Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Lec57[1]
Lec57[1]
Lec57[1]
Lec57[1]
Lec57[1]
Lec57[1]
Lec57[1]
Lec57[1]
Lec57[1]
Lec57[1]
Lec57[1]
Lec57[1]
Lec57[1]
Lec57[1]
Lec57[1]
Lec57[1]
Lec57[1]
Lec57[1]
Lec57[1]
Lec57[1]
Lec57[1]
Lec57[1]
Lec57[1]
Lec57[1]
Lec57[1]
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Lec57[1]

1,535

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,535
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
50
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  1. The Microcirculation & Lymphatic System<br />
  2. Blood Vessel Structure & Function<br />The major types of blood vessels are<br />Arteries<br />The large distributing vessels that bring blood to the body <br />Arterioles bring blood to the capillaries<br />Capillaries <br />The tiny vessels that distribute blood to the cells<br />Venules drain blood from the capillaries<br />Veins<br />The large collecting vessels that bring blood back to the heart<br />
  3. Capillary Beds<br />A capillary bed is a network of the body’s smallest vessels that run throughout almost all tissues, especially the loose connective tissue<br />This flow is also called a microcirculation<br />
  4. Structure of the Microcirculation<br />Capillary System<br /><ul><li>Metarterioles
  5. Precapillary sphincter
  6. True capillaries</li></li></ul><li>The microcirculation<br />This is transport of nutrients to the tissues and removal of cell excreta. <br />The small arterioles control blood flow to each tissue area<br />local conditions in the tissues in turn control the diameters of the arterioles. <br />Each tissue controls its own blood flow in relation to its individual needs<br />
  7. The walls of the capillaries are thin, constructed of single-layer, highly permeable endothelial cells<br />Therefore, water, cell nutrients, and cell excreta can all interchange quickly and easily between the tissues and the circulating blood<br />
  8. Structure of the Microcirculation and Capillary System<br />Each artery entering an organ branches six to eight times before the arteries become small enough to be called arterioles<br />Then the arterioles themselves branch two to five times, reaching diameters of 5 to 9 micrometers at their ends where they supply blood to the capillaries.<br />
  9. Metarteriole and precapillary sphincter<br />The metarterioles do not have a continuous muscular coat, but smooth muscle fibers encircle the vessel at intermittent points<br /> At the point where each true capillary originates from a metarteriole, a smooth muscle fiber usually encircles the capillary<br />This is called theprecapillary sphincter<br />This precapillary sphincter. can open and close the entrance to the capillary<br />
  10. Capillary Beds<br /> When the precapillary sphincters are relaxed, blood flows through the true capillaries and takes part in exchanges with tissue cells<br />
  11. Capillary Beds<br /> When the precapillary sphincters are contracted, blood flows through the shunts and bypasses the tissue cells<br />
  12. Arterioles<br />The diameter of each arteriole is regulated in two ways:<br />Local factors in the tissues signal the smooth musculature to contract or relax, thus regulating the amount of blood sent downstream to each capillary bed<br />Sympathetic nervous system adjusts the diameter of arterioles throughout the body to regulate systemic blood pressure<br />
  13. Structure of the Capillary Wall<br />The wall is composed of endothelial cells and is surrounded by basement membrane<br />The total thickness of the capillary wall is only about 0.5 micrometer <br />The internal diameter of the capillary barely large enough for red blood cells and other blood cells to squeeze through <br />
  14. Two passageways connecting the interior of the capillary with the exterior <br />intercellular cleft<br />plasmalemmal vesicles<br />The cleft normally with a width of about 10 nanometers, slightly smaller than the diameter of an albumin protein molecule <br />The rate of thermal motion of water molecules, ions and small solutes is so rapid that all of these diffuse with ease between the interior and exterior of the capillaries through these the intercellular clefts<br />Pores" in the Capillary Membrane<br />
