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Lec66(reproductive system)

Lec66(reproductive system)






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    Lec66(reproductive system) Lec66(reproductive system) Presentation Transcript

    • The Effects of Pregnancy on the Mother
      • Pregnancy – period from conception until birth
      • Anatomical changes
      • Female reproductive organ engorged with blood
      • Enlargements of the uterus
      • Lordosis (Accentuated lumbar curvature)
      • Relaxation of the pelvic ligaments and pubic symphysis due to production of relaxin from placenta
      • Weight gains occurs
    • Effects of Pregnancy on the Mother
      • Metabolic changes
      • Placenta secrete human placental lactogen (hPL)
      • hPL together with estrogen and progesterone stimulate maturation of the breast for lactation
      • Promote growth of fetus
      • Placenta also releases human chorionic thyrotropin (hCT)
      • Increases the rate of maternal metabolism
    • Effects of Pregnancy on the Mother
      • Physiological changes
      • Gastrointestinal system
      • Morning sickness is common due to elevated progesterone
      • Heartburn is common because of organ crowding by the fetus
      • Constipation is caused by declining motility of the digestive tract
    • Effects of Pregnancy on the Mother
      • Physiological changes
      • Urinary System
      • Kidneys have additional burden and produce more urine
      • The uterus compresses the bladder and urination become more frequent
    • Effects of Pregnancy on the Mother
      • Physiological changes
      • Respiratory System
      • Nasal mucosa becomes congested and swollen
      • Vital capacity and respiratory rate increase
    • Effects of Pregnancy on the Mother
      • Physiological changes
      • Cardiovascular system
      • Body water rises
      • Blood volume increases by 25 to 40 percent
      • Blood pressure and pulse increase
      • Varicose veins are common
    • Childbirth (Partition)
      • Labor – the series of events that expel the infant from the uterus
      • Initiation of labor
      • Estrogen levels rise
      • Stimulates the myometrial cells to form abundant oxytocin receptor
      • Uterine contractions begin
      • Braxton Hicks contraction
      • The placenta releases prostaglandins
      • Oxytocin is released from fetus and the pituitary
      • Combination of these hormones produces contractions
    • Initiation of Labor
    • Stages of Labor
      • Dilation
      • The time from labor’s onset until the cervix is fully dilated by the baby’s head
      • Uterine contractions begin and increase
      • The amnion ruptures, event commonly called “breaking the water”
      • The dilation stage lasts 6 – 12 hours
    • Stages of Labor
      • Expulsion
      • Lasts from full dilation to delivery of the infant
      • Strong contraction occur every 2 – 3 min and last about 1 min
      • This period may last 2 hours
      • An episiotomy may be done to reduce tissue tearing
      • Normal delivery is head first
    • Stages of Labor
      • Placental stage
      • Delivery of the placenta and its attached fetal membrane
      • Accomplished within 30 min after birth of the infant
    • Stages of Labor
    • Adjustment of infant to extrauterine life
      For the first few minutes after birth, the infant’s physical status assessed based on
      Muscle tone
      Apgar score of 8 – 10 indicates a healthy baby
    • Lactation
      Lactation is production of milk by the hormone prepared mammary glands
      Rising levels of placental estrogen, progesterone and hPL stimulate the hypothalamus to release PRF (prolactin releasing factor)
      The anterior pituitary responds by secreting prolactin
      The first three following birth, the mammary glands secrete colostrum
    • Milk production and the positive feedback mechanism
    • Advantages of breast milk to the infant
      Its fats and iron are better absorbed and its amino acids are metabolized more efficiently than those of cows milk
      It has beneficial chemicals, including IgA, lysozyme, interleukins and lactoperoxidase
      Its natural laxative effects helps to cleanse the bowels of meconium. A green black paste containing sloughed off epithelial cells, bile and other substances