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Lecture 17
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  • 1. Thymus
    two-lobed organ
    located in upper part of chest along trachea
    immature T cells originating in the bone marrow migrate to thymus via blood
      in thymus, cells develop into mature     T cells for release into circulation
  • 2.
    • lymphatic tissue
    • 3. primary role: changes lymphocytes to T cells for cellular immunity
    Thymus Function
  • 4. Tonsils
    Two masses of tissue on either side of the back of the throat
    Assist the body in its defense against incoming bacteria and viruses
    Three types:
        pharyngeal tonsils
    Palatine tonsil
        lingual tonsils 
  • 5. - trap and destroy bacteria
  • 6.
  • 7. blockage of lymph drainage
    Is a condition of localized fluid retention and tissue swelling due to damage of lymphatic system
    - due to tumor pressure, parasites, or surgery
  • 8. Edema
    lowers colloid osmotic pressure
    Increase hydrostatic pressure
    poor lymph drainage
    increased capillary permeability as in inflammation
  • 9. Hypersensitivity
    Refers to undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system
    There are four groups classification:
    Type I (allergy)
    Type II (Antibody dependent)
    Type III (Immune complex diseases
    Type IV (Delayed type hypersensitivity)
  • 10. Classification of Hypersensitivity Diseases
    Type Immunologic Mechanisms Examples
    Type I: Immediate
    Type II:
    Antibody Mediated
    Type III:
    Immune complex
    Type IV: Delayed type
    T-cell mediated
    IgE antibody mediated-mast cell
    activation and degranulation
    Antibodies (IgM, IgG) formed
    Against cell surface or matrix Ags.
    Complement is usually involved
    Immune complexes of circulating
    antigens.Complement and
    Leukocytes (neutrophils,
    macrophages) are often involved.
    Mononuclear cells (T lymphocytes,
    macrophages) involved.
    Th1 diseases
    Allergies (“Hay fever”),
    Autoimmune hemolytic
    anemias,Myasthenia gravis,
    Rheumatic fever,
    Graves disease
    Serum sickness, Lupus,
    Diabetes, Rheumatoid Arthritis,
    Inflammatory Bowel Disease;
    Multiple sclerosis
  • 11. Allergy
    Allergy is one of four forms of hypersensitivity
    Allergic person who has excess IgE
    The allergic tendency is genetically passed from parent to child
    Characterized by presence of large quantities if IgE (reagins) in the blood
    IgE attached to mast cells and basophils
    Antigen (allergen) react with IgE that attached to mast cell and basophil
    Some of mast cell produce chemical substance
    Attract neutrophils to the reactive site
  • 12. Anaphylaxis
    Specific allergen enters vascular system
    Reaction occurs of allergen –IgE that attached to basophil
    Histamine released into the circulation
    Treated with epinephrine
  • 13. Urticaria
    Resulting from antigen entering skin area
    Histamine released and causes vasodilatin and increase permeability of the capillaries
  • 14. Hay fever
    The allergen- reagin reaction occurs in the nose
    Histamine released in response to the reaction leads to increase capillary pressure and permeability
    Using antihistamine prevent swelling reaction
  • 15. Asthma
    The allergen- reagin reaction occurs in the bronchioles of the lungs
    Product released from mast cell called slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis which caused spasm of smooth muscles
  • 16. Type II (Antibody Mediated)
    Antibodies produced by the immune response bind to antigen on the patients own cell surface
    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia: where the body immune system attacks its own RBCs leading to their destruction
    Drugs bind to RBC causing them to be recognized different.
    IgM and IgG antibodies bind to these antigens that cause cell lysis and death