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Adipose tissue

Adipose tissue

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  • 1. Connective Tissues (CT) • Defined: • Loose CT example • Matrix • Fibers & their functions – Fibroblast cells – Collagen – Elastin – Fibrillin – Fibronectin
  • 2. Connective Tissues (CT)
  • 3. More Connective Tissues • Dense connective tissue – Tendons & ligaments – Collagen dominates Tendons and ligaments
  • 4. More Connective Tissues • Adipose connective tissue – Adipocytes – Fat vacuoles • Blood – Plasma matrix – Free blood cells
  • 5. More Connective Tissues Adipose tissue
  • 6. Supporting Connective Tissues • Cartilage – Light & flexible – Trachea & ears • Bone – Calcified – Rigid • Connective Tissues Reviewed
  • 7. Supporting Connective Tissues Map of the components of connective tissue
  • 8. Muscle Tissues • Contractile – Force – Movement • Excitable- they conduct signals • Types – Cardiac – Smooth – Skeletal Three types of muscles
  • 9. Nervous Tissues • Neurons send signals – Excitable – Electrical – Chemical • Glial cells support Model neuron
  • 10. Cell Life, Death, and Replacement • Necrosis – Damaged cells die – Disrupt/kill neighbors • Apoptosis – Normal cell replacement – Programmed cell death – Does not damage neighbors • Stem cells – Role in cell replacement – Research uses and potential
  • 11. A Specialty Connective Tissue ADIPOSE TISSUE
  • 12. Function of Adipose Tissue • Largest repository of energy in the body – Triglycerides – 9.3kcal/g • Contributes to thermal insulation – Important for temperature regulation • Fills spaces between structures/protects – Between organs – Aids fit of valves in heart – Pads of fat protect heels, palms
  • 13. How Fat is Used in Adipose Cell • Fatty acid + glycerol move into cell from capillary. • Sympathetic stimulation (NE) and Ep from adrenal gland stimulate adipose cell: – Release fatty acid, glycerol – Used as a source of energy nor-epinephrine
  • 14. Adipose Dynamics capillary capillary NE FFA Glycerol Glycerol FFA triglyceride Ep Glu (insulin) LIVER nucleus
  • 15. Route of FFA to Adipose Tissue • Capillary endothelium • Basal lamina • CT ground substance • Adipocyte basal lamina • Adipocyte plasma membrane free fatty acid
  • 16. Development of Fat Tissue
  • 17. Distribution of Adipose Tissue In a human newborn, multilocular adipose tissue constitutes 2—5% of the body weight and is distributed as shown. The black areas indicate multilocular adipose tissue; shaded areas are a mixture of multilocular and unilocular adipose tissue.
  • 18. Adipose Tissue Unilocular Multilocular (Brown Fat)
  • 19. Adipocytes
  • 20. Cartilage
  • 21. Functions of Cartilage Tissue • Specialized CT in which the firm consistency of the extracellular matrix allows the tissue to bear mechanical stresses without permanent distortion • Supports soft tissues. • Shock-absorbing because it is resilient. • Smooth surface allows sliding against it. • Essential for growth, development of bone.
  • 22. Characteristics • Chondrocytes (-blasts) – Located in lacunae • Extensive extra-cellular matrix – Fibers, ground substance – Collagen, hyaluronic acid, proteoglycans, glycoproteins, elastic (in elastic cartilage) – Macromolecules, water, fibers bind together and give firm, flexible properties to tissue. • No blood, nerve supply • Low metabolic rate.
  • 23. Perichondrium • Dense CT that covers cartilage (except articular cartilage of joints.) • Contains blood, nerve supply, lymphatics. • Contains collagen fibers, fibroblasts Hyaline cartilage
  • 24. Transition Perichondrium / Cartilage
  • 25. Hyaline Cartilage
  • 26. CARTILAGE (hyaline) Found at ends of bones, nose, trachea, larynx Bluish white color. Strong, rubbery, flexible tissue.
  • 27. Chondrocytes in Lacunae
  • 28. Influence of hormones • GH, TH, testosterone accelerates synthesis of glycosaminoglycans. • Cortisone, estradiol inhibits synthesis. • Growth depends mainly on GH (somatotroopin) – Stimulates liver to produce somatomedin C – Somatomedin C acts on cartilage cell, stimulating growth
  • 29. Growth of Cartilage • Growth is attributable to two processes: – Interstitial growth • Mitotic division of preexisting chrondrocytes • Synthesis of matrix • Expands cartilage matrix from within • Occurs in epiphyseal plates, articular cartilage – Appositional growth • Differentiation of perichondrial cells  chondroblasts • Synthesis of matrix
  • 30. Growth in the Epiphyseal Plate
  • 31. Epiphyseal Plate (Interstitial Growth)
  • 32. Appositional Growth
  • 33. ELASTIC CARTILAGE • Similar to hyaline cartilage but has elastic fibers running in all directions in addition to collagen. • Found in auricle of ear, walls of external auditory canals, eustachian tubes, epiglottis, larynx • Maintains shape, deforms but returns to shape; flexibility of organ; strengths and supports structures. E ar
  • 34. ELASTIC CARTILAGE
  • 35. Elastic Cartilage Elastic fibers (elastin) Yellow color
  • 36. Elastic Cartilage (Epiglottis)
  • 37. • Fibrous Cartilage Fibrocartilage • is a form of connective tissue transitional between dense connective tissue and hyaline cartilage. • Chondrocytes may lie singly or in pairs, but most often they form short rows between dense bundles of collagen fibres. In contrast to other cartilage types, collagen type I is dominant in fibrous cartilage. • is typically found in relation to joints (forming intra- articular lips, disks and menisci) and is the main component of the intervertebral disks, symphysis pubis. • merges imperceptibly into the neighboring tissues, typically tendons or articular hyaline cartilage. It is difficult to define the perichondrium because of the fibrous appearance of the cartilage and the gradual transition to surrounding tissue types.
  • 38. Fibrocartilage Note the rows of chondrocytes separated by collagen fibers. Fibrocartilage is frequently found in the insertion of tendons on the epiphyseal hyaline cartilage.
  • 39. Fibrocartilage Intervertebral disks Nucleus pulposus is the jelly-like substance in the middle of the spinal disc
  • 40. Fibrocartilage