Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
The Effects of Pregnancy on the Mother<br /><ul><li>Pregnancy – period from conception until birth
Anatomical changes
Female reproductive organ engorged with blood
Enlargements of the uterus
Lordosis (Accentuated lumbar curvature)
Relaxation of the pelvic ligaments and pubic symphysis due to production of relaxin from placenta
Weight gains occurs</li></li></ul><li>Effects of Pregnancy on the Mother<br /><ul><li>Metabolic changes
Placenta secrete human placental lactogen (hPL)
hPL together with estrogen and progesterone stimulate maturation of the breast for lactation
Promote growth of fetus
 Placenta also releases human chorionic thyrotropin (hCT)
Increases the rate of maternal metabolism</li></li></ul><li>Effects of Pregnancy on the Mother<br /><ul><li>Physiological ...
Gastrointestinal system
Morning sickness is common due to elevated progesterone
Heartburn is common because of organ crowding by the fetus
Constipation is caused by declining motility of the digestive tract</li></li></ul><li>Effects of Pregnancy on the Mother<b...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Lec66(reproductive system)

807

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
807
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
34
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Lec66(reproductive system)"

  1. 1. The Effects of Pregnancy on the Mother<br /><ul><li>Pregnancy – period from conception until birth
  2. 2. Anatomical changes
  3. 3. Female reproductive organ engorged with blood
  4. 4. Enlargements of the uterus
  5. 5. Lordosis (Accentuated lumbar curvature)
  6. 6. Relaxation of the pelvic ligaments and pubic symphysis due to production of relaxin from placenta
  7. 7. Weight gains occurs</li></li></ul><li>Effects of Pregnancy on the Mother<br /><ul><li>Metabolic changes
  8. 8. Placenta secrete human placental lactogen (hPL)
  9. 9. hPL together with estrogen and progesterone stimulate maturation of the breast for lactation
  10. 10. Promote growth of fetus
  11. 11. Placenta also releases human chorionic thyrotropin (hCT)
  12. 12. Increases the rate of maternal metabolism</li></li></ul><li>Effects of Pregnancy on the Mother<br /><ul><li>Physiological changes
  13. 13. Gastrointestinal system
  14. 14. Morning sickness is common due to elevated progesterone
  15. 15. Heartburn is common because of organ crowding by the fetus
  16. 16. Constipation is caused by declining motility of the digestive tract</li></li></ul><li>Effects of Pregnancy on the Mother<br /><ul><li>Physiological changes
  17. 17. Urinary System
  18. 18. Kidneys have additional burden and produce more urine
  19. 19. The uterus compresses the bladder and urination become more frequent</li></li></ul><li>Effects of Pregnancy on the Mother<br /><ul><li>Physiological changes
  20. 20. Respiratory System
  21. 21. Nasal mucosa becomes congested and swollen
  22. 22. Vital capacity and respiratory rate increase</li></li></ul><li>Effects of Pregnancy on the Mother<br /><ul><li>Physiological changes
  23. 23. Cardiovascular system
  24. 24. Body water rises
  25. 25. Blood volume increases by 25 to 40 percent
  26. 26. Blood pressure and pulse increase
  27. 27. Varicose veins are common</li></li></ul><li>Childbirth (Partition)<br /><ul><li>Labor – the series of events that expel the infant from the uterus
  28. 28. Initiation of labor
  29. 29. Estrogen levels rise
  30. 30. Stimulates the myometrial cells to form abundant oxytocin receptor
  31. 31. Uterine contractions begin
  32. 32. Braxton Hicks contraction
  33. 33. The placenta releases prostaglandins
  34. 34. Oxytocin is released from fetus and the pituitary
  35. 35. Combination of these hormones produces contractions</li></li></ul><li>Initiation of Labor<br />
  36. 36. Stages of Labor<br /><ul><li>Dilation
  37. 37. The time from labor’s onset until the cervix is fully dilated by the baby’s head
  38. 38. Uterine contractions begin and increase
  39. 39. The amnion ruptures, event commonly called “breaking the water”
  40. 40. The dilation stage lasts 6 – 12 hours</li></li></ul><li>Stages of Labor<br /><ul><li>Expulsion
  41. 41. Lasts from full dilation to delivery of the infant
  42. 42. Strong contraction occur every 2 – 3 min and last about 1 min
  43. 43. This period may last 2 hours
  44. 44. An episiotomy may be done to reduce tissue tearing
  45. 45. Normal delivery is head first</li></li></ul><li>Stages of Labor<br /><ul><li>Placental stage
  46. 46. Delivery of the placenta and its attached fetal membrane
  47. 47. Accomplished within 30 min after birth of the infant</li></li></ul><li>Stages of Labor<br />
  48. 48. Adjustment of infant to extrauterine life<br />For the first few minutes after birth, the infant’s physical status assessed based on<br />HR<br />Respiration<br />Color <br />Muscle tone<br />Reflexes<br />Apgar score of 8 – 10 indicates a healthy baby <br />
  49. 49. Lactation<br />Lactation is production of milk by the hormone prepared mammary glands<br />Rising levels of placental estrogen, progesterone and hPL stimulate the hypothalamus to release PRF (prolactin releasing factor)<br />The anterior pituitary responds by secreting prolactin<br />The first three following birth, the mammary glands secrete colostrum<br />
  50. 50. Milk production and the positive feedback mechanism<br />
  51. 51. Advantages of breast milk to the infant<br />Its fats and iron are better absorbed and its amino acids are metabolized more efficiently than those of cows milk<br />It has beneficial chemicals, including IgA, lysozyme, interleukins and lactoperoxidase<br />Its natural laxative effects helps to cleanse the bowels of meconium. A green black paste containing sloughed off epithelial cells, bile and other substances <br />
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×