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  • 1.
    • Pathology is the hidden Science at the Heart of Modern Medicine, Vital for the Diagnosis & Clinical Management of Disease.
    • The Royal College of Pathologists London
  • 2. diagnosis
    • Why study ?
    • This course will be used when ?
  • 3. General Pathology
  • 4.
    • Pathology What? Why study? Learn How? What are the basic requirements of knowledge. This course will be used when? How?
  • 5.
    • Pathology = Pathos + Logos
    • Suffering Study
    • Study of Disease
  • 6. Scope of Pathology Anatomical Pathology Clinical Pathology
      • surgical pathology
      • cytopathology
      • forensic pathology
      • Oral and maxillofacial pathology
      • clinical chemistry
      • clinical hematology / blood banking
      • clinical microbiology
    Veterinary pathology is concerned with animal disease Phytopathology is the study of plant diseases. ~ medical technologists Pathologists
  • 7. A combination both anatomical and clinical pathology is known as general pathology
  • 8.
    • also called investigative pathology, experimental pathology or theoretical pathology
    • is a broad and complex scientific field which seeks to understand the mechanisms of injury to cells and tissues, as well as the body's means of responding to and repairing injury
  • 9.
    • is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the gross , microscopic , and molecular examination of organs, tissues, and whole bodies ( autopsy ).
    • The anatomical pathologists typically do not see patients directly, but rather serve as consultants to other physicians
  • 10.
    • Surgical pathology – study & dx diseases by gross and microscopic examination of surgical specimens (as well as biopsy)
    • Cytopahology –study and dx diseases on cellular level, the most common use of cytopathology is the Pap smear to detect cervical cancer
    • Forensic pathology – concerned with determining cause of death, usually for criminal law cases and civil law cases in some jurisdictions
  • 11.
    • is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the laboratory analysis of bodily fluids such as blood and urine, using the tools of chemistry , microbiology , hematology and molecular pathology
    • Clinical pathologist works in close collaboration with medical technologists
  • 12. THEORETICAL STUDY Main object is to know the nature of DISEASE by study as the following :- 1. Etiology ( causes of diseases ) 2. Pathogenesis (mechanism of diseases) 3. Pathological changes : structural change  Lesion
  • 13. 6. Prognosis ( prediction the future of victim) THEORETICAL STUDY 4. Clinical feature : functional & structural changes  symptoms & signs of patients 5. Complication
  • 14. Complications & sequelae Morphological and functional features Pathogenesis Etiology S.aureus Acute inflammation Boil Septicemia Smoking , Polycyclic AHC Genetic mutation Lung cancer Metastasis HBV Immune reaction to virus infected cells Cirrhosis Liver failure Increased renin production High BP Cerebral hemorrhage
  • 15. Abnormal stage of body  Disease
    • Disorderly function ( show off as abnormal sign and symptom ) of organ system of body (cell, tissue, organ)
  • 16.
    • Sign = objective symptom of disease
    • Symptom = subjective sign of disease
    • Ascites, cachexia, cough, dysphagia, fever, gynecomastia, hemoptysis, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, icterus, lymphadenopathy, palmar erythema
    • Chest pain, dizziness, loss of appetite, weakness, numbness, headache, toothache
  • 17.
    • Cell
    • Tissue
    • Organ
    Environmental factors Genetic factors Change with adaptation Hypertrophy /hyperplasia Atrophy Metaplasia Inability to adapt Injury Death Structural change Functional change Lesion Signs Symptoms
  • 18. The general main causes of disease Congenital Diseases Immune disorder: AIDS, Graves’ disease Genetic Non genetic * Familial diseases * Abnormal Growth & Development Acquired Diseases Iatrogenic disease Inherited : cystic fibrosis Spontaneous : Down’s syndrome Environmental : rubella assoc mal- Accidental : cerebral palsy ~ birth hypoxia Inflammation : appendicitis, TB Neoplasia: lung CA Non neoplastic: BPH Injury , disordered repair: fracture, aspirin induced PU Metabolic disorders: DM Degeneration: osteoarthritis Hemodynamic disorder : shock, MI i ii Cushing’s syndrome ~ X steroids Aplastic anemia ~ chloramphenicol Growth disorders
  • 19. TACTICAL STUDY Learn how ? The study "Comparison" between what is normal and abnormal human nature. Compare the same thing. The same type of structure and function of organs and tissue cell.
  • 20. Sample comparison Structure Normal squamous cell VS abnormal squamous cell Function of organ, tissue, cell Normal blood sugar VS abnormal blood sugar
  • 21. Sample comparison
  • 22. Biochemical Microbiological Hematological Cell/ tissue culture
  • 23. Learning objective
    • The meaning of pathology and scope of pathology.
    2. How to study pathology? 4. The general main causes of disease 3. Techniques of Pathology
  • 24. REFERENCES 1. General and systematic Pathology, 4 th edition, edited by J.C.E.Underwood, “ Introduction to Pathology” 2. Concise Pathology, 3 rd edition, edited by P. Chandrasoma ; C.R. Taylor, Introduction : The Discipline of Pathology , pp xiii – xiv 3. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7 th edition, edited by Kumar; Abbas; Fausto; “ Introduction to Pathology” pp 4
  • 25. Basic medical science and clinicopathological correlation Pathology : Disease, Heart valve stenosis Structural changes Cardiac hypertrophy Functional changes Circulation disturbed C.O. HR Murmur heart sound Compensate: to be normal Strength of heart pump Over compensate: exhaust Pump failure Complication: pulmonary congestion Pulmonary edema Dyspnea, crepitation Irregular HR Clinical problem dyspnea, crepitation, murmur Solution of problem Clinical Dx Aortic valve stenosis with left sided failure Management Prognosis Prophylaxis or prevention Treatment Surgery Medical Other