Lec63 (reproductive system female)

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Lec63 (reproductive system female)

  1. 1. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM<br />PRIMARY FUNCTIONS OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM ARE:-<br />[1] PRODUCTION OF FEMALE HORMONES<br />[2] FORMATION OF THE OVUM<br />[3] DEVELOPMENT OF THE OFFSPRINGS<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM<br />THE ORGANS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS:-<br />OVARIES:- PRODUCE HORMONES & OVA<br />UTERINE TUBES:- TRANSPORT THE OVA<br />UTERUS:- OFFSPRING DEVELOPMENT<br />CERVIX:- PROTECTION OF UTERUS<br />VAGINA:- BIRTH CANAL & THE FEMALE ORGAN OF COPULATION<br />EXTERNAL GENITALIA:- CLITORIS, LABIA MAJORA AND LABIA MINORA<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS<br />
  4. 4. Ovaries<br />The ovary has an outer cortex – houses forming the gametes<br />Inner medulla containing blood vessels and nerves<br />
  5. 5. Ovaries<br /><ul><li>Composed of ovarian follicles (sac-like structures)
  6. 6. Structure of an ovarian follicle
  7. 7. Oocyte
  8. 8. Follicular cells</li></li></ul><li>Ovarian Follicle Stages<br /><ul><li>Primary follicle – contains an immature oocyte
  9. 9. Graafian (vesicular) follicle – growing follicle with a maturing oocyte
  10. 10. Ovulation – when the egg is mature the follicle ruptures
  11. 11. Occurs about every 28 days
  12. 12. The ruptured follicle is transformed into a corpus luteum</li></li></ul><li>Support for Ovaries<br /><ul><li>Ovarian ligaments – anchors the ovary medially to the uterus
  13. 13. Suspensory ligaments – secure ovary to lateral walls of the pelvis
  14. 14. Mesovarium ligaments – suspends it in between
  15. 15. Broad ligament – a fold of the peritoneum, over the uterus and support the uterine tubes, uterus and vagina</li></li></ul><li>Support for Ovaries<br />Figure 16.8b<br />
  16. 16. Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes<br /><ul><li>Receive the ovulated oocyte
  17. 17. Provide a site for fertilization
  18. 18. Attaches to the uterus
  19. 19. Does not physically attach to the ovary
  20. 20. Supported by the broad ligament</li></li></ul><li>FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM<br /> OVIDUCT (UTERINE TUBES)<br />INFUNDIBULUM, AMPULLA, ISTHMUS, UTERINE<br /> UTERUS<br />FUNDUS, BODY , CERVIX<br />
  21. 21. Uterine Tube Function<br /><ul><li>Fimbriae – finger-like projections at the distal end that receive the oocyte
  22. 22. Cilia inside the uterine tube slowly move the oocyte towards the uterus
  23. 23. Fertilization occurs inside the uterine tube</li></li></ul><li>Uterus<br /><ul><li>Located between the urinary bladder and rectum
  24. 24. Hollow, thick walled, muscular organ
  25. 25. Functions of the uterus
  26. 26. Receives a fertilized egg
  27. 27. Retains the fertilized egg
  28. 28. Nourishes the fertilized egg</li></li></ul><li>Regions of the Uterus<br /><ul><li>Body – main portion
  29. 29. Fundus – area where uterine tube enters
  30. 30. Cervix – narrow outlet that projects into the vagina inferiorly. Secrete mucus fills the cervical canal and block the spread of bacteria from the vagina to the uterus</li></li></ul><li>Walls of the Uterus<br /><ul><li>Endometrium
  31. 31. Inner layer
  32. 32. Allows for implantation of a fertilized egg
  33. 33. Sloughs off if no pregnancy occurs (menses)
  34. 34. The endometrium has two chief layers</li></ul>The stratum functionalis<br />The stratum basalis<br /><ul><li>Myometrium – middle layer of smooth muscle. Contract during childbirth
  35. 35. Perimetriumlayer – outer visceral peritoneum</li></li></ul><li>15<br />FEMAL REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS<br />
  36. 36. Vagina<br /><ul><li>Extends from cervix to exterior of body
  37. 37. Behind bladder and in front of rectum
  38. 38. Serves as the birth canal
  39. 39. It is the female organ of copulation
