Lecture 17


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Lecture 17

  1. 1. Thymus<br />two-lobed organ<br /> located in upper part of chest along trachea<br />immature T cells originating in the bone marrow migrate to thymus via blood<br />  in thymus, cells develop into mature     T cells for release into circulation<br />
  2. 2. <ul><li>lymphatic tissue
  3. 3. primary role: changes lymphocytes to T cells for cellular immunity</li></ul>Thymus Function<br />
  4. 4. Tonsils<br />Two masses of tissue on either side of the back of the throat<br />Assist the body in its defense against incoming bacteria and viruses<br />Three types:<br />    pharyngeal tonsils<br /> Palatine tonsil <br />    lingual tonsils <br />
  5. 5. - trap and destroy bacteria<br />
  6. 6.
  7. 7. blockage of lymph drainage<br />Lymphedema<br />Is a condition of localized fluid retention and tissue swelling due to damage of lymphatic system<br /> - due to tumor pressure, parasites, or surgery<br />
  8. 8. Edema<br />lowers colloid osmotic pressure <br />Increase hydrostatic pressure<br />poor lymph drainage<br />increased capillary permeability as in inflammation<br />
  9. 9. Hypersensitivity<br />Refers to undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system<br />There are four groups classification:<br />Type I (allergy)<br />Type II (Antibody dependent)<br />Type III (Immune complex diseases<br />Type IV (Delayed type hypersensitivity)<br />
  10. 10. Classification of Hypersensitivity Diseases<br />Type Immunologic Mechanisms Examples<br />Type I: Immediate <br />hypersensitivity<br />Type II:<br />Antibody Mediated<br />Type III:<br />Immune complex <br />Mediated<br />Type IV: Delayed type <br />hypersensitivity<br /> T-cell mediated<br />IgE antibody mediated-mast cell<br /> activation and degranulation<br />Antibodies (IgM, IgG) formed <br />Against cell surface or matrix Ags. <br />Complement is usually involved<br />Immune complexes of circulating <br />antigens.Complement and <br />Leukocytes (neutrophils,<br />macrophages) are often involved.<br />Mononuclear cells (T lymphocytes,<br />macrophages) involved. <br />Th1 diseases<br />Allergies (“Hay fever”),<br />asthma,anaphylaxis<br />Autoimmune hemolytic <br />anemias,Myasthenia gravis, <br />Rheumatic fever, <br />Graves disease<br />Serum sickness, Lupus,<br />glomerulonephritis<br />Diabetes, Rheumatoid Arthritis,<br />Inflammatory Bowel Disease;<br />Multiple sclerosis<br />
  11. 11. Allergy<br />Allergy is one of four forms of hypersensitivity<br />Allergic person who has excess IgE<br />The allergic tendency is genetically passed from parent to child<br />Characterized by presence of large quantities if IgE (reagins) in the blood <br />IgE attached to mast cells and basophils<br />Antigen (allergen) react with IgE that attached to mast cell and basophil<br />Some of mast cell produce chemical substance<br />Attract neutrophils to the reactive site <br />
  12. 12. Anaphylaxis<br />Specific allergen enters vascular system<br />Reaction occurs of allergen –IgE that attached to basophil<br />Histamine released into the circulation<br />Treated with epinephrine<br />
  13. 13. Urticaria<br />Resulting from antigen entering skin area<br />Histamine released and causes vasodilatin and increase permeability of the capillaries<br />
  14. 14. Hay fever<br />The allergen- reagin reaction occurs in the nose<br />Histamine released in response to the reaction leads to increase capillary pressure and permeability<br />Using antihistamine prevent swelling reaction<br />
  15. 15. Asthma<br />The allergen- reagin reaction occurs in the bronchioles of the lungs<br />Product released from mast cell called slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis which caused spasm of smooth muscles<br />
  16. 16. Type II (Antibody Mediated)<br />Antibodies produced by the immune response bind to antigen on the patients own cell surface<br />Autoimmune hemolytic anemia: where the body immune system attacks its own RBCs leading to their destruction<br />Drugs bind to RBC causing them to be recognized different.<br />IgM and IgG antibodies bind to these antigens that cause cell lysis and death<br />