Hormone regulate digestive activity<br />Characteristics of GI hormone<br />GI hormones are peptides<br />Individual enter...
GI Hormone<br />Gastrin<br />Cholecystokinin (CCK)<br />Secretin<br />Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP)<br />Motilin<br />
Gastrin<br />G cells in the pyloric antrum of the stomach secrete gastrin.<br />Gastrin stimulate hydrochloric acid (HCL) ...
CCK<br />I cells in the duodenum and jejunum secret CCK<br />CCK causes the gallbladder to contract moving bile to the sma...
Secretin<br />S cells in the duodenum secret hormone secretin<br />Secretin causes both the liver and the exocrine pancrea...
GIP<br />Cells in the duodenum and proximal jejunum secrete secret GIP<br />In the presence of glucose, GIP stimulate the ...
Motilin<br />Cells in the duodenum and jejunum secrete motilin about every 90 minutes during postabsorptive period  <br />...
SecretionThe production and release of juices and hormones by the GI tract and its accessory glands<br />
Fluid Secretion of GI Tract<br />IN				Absorbed	Eliminated<br />800gm food ingested	750 gm		50 gm<br />2 L fluid ingested<...
Salivary Glands<br />Salivary glands produce saliva<br />Paired parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands are called ex...
Salivary Glands<br />Saliva delivered through ducts to the mouth its function:<br />Protection<br />Saliva dilute, buffers...
Nerves control of salivation<br />Its mediated by the nervous system<br />Both parasympathetic and sympathetic branch of A...
The parasympathetic is the primary controller of salivation <br />Parasympathetic initiates and maintains salivation <br /...
Stimulation of salivation<br />Thought, smell and taste of food stimulate the salivary center in the medulla to increase p...
Esophagus Secretion<br />Mucus is the only secretion produced by the esophagus. Its function:<br /> Lubrication which faci...
Gastric Secretion<br />The gastric mucosal epithelium is made entirely of secretary cells includes exocrine, endocrine and...
Enteroendocrine cells secrete gastrin and paracrine cells secrete histamine <br />Gastrin<br />	Secreted in pyloric region...
Stomach Secretion<br />Gastric mucosa has gastric pits in the folds.<br />Cells that line the folds deeper in the mucosa, ...
Stomach Mucosa<br />
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Lec32

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Lec32

  1. 1. Hormone regulate digestive activity<br />Characteristics of GI hormone<br />GI hormones are peptides<br />Individual enteroendocrine cells in the mucosa secrete GI hormone. GI hormone released from single cell located along the mucosa <br />GI hormone support the function of the organ that releases them<br />GI hormones enter the circulatory system, not the lumen of GI tract <br />Some GI hormones exhibit potentiation. Potentiation occurs when a combined action of two hormones is greater than the sum of their individual effect<br />
  2. 2. GI Hormone<br />Gastrin<br />Cholecystokinin (CCK)<br />Secretin<br />Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP)<br />Motilin<br />
  3. 3. Gastrin<br />G cells in the pyloric antrum of the stomach secrete gastrin.<br />Gastrin stimulate hydrochloric acid (HCL) secretion in the stomach<br />
  4. 4. CCK<br />I cells in the duodenum and jejunum secret CCK<br />CCK causes the gallbladder to contract moving bile to the small intestine <br />It causes the exocrine pancreas to secret digestive enzymes into small intestine<br />CCK stimulate growth of the exocrine pancreas and mucosa of gallbladder<br />
  5. 5. Secretin<br />S cells in the duodenum secret hormone secretin<br />Secretin causes both the liver and the exocrine pancreas to secrete bicarbonate into small intestine<br />Secretin inhibits gastric acid secretion <br />
  6. 6. GIP<br />Cells in the duodenum and proximal jejunum secrete secret GIP<br />In the presence of glucose, GIP stimulate the secretion of insulin by endocrine pancreas<br />
  7. 7. Motilin<br />Cells in the duodenum and jejunum secrete motilin about every 90 minutes during postabsorptive period <br />Motilin moves the contents of the small intestine toward the terminal ileum<br />
  8. 8. SecretionThe production and release of juices and hormones by the GI tract and its accessory glands<br />
  9. 9. Fluid Secretion of GI Tract<br />IN Absorbed Eliminated<br />800gm food ingested 750 gm 50 gm<br />2 L fluid ingested<br />1.5 L salivary <br />2 L gastric juice 8.85 L 0.15 L <br />1.5 L pancreatic fluid<br />0.5 L bile<br />1.5 L small intestine<br />
  10. 10. Salivary Glands<br />Salivary glands produce saliva<br />Paired parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands are called extrinsic glands because they are lie outside the oral cavity<br />There are smaller intrinsic salivary glands within the oral mucosa <br />
  11. 11. Salivary Glands<br />Saliva delivered through ducts to the mouth its function:<br />Protection<br />Saliva dilute, buffers, cleanses and help prevent destruction of teeth<br />Produces lysozyme and IgA that capable of destroying certain bacteria<br />Lubrication<br />Mucus eases passage of foods<br />Digestion<br />Amylase digest carbohydrates<br />
  12. 12. Nerves control of salivation<br />Its mediated by the nervous system<br />Both parasympathetic and sympathetic branch of ANS stimulate salivation<br />
  13. 13. The parasympathetic is the primary controller of salivation <br />Parasympathetic initiates and maintains salivation <br />Stimulation of parasympathetic produces large amount of watery saliva containing enzyme <br />Nerves control of salivation<br />
  14. 14. Stimulation of salivation<br />Thought, smell and taste of food stimulate the salivary center in the medulla to increase parasympathetic activity and salivation<br />Acidic substances and chewing food are powerful stimuli of salivation <br />Inhibition of salivation<br />Fear, fatigue and sleep inhibits salivation<br />Nerves control of salivation<br />
  15. 15. Esophagus Secretion<br />Mucus is the only secretion produced by the esophagus. Its function:<br /> Lubrication which facilitate passage of bolus along its length<br />
  16. 16. Gastric Secretion<br />The gastric mucosal epithelium is made entirely of secretary cells includes exocrine, endocrine and paracrine cells <br />Exocrine secrete products into the stomach lumen includes:<br />Mucus: Secreted throughout the stomach<br />Pepsinogen: Secreted throughout the stomach<br />HCL and intrinsic factor: Secreted from the same cell in the fundus and the body of the stomach <br />
  17. 17. Enteroendocrine cells secrete gastrin and paracrine cells secrete histamine <br />Gastrin<br /> Secreted in pyloric region of the stomach. <br />Histamine secreted in the fundus and the body of the stomach. <br />Gastric Secretion<br />
  18. 18. Stomach Secretion<br />Gastric mucosa has gastric pits in the folds.<br />Cells that line the folds deeper in the mucosa, are gastric glands.<br />Insert fig. 18.7<br />
  19. 19. Stomach Mucosa<br />

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