  15. Flow of Blood in the Capillaries-Vasomotion<br />Blood usually flows intermittently, turning on and off every few seconds or minutes<br /> The cause of this intermittency is the phenomenon called vasomotion, which means intermittent contraction of the metarterioles and precapillary<br />
  16. Exchange of water and substances between the blood and interstitial fluid<br />The most important means by which substances are transferred between the plasma and the interstitial fluid is diffusion<br />Diffusion results from thermal motion of the water molecules and dissolved substances in the fluid<br />
  17. Lipid-Soluble Substances Can Diffuse Directly Through the Cell Membranes of the Capillary Endothelium<br />If a substance is lipid soluble, it can diffuse directly through the cell membranes of the capillary without having to go through the pores. <br />Such substances include oxygen and carbon dioxide<br />Non-Lipid-Soluble Substances Diffuse Only Through Intercellular "Pores" in the Capillary Membrane<br />
  18. Oxygen, CO2, small solutes, nutrients move <br />across capillaries primarily through diffusion<br />
  19. Diffusion through Capillary Membrane<br />NaCl<br />Urea<br />Glucose<br />Sucrose<br />Inulin<br />The relative permeability of skeletal muscle capillary pores to different sized molecules substances through capillary membrane decreases roughly with the molecular size<br />
  20. The capillaries in different tissues have extreme differences in their permeabilities<br />The membrane of the liver capillary sinusoids is so permeable that even plasma proteins pass freely through these walls, almost as easily as water and other substances <br />The membrane of the renal glomerular is permeable to water and electrolytes, but this is not true for the plasma proteins<br />
  21. Capillaries are grouped according to their “leakiness”<br />10-15 nm holes<br />50-80 nm holes<br />100-1000 nm holes<br />intestine, kidney<br />Most common<br />Liver sinusoids<br />
  22. The Interstitium and Interstitial Fluid<br />The spaces between cells are called the interstitium<br /> The fluid in these spaces is the interstitial fluid <br />It contains two major types of solid structures: <br />(1) collagen fiber bundles<br /> (2) proteoglycan filaments<br />The collagen fiber bundles are extremely strong and therefore provide most of the tensional strength of the tissues<br />The proteoglycan filaments, however, are extremely thin coiled molecules<br />
  23. Fluid filtration across capillaries is determined by hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressure<br />The hydrostatic pressure in the capillaries tends to force fluid through the capillary pores into the interstitial spaces<br />Osmotic pressure caused by the plasma proteins (called colloid osmotic pressure) tends to cause fluid movement by osmosis from the interstitial spaces into the blood<br />Also important is the lymphatic system, which returns to the circulation the small amounts of excess protein and fluid that leak from the blood into the interstitial spaces <br />
  24. Four Primary Hydrostatic and Colloid Osmotic Forces Determine Fluid Movement Through the Capillary Membrane<br />Starling forces are: <br />The capillary pressure (Pc), which tends to force fluid outward through the capillary membrane<br />The interstitial fluid pressure (Pif), which tends to force fluid inward through the capillary membrane when Pif is positive but outward when Pif is negative. <br />The capillary plasma colloid osmotic pressure (Πp), which tends to cause osmosis of fluid inwardthrough the capillary membrane. <br />The interstitial fluid colloid osmotic pressure (Πif), which tends to cause osmosis of fluid outward through the capillary membrane<br />
  25. If the sum of these forces, the net filtration pressure, is positive, there will be a net fluid filtration across the capillaries<br />If the sum of the Starling forces is negative, there will be a net fluid absorption from the interstitial spaces into the capillaries. The net filtration pressure (NFP) is calculated as:<br />NFP = Pc – Pif – Πp + Πif<br />
  26. The rate of fluid filtration in a tissue is also determined by the capillary filtration coefficient (Kf) which is a measure of the capacity of the capillary membranes to filter water for a given NFP and is usually expressed as ml/min per mm Hg net filtration pressure<br /> The rate of capillary fluid filtration is therefore determined as:Filtration = Kf X NFP<br />

×