhouses” of the cell ◦ Change shape continuously ◦ Carry out reactions where oxygen is used to break down food ◦ Provides ATP for cellular energy
  15. 15.  Cytoskeleton ◦ Network of protein structures that extend throughout the cytoplasm ◦ Provides the cell with an internal framework
  16. 16.  Cytoskeleton  Three different types  Microfilaments  Intermediate filaments  Microtubules
  17. 17.  Centrioles  Rod-shaped bodies made of microtubules  Direct formation of mitotic spindle during cell division  Cellular Projections  Not found in all cells  Used for movement ◦ Cilia moves materials across the cell surface ◦ Flagellum propels the cell
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