  40. 40. Hymen – partially closes the vagina until it is ruptured</li></li></ul><li>OOGENESIS<br />IS THE PROCESS OF OVA FORMATION<br />OOGONIA > PRIMARY OOCYTE > FIRST MEIOTIC DIVISION > SECONDARY OOCYTE & THE FIRST POLAR BODY.<br />IF FERTILIZED, SECONDARY OOCYTE > SECOND MEIOTIC DIVISION > ZYGOTE & SECOND POLAR BODY.<br />BOTH POLAR BODIES DEGENERATE.<br />
  41. 41. 18<br />OOGENESIS<br />
  42. 42. OVERIAN CYCLE<br />FOLLICULAR PHASE:- THE DEVELOPMENT OF ONE PRIMARY FOLLICLE TO FORM A MATURE FOLLICLE<br />OVULATION:- RUPTURE OF THE MATURE FOLLICLE TO RELEASE THE OVUM<br />LUTEAL PHASE:- FORMATION OF THE CORPUS LUTEUM FROM THE RUPTURED MATURE FOLLICLE. DEATH OF THE CORPUS LUTEUM WILL FORM A CORPUS ALBICANS <br />
  43. 43. The Ovarian Cycle<br />The follicular phase: is the period of follicle growth, as lasting from the first to the fourteenth day of the cycle<br />The luteal phase: is the period of corpus luteum activity, days 14-28<br />Typical ovarian cycle repeats at intervals of 28 days, with ovulation occurring midcycle<br />
  44. 44. The follicular phase<br />PRIMORDIAL FOLLICLE > <br />PRIMARY FOLLICLE > SECONDARY <br />FOLLICLE > MATURE FOLLICLE > <br />OVULATION & RELEASE OF OVUM > <br />CORPUS LUTEUM > CORPUS ALBICANS<br />
  45. 45. THE OVARIAN CYCLE<br />Primordial follicle<br />Primary follicle<br />primary oocyte arrested in prophase I + 1 layer of squamouslike cells<br />primary oocyte that has resumed meiosis I + <br />1 layer of cuboidal follicle cells enclosing the oocyte<br />Late secondary follicle<br />Secondary follicle<br />Two or more layers of granulosa cells surround the oocyte <br />Layer of connective tissue condenses around the follicle forming theca folliculi<br />Thick extracellular layer called zona pellucida<br />
  46. 46. Mature (Vesicular) follicle<br />Ovulation<br />Fluid filled pockets coalesce to form central fluid filled cavity called an antrum<br />The antrum isolate the oocyte with its surrounding capsule cells called a corona radiata<br />Each month one of the ripening follicles ejects its oocyte from the ovary<br />Secondary oocyte surrounded by its corona radiata <br />
  47. 47. Corpus luteum <br />remnants of follicle cells after ovulation<br />Remaining granulosa cells increase in size and along with internal thecal cells <br />80% granulosa cells, 20% thecal cells<br />Secrete progesterone and some estrogen<br />Corpus albicans = scarred over corpus luteum<br />
  48. 48. 25<br />The ovarian cycle<br />
  49. 49. 26<br />OOGENESIS<br />
  50. 50. Oogenesis<br />Events of Oogenesis: Left flow chart of meiotic events, Right correlation with follicle development and ovulation in the ovary<br />
  51. 51. OOGENESIS<br />Mitosis in fetal life<br />2 meiotic arrests<br />Total number of ova<br />6 months in utero<br />birth<br />number of germ cells (millions)<br />puberty<br />menopause<br />7 million at 5th month<br />2 million at birth<br />250,000 at puberty<br />~480 ovulations = <br />~13 per year for 37 years<br />age<br />oögonium (2n)<br />primary oöcyte (2n)<br />enters meiosis<br />arrested in prophase I<br />first meiotic division<br />polar body 1 (1n)<br />Stages of oögenesis<br />secondary oöcyte (1n)<br />Hormones <br />arrested in metaphase II<br />Gn-RF<br />FSH<br />LH<br />estrogen<br />fertilization<br />completes meiosis II<br />polar body 2 (1n)<br />oötid (1n) + sperm (1n) = zygote<br />
  52. 52. Differences between Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis<br />Differences between Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis<br />In females, mitotic proliferation of germ cells occurs<br /> prior to birth. In males, spermatogonia proliferate<br /> only after puberty.<br />In female, meiotic divisions of oocyte produces only<br /> one mature ovum. In male, meiotic divisions of<br /> primary spermatocyte produces 4 mature<br /> spermatozoa<br />In female, second meiotic division is completed<br /> only upon fertilization. In male, the products of<br /> meiosis (spermatids) undergo substantial <br /> differentiation in the maturing process.<br />

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