Lec63 (reproductive system female)
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Lec63 (reproductive system female) Presentation Transcript

  • 1. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
    PRIMARY FUNCTIONS OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM ARE:-
    [1] PRODUCTION OF FEMALE HORMONES
    [2] FORMATION OF THE OVUM
    [3] DEVELOPMENT OF THE OFFSPRINGS
  • 2. 2
    FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
    THE ORGANS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS:-
    OVARIES:- PRODUCE HORMONES & OVA
    UTERINE TUBES:- TRANSPORT THE OVA
    UTERUS:- OFFSPRING DEVELOPMENT
    CERVIX:- PROTECTION OF UTERUS
    VAGINA:- BIRTH CANAL & THE FEMALE ORGAN OF COPULATION
    EXTERNAL GENITALIA:- CLITORIS, LABIA MAJORA AND LABIA MINORA
  • 3. 3
    FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS
  • 4. Ovaries
    The ovary has an outer cortex – houses forming the gametes
    Inner medulla containing blood vessels and nerves
  • 5. Ovaries
    • Composed of ovarian follicles (sac-like structures)
    • 6. Structure of an ovarian follicle
    • 7. Oocyte
    • 8. Follicular cells
  • Ovarian Follicle Stages
    • Primary follicle – contains an immature oocyte
    • 9. Graafian (vesicular) follicle – growing follicle with a maturing oocyte
    • 10. Ovulation – when the egg is mature the follicle ruptures
    • 11. Occurs about every 28 days
    • 12. The ruptured follicle is transformed into a corpus luteum
  • Support for Ovaries
    • Ovarian ligaments – anchors the ovary medially to the uterus
    • 13. Suspensory ligaments – secure ovary to lateral walls of the pelvis
    • 14. Mesovarium ligaments – suspends it in between
    • 15. Broad ligament – a fold of the peritoneum, over the uterus and support the uterine tubes, uterus and vagina
  • Support for Ovaries
    Figure 16.8b
  • 16. Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes
    • Receive the ovulated oocyte
    • 17. Provide a site for fertilization
    • 18. Attaches to the uterus
    • 19. Does not physically attach to the ovary
    • 20. Supported by the broad ligament
  • FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
     OVIDUCT (UTERINE TUBES)
    INFUNDIBULUM, AMPULLA, ISTHMUS, UTERINE
     UTERUS
    FUNDUS, BODY , CERVIX
  • 21. Uterine Tube Function
    • Fimbriae – finger-like projections at the distal end that receive the oocyte
    • 22. Cilia inside the uterine tube slowly move the oocyte towards the uterus
    • 23. Fertilization occurs inside the uterine tube
  • Uterus
    • Located between the urinary bladder and rectum
    • 24. Hollow, thick walled, muscular organ
    • 25. Functions of the uterus
    • 26. Receives a fertilized egg
    • 27. Retains the fertilized egg
    • 28. Nourishes the fertilized egg
  • Regions of the Uterus
    • Body – main portion
    • 29. Fundus – area where uterine tube enters
    • 30. Cervix – narrow outlet that projects into the vagina inferiorly. Secrete mucus fills the cervical canal and block the spread of bacteria from the vagina to the uterus
  • Walls of the Uterus
    • Endometrium
    • 31. Inner layer
    • 32. Allows for implantation of a fertilized egg
    • 33. Sloughs off if no pregnancy occurs (menses)
    • 34. The endometrium has two chief layers
    The stratum functionalis
    The stratum basalis
    • Myometrium – middle layer of smooth muscle. Contract during childbirth
    • 35. Perimetriumlayer – outer visceral peritoneum
  • 15
    FEMAL REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS
  • 36. Vagina
    • Extends from cervix to exterior of body
    • 37. Behind bladder and in front of rectum
    • 38. Serves as the birth canal
    • 39. It is the female organ of copulation
    • 40. Hymen – partially closes the vagina until it is ruptured
  • OOGENESIS
    IS THE PROCESS OF OVA FORMATION
    OOGONIA > PRIMARY OOCYTE > FIRST MEIOTIC DIVISION > SECONDARY OOCYTE & THE FIRST POLAR BODY.
