Lec65(reproductive system)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Lec65(reproductive system)

on

  • 1,447 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,447
Views on SlideShare
1,434
Embed Views
13

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
50
Comments
0

1 Embed 13

http://study.myllps.com 13

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Lec65(reproductive system) Lec65(reproductive system) Presentation Transcript

  • Contraception
    Pregnancy
  • BIRTH CONTROL METHODS
    HORMONAL METHODS:-
    PILL– NORPLANT – DEPO PROVERA
    BARRIERS:-
    CONDOM – DIAPHRAM
    OTHERS:-
    SPERMICIDES – RHYTHM -TUBAL LIGATION
    – VASECTOMY – INTRAUTERINE DEVICE
  • Hormonal Suppression of Fertility-"The Pill."
    3
    Administration of either estrogen or progesterone during the first half of the monthly cycle, can inhibit ovulation.
    The drug is usually begun in the early stages of the monthly cycle and continued beyond the time that ovulation would normally occur.
    Ovarian follicles do not develop and menstrual flow is much reduced
  • BarrierA. CONDOM
    4
  • BarrierB. A DIAPHRAM &SPERMICIDE JELLY
    5
  • Female Fertility
    The ovum capable of being fertilized after ovulation no longer than 24 hours
    A few sperm can remain fertile in the female reproductive tract for up to 5 days
    For fertilization to take place, intercourse must occur sometime between 4 and 5 days before ovulation
  • Rhythm method:
    Avoid intercourse near the time of ovulation if periodicity of menstrual cycle is 28 d, then ovulation should be day 13-15
  • Surgical Methods
    Sterilization
    Female
    Tubal ligation is a surgical procedure that seals the fallopian tubes to block sperm.
    Male
    Vasectomy is the cutting and tying off of both vasa deferentia.
  • SPERMICIDE GEL
    9
  • INTRAUTERINEDEVICE {IUD}
    10
    Plastic or metal device is inserted into the uterus and prevents the young embryo from implanting
  • Abortion: is the termination of pregnancy that is in progress
    Mifepristone (RU-486), abortion pills, enables a women to end pregnancy during its first 7 weeks
  • Pregnancy: Refers to the events that occur from the time of fertilization (conception) until the infant is born
    Conceptus: The developing offspring
    Embryo: From fertilization through week 8
    Fetus: From week 9 through birth
    Infant: At birth
  • Fertilization
    • The oocyte is viable for 12 to 24 hours after ovulation
    • Sperm cells must make their way to the uterine tube for fertilization to be possible
  • Fertilization
    Sperm transport an capacitation: Secretions of the female tract cause some of the sperm membrane proteins to be removed
  • Acrosomal reaction and sperm penetration
    Hyaluronidase on the sperm digest the intercellular between granulosa cells
    The sperm head binds to ZP3 glycoprotein of the zona pellucida
    Acrosomal reaction involves release of acrosomal enzyme that digest holes in the zona pellucida
    Acrosomal process binds to the oocyte’s sperm binding receptor
    Content of the sperm enter the oocyte cytoplasm
  • Mechanisms of Fertilization
    • The membrane of the oocyte does not permit a second sperm head to enter
    • The oocyte then undergoes its second meiotic division
    • Fertilization occurs when the genetic material of a sperm combines with that of an oocyte to form a zygote
  • Completion of meiosis II and fertilization
  • The Zygote
    • First cell of a new individual
    • The result of the fusion of DNA from sperm and egg
    • The zygote begins rapid mitotic cell divisions
    • The zygote stage is in the uterine tube, moving toward the uterus
  • Events of embryonic development: Zygote to blastocyst implantation
    Events of the early embryonic period
    Cleavage, which produces a structure called blastocyst
    Implantation of blastocyst
  • Cleavage and blastocyst formation
    • The embryo first undergoes division without growth
    • Three days after fertilization, a loose collection of cells of 16-cell or more called morula
    • The embryo floats free in the uterus by 3 or 4 days after fertilization that consist of 100 cells
    • Blastocyst is a fluid filled hollow sphere composed of a single layer of large flattened cells and a small cluster of 20 – 30 rounded cells
  • Development from Ovulation to Implantation
  • Implantation of blastocyst
    Implantation begins 6 – 7 days after ovulation
    The trophoblast cells overlying the inner cells mass adhere to endometrium
    The trophoblast then proliferates and forms inner layer called cytotrophoblast
  • The outer layer lose their plasma membrane and form syncytiotrophoblast
    The implanted blastocyst is covered over and sealed off from the uterine cavity by proliferation of the endometrial cells
  • Implantation of the blastocyst
    • The trophoblast cells secretes human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to promote the corpus luteum to continue producing hormones
    • Blood levels of hCG rise until the end of second month, then decline by 4 months till the remainder of gestation
    • All pregnancy tests used are antibody tests that detect hCG in women’s blood or urine
  • FEMALE HORMONES DURING PREGNANCY
    Note high levels of estrogen and progesterone.
  • Placentation
    Refers to the formation of a placenta, a temporary organ that originates from both embryonic and maternal tissues
  • Placentation
    • Chorionic villi (projections of the blastocyst) develop
    • Cooperate with cells of the uterus to form the placenta
    • The embryo is surrounded by the amnion (a fluid filled sac)
    • An umbilical cord forms to attach the embryo to the placenta
  • Development After Implantation
    Figure 16.16
  • Functions of the Placenta
    • Forms a barrier between mother and embryo (blood is not exchanged)
    • Delivers nutrients and oxygen
    • Removes waste from embryonic blood
    • Becomes an endocrine organ (produces hormones) and takes over for the corpus luteum