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  • 1. Lymphocytes
    Agranulocyte
    20-45% of WBCs
    Spherical, dark-staining nucleus
    Thin rim of blue staining cytoplasm
    Each lymphocyte recognizes and acts against a specific antigen
  • 2. Lymphocytes
    T lymphocytes can attack foreign cells directly
    (17.6)
  • 3. Lymphocytes
    B lymphocytes transform into plasma cells and secrete antibodies
  • 4. Hemostasis means prevention of blood loss and this achieved by:
    Vascular constriction
    Formation of a platelet plug
    Formation of blood clot
    Growth of fibrous tissue into the blood clot
    Hemostasis
  • 5. After blood vessel has been cut, the smooth muscle wall contract; this immediately reduces the flow of blood from the ruptured vessel
    Vascular Constriction
  • 6. Platelets or thrombocytes
    Formed in the bone marrow from megakaryocytes
    Do not have nuclei
    Function in the clotting process.
    Normal value – 150,000 to 300,000/cubic millimeter.
    It has a half life in the blood of 8 – 12 days, its functional process run out over several weeks
    Formation of platelet plug
  • 7. Formed by fragmentation from megakaryoctyes
  • 8. Contractile protein thrombosthenin that can cause the platelet to contract
    Endoplasmic reticulum that store Calcium ions
    Mitochondria capable of forming ATP
    Enzymes that can synthesize prostaglandins which involves in local tissue reactions
    Contain fibrin stabilizing factor
    Growth factors that causes vascular cells to grow and multiply
    Platelet functional characteristics
  • 9. Platelet begin to swell and assume irregular forms when comes in contact with collagen fibers
    They become sticky so that they adhere to collagen in the tissue
    They secrete ADP and form thromboxane which activate nearby platelets
    The damaged vascular wall activates increasing numbers of platelets thus forming platelet plug. (In small vessels the platelet plug is all that is necessary to stop the bleeding).
    Mechanism of platelet plug
  • 10. Platelet Plug Formation
    Exposed collagen binds and activate platelets
    Release of platelet factors
    Attract more platelets
    Aggregate into platelet plug
  • 11. Blood coagulation take place in three steps
    As result of rupture blood vessels, formation of prothrombin activator (protein manufacture in the liver)
    Conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in the presence of calcium
    The thrombin acts as enzyme to convert fibrinogen (blood protein) into fibrin fibers that enmesh platelet, blood cells and plasma to form clot
    Note: vitamin K is required by liver for formation of prothrombin
    Blood coagulation in the ruptured vessel
  • 12. Prothrombin
    Prothrombin Ca
    Activator
    Thrombin
    Fibrinogen Fibrinogen monomer
    Ca
    Fibrin fibers
    Activated fibrin
    Stabilizing factor
    Cross linked fibrin fibers
    Blood Coagulation
  • 13. SEM of a clot with platelet, fibrin mesh, rbc’s
    The clot composed of meshwork of fibrin fibers entrapping blood cells, platelets and plasma
  • 14. Overview of Hemostasis: Clot Formation & Vessel Repair
  • 15. Prothrombin activator is generally formed in two ways
    Extrinsic pathway (begins with trauma to the vascular wall)
    Intrinsic pathway (begin with the blood)
    Initiation of coagulation
  • 16. Pathways for initiating clotting
  • 17. Preventing blood clotting in vascular system is
    Smoothness of the endothelial cell surface
    Layer of glycocalyx on the endothelium
    Protein bound with the endothelial membrane thrombomodulin which binds thrombin
    Prevention of blood clotting in the vascular system
  • 18. The most important anticoagulant in the blood
    Fibrin fibers
    Antithrombin III or antithrombin-heparin cofactor
    Both fibrin fibers and antithrombin acts as antithrombin
    About 85-90% of thrombin becomes adsorbed to the fibrin fibers
    The thrombin that does not adsorb combines with antithrombin III which block the effect of thrombin
    Antithrombin action of fibrin and antithrombin III
  • 19. Heparin is anticoagulant, low concentration in the blood
    Effectiveness of antithrombin III increases when it combines with heparin
    Heparin is formed by basophilic and mast cell
    Heparin
  • 20. Plasma protein contain euglobulin called plasminogen when activated becomes plasmin
    Plasmin resemble trypsin
    Plasmin digest fibrin fibers and other protein coagulants
    Plasmin caused lysis of a clot
    Fibrinolysis of blood clot - plasmin
  • 21. Injured tissue release activator called tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) which convert plasminogen to plasmin
    Activation of plasminogen
  • 22. Dissolving the clot
  • 23. A comparison of RBCs, WBCs and Platelets
  • 24. A comparison of RBCs, WBCs and Platelets
  • 25. Albumin
    Helps control osmotic pressure
    Helps control diffusion of water
    Globulin
    Includes antibodies (Abs)
    Transport proteins (lipids, iron, copper, etc.)
    Fibrinogen
    Involved in clotting
    Plasma proteins
  • 26. All the albumin and fibrinogen and 50 – 80% of globulin are formed in the liver
    The reminder of the globulin are formed in the lymphoid tissues
    Formation of the plasma proteins
  • 27. Normal values
    Total protein: 4.2 - 5.6 g/dl
    Albumin: 2.3 - 3.5 g/dl
    Globulin: 1.9 – 2.1 g/dl
  • 28. ALBUMIN
    66 kDa
    • Accounts for ~50% of the total plasma protein and ~ 50%
    of the total liver protein production
     Half-life ~ 20 days
     Highly polar
     At pH 7.4 it is anionic with 20 negative charges per molecule
  • 29. Regulation of colloidal pressure
  • 30. ALBUMIN
    Functions of albumin
    Maintenance of the osmotic pressure of plasma
    Transport of free fatty acids
  • 31. Globulin
    • Globulin is made up of different proteins called alpha, beta, and gamma types.
    • 32. Some globulins are made by the liver, while others are made by the immune system.
    • 33. Other globulins transport metals, such as iron, in the blood and help fight infection.