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  • 1. THE FEMALE HORMONES
    HYPOTHALAMUS:- GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE [GnRH].
    PITUITARY:-LUTEINIZING HORMONE [LH] FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE [FSH]
    OVARY:-
    DEVELOPING FOLLICLE:- ESTROGEN.
    CORPUS LUTEUM:- PROGESTRONE.
  • 2. FSH:
    Stimulates Sertoli cells to produce estrogen
    Stimulates the secretion of inhibin
    3) Responsible for early growth of ovarian
    follicles & their final maturation
    4) Stimulates granulosa cells to produce estrogen
  • 3. LH:
    1) Stimulates Leydig cells -> Testosterone
    2) Responsible for final maturation of ovarian
    follicles
    3) Causes ovulation
    4) Responsible for initial formation of corpus
    luteum and stimulation of estrogen & progesterone secretion
  • 4. Hormonal regulation of the ovarian cycle
    GnRH stimulate FSH and LH secretion on day 1 of the cycle
    FSH and LH stimulate follicle growth and maturation and estrogen secretion. FSH exert effects on granulosa cells. LH prods the thecal cells to produce androgens. Granulosa cells converted to estrogens
  • 5. Moderate & constant level estrogen level exert negative feedback on the hypothalamus and interior pituitary. Only one follicle fully matures each month, and the remainder undergo atresia
    Elevated estrogen level exerts a positive feedback effect on the anterior pituitary
    Hormonal regulation of the ovarian cycle
  • 6. Hormonal regulation of the ovarian cycle
    LH surge about the midcycle
    Ovulation, The LH surge stimulates the primary oocyte to complete the first meiotic division
  • 7. Corpus luteum forms, The LH also transforms the ruptured follicle into a corpus luteum and stimulate to produce progesterone
    Rising progesterone and estrogen exert a negative feedback on hypothalamus and anterior pituitary release of LH and FSH. Release of inhibin by corpus luteum
    Hormonal regulation of the ovarian cycle
  • 8. 1. Positive secretion of the ovarian hormones and depression of pituitary gonadotropins2. Follicular growth phase3. Preovulatory surge of LH and FSH cause ovulation
  • 9. THE UTERINE (MENSTRUAL) CYCLES
    A series of cyclic changes that the uterine endometrium goes through each month as it responds to the waxing and waning of hormones in the blood
    The endometrial changes are coordinated with the phases of the ovarian cycle
  • 10. UTERINE CYCLE
    MENSTRUATION (DAYS 1-5):- BREAKDOWN OF THE UTERINE ENDOMETRIUM AND VAGINAL BLEEDING DUE TO CORPUS LUTEUM REGRESSES,LOW ESTROGEN AND PROGESTRONE LEVELS, VASOSPASM CAUSED BY LOCAL PROSTAGLANDINS
    THE THICK FUNCTIONAL LAYER OF THE ENDOMETRIUM DETACHES FROM THE UTERINE WALL
  • 11. PROLIFERATIVE PHASE (DAYS 6-14):- GROWTH OF THE UTERINE ENDOMETRIUM UNDER ESTROGEN STIMULATION.
    Increase estrogens -> proliferation of endometrium, it grows from 0.5 to 5 mm in height at the end of the menstrual cycle
    Rising estrogen levels cause cervical mucus to thin and facilitate the passage of sperm
    UTERINE CYCLE
  • 12. SECRETORY PHASE (DAYS15-28):-
    from ovulation ->menstruation.
    This phase is dominated by progesterone -> secretory effects on endometrium
    The endometrial glands enlarge, coil and begin secreting nutrients
    Increasing progesterone cause cervical mucus to become viscous again
    UTERINE CYCLE
  • 13. THE MENSTRUAL CYCLES
    13
  • 14. Menstrual abnormalities:
    Amenorrhea: absence of menstrual periods (insufficient secretion of LH).
    Hypomenorrhea: Scanty flow during a regular period.
    Menorrhagia: Profuse flow during a regular period.
    Metrorrhagia: Uterine bleeding between periods.
    Oligomenorrhea: Reduced frequency of periods.
    Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation
  • 15. Female sex organs: at puberty, increase in size of fallopian tubes, uterus and vagina, external genitalia deposition of fat in mons pubis
    change vaginal epithelia from cuboidal to stratified type
    endometrium: proliferation of cells and endometrial glands (important in nutrition of fertilized ovum)
    Breasts: fat deposition, development of stromal cellsgrowth of an extensive ductile system
    ESTROGEN FUNCTIONS
  • 16. Bone: Estrogens inhibit osteoclastic activity in the bones and therefore stimulate bone growth
    After menopause, almost no estrogens are secreted by the ovaries. This estrogen deficiency leads to increased osteoclastic activity in the bones and decreased deposition of bone calcium and phosphate. Could results osteoporosis
    ESTROGEN FUNCTIONS
  • 17. Increase Protein Deposition
    Increase Body Metabolism and Fat Deposition
    Cause sodium and water retention by the kidney
    ESTROGEN FUNCTIONS
  • 18. PROGESTRONE FUNCTIONS
    STIMULATION OF UTERINE GLANDS SECRETION.
    GROWTH OF THE BREAST ALVEOLI.
    INHIBITION OF UTERINE MUSCLES CONTRACTIONS DURING PREGNANCY TO PREVENT EXPULSION OF THE FETUS
  • 19. Puberty: transition from noncyclic, relatively quiescent reproductive endocrine system to state of cyclic reproductive function –caused by gradual increase in gonadotropic hormone secretion by the pituitary
    Menarche: means the time of the first menstrual cycle
  • 20. Menopause
    The period during which the cycle ceases and female sex hormones diminish to almost none
    At the age of 45 years only few primordial follicles remain to be stimulated by FSH and LH
    Due to reduction in estrogen, low levels of inhibin,
    no negative feedback of LH and FSH; therefore, high levels LH and FSH
  • 21. Estrogen secretion throughout the sexual life of the female human being
  • 22. Female sexual response
    Similar to that of males in most respects
    Excitement phase: caused by psychological or physical
    stimulation; engorgement and erection of clitoris, vaginal
    congestion – due to NO, secreted by parasympathetic nerves
    2)Plateau phase: intensification of these responses, increased
    HR, BP, respiratory rate, muscle tension
    3) Orgasmic phase: culmination of sexual excitement,
    intense physical pleasure
    4) Resolution phase: returns genitalia and body systems to
    pre-arousal state
  • 23. Male and female sexual response
    Differences:
    Women don’t require refractory time before beginning
    excitation again
    No ejaculation in the female