    IF FERTILIZED, SECONDARY OOCYTE > SECOND MEIOTIC DIVISION > ZYGOTE & SECOND POLAR BODY.
    BOTH POLAR BODIES DEGENERATE.
  • 41. 18
    OOGENESIS
  • 42. OVERIAN CYCLE
    FOLLICULAR PHASE:- THE DEVELOPMENT OF ONE PRIMARY FOLLICLE TO FORM A MATURE FOLLICLE
    OVULATION:- RUPTURE OF THE MATURE FOLLICLE TO RELEASE THE OVUM
    LUTEAL PHASE:- FORMATION OF THE CORPUS LUTEUM FROM THE RUPTURED MATURE FOLLICLE. DEATH OF THE CORPUS LUTEUM WILL FORM A CORPUS ALBICANS
  • 43. The Ovarian Cycle
    The follicular phase: is the period of follicle growth, as lasting from the first to the fourteenth day of the cycle
    The luteal phase: is the period of corpus luteum activity, days 14-28
    Typical ovarian cycle repeats at intervals of 28 days, with ovulation occurring midcycle
  • 44. The follicular phase
    PRIMORDIAL FOLLICLE >
    PRIMARY FOLLICLE > SECONDARY
    FOLLICLE > MATURE FOLLICLE >
    OVULATION & RELEASE OF OVUM >
    CORPUS LUTEUM > CORPUS ALBICANS
  • 45. THE OVARIAN CYCLE
    Primordial follicle
    Primary follicle
    primary oocyte arrested in prophase I + 1 layer of squamouslike cells
    primary oocyte that has resumed meiosis I +
    1 layer of cuboidal follicle cells enclosing the oocyte
    Late secondary follicle
    Secondary follicle
    Two or more layers of granulosa cells surround the oocyte
    Layer of connective tissue condenses around the follicle forming theca folliculi
    Thick extracellular layer called zona pellucida
  • 46. Mature (Vesicular) follicle
    Ovulation
    Fluid filled pockets coalesce to form central fluid filled cavity called an antrum
    The antrum isolate the oocyte with its surrounding capsule cells called a corona radiata
    Each month one of the ripening follicles ejects its oocyte from the ovary
    Secondary oocyte surrounded by its corona radiata
  • 47. Corpus luteum
    remnants of follicle cells after ovulation
    Remaining granulosa cells increase in size and along with internal thecal cells
    80% granulosa cells, 20% thecal cells
    Secrete progesterone and some estrogen
    Corpus albicans = scarred over corpus luteum
  • 48. 25
    The ovarian cycle
  • 49. 26
    OOGENESIS
  • 50. Oogenesis
    Events of Oogenesis: Left flow chart of meiotic events, Right correlation with follicle development and ovulation in the ovary
  • 51. OOGENESIS
    Mitosis in fetal life
    2 meiotic arrests
    Total number of ova
    6 months in utero
    birth
    number of germ cells (millions)
    puberty
    menopause
    7 million at 5th month
    2 million at birth
    250,000 at puberty
    ~480 ovulations =
    ~13 per year for 37 years
    age
    oögonium (2n)
    primary oöcyte (2n)
    enters meiosis
    arrested in prophase I
    first meiotic division
    polar body 1 (1n)
    Stages of oögenesis
    secondary oöcyte (1n)
    Hormones
    arrested in metaphase II
    Gn-RF
    FSH
    LH
    estrogen
    fertilization
    completes meiosis II
    polar body 2 (1n)
    oötid (1n) + sperm (1n) = zygote
  • 52. Differences between Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis
    Differences between Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis
    In females, mitotic proliferation of germ cells occurs
    prior to birth. In males, spermatogonia proliferate
    only after puberty.
    In female, meiotic divisions of oocyte produces only
    one mature ovum. In male, meiotic divisions of
    primary spermatocyte produces 4 mature
    spermatozoa
    In female, second meiotic division is completed
    only upon fertilization. In male, the products of
    meiosis (spermatids) undergo substantial
    differentiation in the maturing process.