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Lecture 16
 

Lecture 16

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    Lecture 16 Lecture 16 Presentation Transcript

    • Suppressor T cells
      They are capable of suppressing the function of both cytotoxic and helper T cell
      They serve functions of preventing the cytotoxic cells from causing excessive immune reactions that may damage the body own tissues, this called immune tolerance
      Immune Tolerance
      The condition of not mounting an immune response against the antigens that normally found within one’s own body. Lack of self tolerance underlies autoimmune diseases
    • Autoimmune Disorders
      Antigens stimulate development of antibodies that are unable to distinguish antigens of internal cells.
      Body makes antibodies and T cells against itself and attacks own tissues.
    • Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
      Caused by HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
      HIV infects T-helper cells
      AIDS name applied during advanced stages of disease
      After immune system destroyed, opportunistic infections occur.
    • Lymphatic System
    • LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
      The lymphatic system take away the excess fluid from around the cells and returns it to the blood
      The fluid from around the cells is called tissue fluid
      Once inside the lymphatic system the fluid is called lymph
    • Functions of lymphatic system
      1. To remove excess fluid from the tissue
      2. To return the fluid to the blood
      3. To produce antibodies and lymphocytes
      4. To clean and filter the fluid
      5. To transport absorbed fats from the intestines to the blood
    • Lymph System
      Lymph originates in blood plasma
      Interstitial fluid
      cleans and nourishes body tissues
      collects cellular debris, bacteria
    • The main function
      - collect excess large particles and tissue fluid
      lymph
    • Special lymph capillaries --- Lacteals
      - collect digested fats ( in chylomicrons)
    • Travel along with blood vessels.
      lymphatic vessels
    • Lymphatic System
      Lymphatic system consist of:
      Lymphatic tissue
      Lymphatic vessels
      lymph
    • Components of Human Immune System
      • blind ended vessels
      • permeable to proteins even cells
    • Flow of Lymph
      Once lymph enters a lymphatic vessel, valves prevent lymph from flowing backward (back toward the interstitial space)
      Lymph can only move toward a collecting duct
      As it moves through vessels, it is filtered periodically by lymph nodes.
    • Valves are present to prevent backflow.
    • Lymph Nodes
      located in lymph vessels
      small round or oval structures (filters)
      depositories for cellular debris
      bacteria and debris phagocytized
    • Lymph Nodes
      inside are masses of tissue which contain WBCs (lymphocytes)
      invading cells destroyed in nodes and often swell as an indicator of the disease process
    • Lymph Nodes
      small organs
      embedded in connective tissue-– near body surface
      cluster along lymphatic vessels
      function
      – filter lymph as it is transported back to bloodstream
      mall organs
      mall organs
      mall organs
      embedded in connective tissue
      embedded in connective tissue
      embedded in connective tissue
      cluster along lymphatic vessels
      cluster along lymphatic vessels
      cluster along lymphatic vessels
      function
      function
      function
      – filter lymph
      – filter lymph
      – filter lymph
      • as it is transported back to bloodstream
      • as it is transported back to bloodstream
      • as it is transported back to bloodstream
    • functions of Lymph Nodes
      1) filter*
      – phagocytic macrophages remove & destroy microorganisms enter the lymph from loose connective tissue
      – prevent them from being delivered to the blood
      2) activate the immune system
      3) fight against antigens
      – lymphocytes located in lymphnodes
    • Lymphoid tissues
       
      Include:
      Function:
      eliminates abnormal (sick, aged, or cancerous) cells and pathogens
      Lymph Nodes
      Spleen
      Thymus
      Tonsils
    • Spleen
      Largest mass of
      of lymphatic tissue
      Upper left diaphragm
      Has two types of tissue
      Red pulp-responsible for removing RBC
      White pulp-site for immune interaction
    • Spleen
      functions
      – Filter blood
      – defective blood cells and platelets
      – debris, foreign matter–
      – site for immune interaction