An episiotomy may be done to reduce tissue tearing
Normal delivery is head first</li></li></ul><li>Stages of Labor<br /><ul><li>Placental stage
Delivery of the placenta and its attached fetal membrane
Accomplished within 30 min after birth of the infant</li></li></ul><li>Stages of Labor<br />
Adjustment of infant to extrauterine life<br />For the first few minutes after birth, the infant’s physical status assessed based on<br />HR<br />Respiration<br />Color <br />Muscle tone<br />Reflexes<br />Apgar score of 8 – 10 indicates a healthy baby <br />
Lactation<br />Lactation is production of milk by the hormone prepared mammary glands<br />Rising levels of placental estrogen, progesterone and hPL stimulate the hypothalamus to release PRF (prolactin releasing factor)<br />The anterior pituitary responds by secreting prolactin<br />The first three following birth, the mammary glands secrete colostrum<br />
Milk production and the positive feedback mechanism<br />
Advantages of breast milk to the infant<br />Its fats and iron are better absorbed and its amino acids are metabolized more efficiently than those of cows milk<br />It has beneficial chemicals, including IgA, lysozyme, interleukins and lactoperoxidase<br />Its natural laxative effects helps to cleanse the bowels of meconium. A green black paste containing sloughed off epithelial cells, bile and other substances <br />
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