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Histology Of The Oral Cavity
 

Histology Of The Oral Cavity

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    Histology Of The Oral Cavity Histology Of The Oral Cavity Presentation Transcript

    • Histology of the Oral Cavity: Mouth
    • Lips and Cheeks • The lips are musculofibrous folds that are connected to the gums by superior and inferior frenula. • The median part of the upper lip shows a shallow external groove, the philtrum. • The lips consist (from external to internal) chiefly of skin
    • • The three layers forming the skin can be identified in all skin sections. • The epithelium forming the surface layer, the epidermis, is usually the darkest layer visible. Sublayers are visible in the epidermis. • At the transition from the epidermis to the dermis, staining will become lighter. The lighter stained layer, the dermis, consists of dense irregular connective tissue. • The dermis is much thicker than the epidermis. In thick skin, dermal papillae create a very irregular border between epidermis and dermis. • The hypodermis is the lightest layer visible and consists mainly of adipose tissue. Dense connective tissue strands may extend from the dermis deep into the hypodermis.
    • • Tongue • The tongue situated in the floor of the mouth, is attached by muscles to the hyoid bone, mandible, styloid processes, and pharynx. • The tongue is important in taste, mastication, swallowing, and speech. • It is composed chiefly of skeletal muscle, is partly covered by mucous membrane, and presents a tip and margin, dorsum, inferior surface, and root • The tip, or apex, usually rests against the incisors and continues on each side into the margin. • The oral part of the dorsum may show a shallow median groove.
    • • The mucosa has numerous minute lingual papillae: • (1) the filiform papillae, the narrowest and most numerous; Filiform Papillae • = plush of tongue • Parallel rows • Primary columnar elevation of lamina propria • 5 – 30 tall secondary papillae • Epithelium over papillae – end in tapered points • Hard & scaly (not cornified) • FILIFORM PAPILLAE OF THE TONGUE Stained with H&E • 1 - epithelium covering papilla (stratified squamous keratinizing) 2 - keratinized layer of the epithelium 3 - core of the papilla (lamina propria of the mucosa of dorsal surface of the tongue) 4 - tongue muscles
    • (2) Fungiform Papillae the fungiform papillae, with rounded heads and containing taste buds Knob-like Scattered, single, among filiform papillae Larger & fewer than filiform papillae Narrow stalk, rounded top Size: 1.8 mm. high; 1 mm. Has 1 to several taste buds Fungiform Papillae Stained with H&E 1 - epithelium covering papilla (stratified squamous nonkeratinizing) 2 - core of the papilla (lamina propria of the mucosa of dorsal surface of the tongue) 3 - taste buds
    • CIRCUMVALLATE PAPILLAE OF THE TONGUE much larger than any of others about 8-12 located in post region of tongue, just next to sulcus terminalis have deep furrow’s next to each papillae = where von Ebner’s glands open Von Ebner’s glands = serous lingual glands Stained with H&E 1 - epithelium covering papilla (stratified squamous nonkeratinizing) 2 - core of the papilla (lamina propria of the mucosa of dorsal surface of the tongue) 3 - taste buds
    • Tooth Structure • Two main regions – crown and the root • Crown – exposed part of the tooth above the gingiva (gum) • Enamel – acellular, brittle material composed of calcium salts and hydroxyapatite crystals is the hardest substance in the body – Encapsules the crown of the tooth • Root – portion of the tooth embedded in the jawbone
    • Tooth Structure • Neck – constriction where the crown and root come together • Cementum – calcified connective tissue – Covers the root – Attaches it to the periodontal ligament • Dentin – bonelike material deep to the enamel cap that forms the bulk of the tooth • Pulp cavity surrounded by dentin that contains pulp • Pulp – connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerves • Root canal – portion of the pulp cavity that extends into the root • Apical foramen – proximal opening to the root canal • Odontoblasts – secrete and maintain dentin throughout life
    • • TOOTH DEVELOPMENT - FORMATION OF DENTAL TISSUES Stained with H&E • 1 - ameloblasts (former external cells of the enamel organ) 2 - enamel 3 - dentine (predentine) 4 - odontoblasts (cells which covered the top of dental papilla) 5 - dental pulp (former dental papilla) TOOTH DEVELOPMENT - FORMATION OF DENTAL TISSUES Stained with H&E 1 - ameloblasts 2 - enamel 3 - dentine (predentine) 4 - odontoblasts 5 - dental pulp border between enamel and dentine is marked with dot line
    • Salivary Glands • Produce and secrete saliva that: – Cleanses the mouth – Moistens and dissolves food chemicals – Assist in bolus formation – Contains enzymes that break down starch • Three pairs of extrinsic glands – parotid, submandibular, and sublingual • Intrinsic salivary glands (buccal glands) – scattered throughout the oral mucosa
    • • Parotid – lies anterior to the ear between the masseter muscle and skin – Parotid duct – opens into the vestibule next to the second upper molar • Submandibular – lies along the medial aspect of the mandibular body Its ducts open at the base of the lingual frenulum. • Sublingual – lies anterior to the submandibular gland under the tongue It opens via 10-12 ducts into the floor of the mouth.
    • • PAROTID SALIVARY GLAND Stained with H&E • 1 - serous secretory units (acini) 2 - intercalated excretory duct 3 - striated excretory duct 4 - interlobular excretory duct 5 - interlobular connective tissue septa PAROTID SALIVARY GLAND Stained with H&E 1 - serous secretory units 2 - striated excretory duct 3 - interlobular excretory duct
    • • PAROTID SALIVARY GLAND Stained with H&E 1 - serous secretory units 2 - intercalated excretory duct 3 - striated excretory duct PAROTID SALIVARY GLAND Stained with H&E 1 - serous secretory units 2 - myoepithelial cells 4 - interlobular excretory duct 5 - interlobular connective tissue septa
    • • PAROTID SALIVARY GLAND interlobular excretory duct Stained with H&E 1 - interlobular excretory duct 2 - interlobular connective tissue septa SUBLINGUAL SALIVARY GLAND Stained with H&E 1 - lobules of the gland 2 - interlobular connective tissue septa 3 - interlobular excretory duct
    • • SUBLINGUAL SALIVARY GLAND Stained with H&E • 1 - mucous part of mixed secretory unit 2 - serous part of mixed secretory unit 3 - serous secretory unit 4 - mucous secretory unit 5 - intercalated excretory duct 6 - striated excretory duct 7 - interlobular excretory duct 8 - interlobular connective tissue septa SUBLINGUAL SALIVARY GLAND Stained with H&E 1 - mucous part of mixed secretory unit 2 - serous part (serous demilune) of mixed secretory unit 3 - serous secretory unit 4 - mucous secretory unit 5 - myoepithelial cells
    • SUBMANDIBULAR SALIVARY GLAND Stained with H&E 1 - serous secretory unit 2 - mixed secretory unit 3 - intercalated excretory duct 4 - striated excretory duct 5 - interlobular excretory duct 6 - interlobular connective tissue septa 7 - mucous part of mixed secretory unit 8 - serous part (serous demilune) of mixed secretory unit
    • • SUBMANDIBULAR SALIVARY GLAND Stained with H&E • 1 - serous secretory unit 2 - mixed secretory unit 3 - intercalated excretory duct 4 - striated excretory duct
    • Esophagus • The part of the gastrointestinal tract called the esophagus is a muscular tube whose function is to transport foodstuffs from the mouth to the stomach and to prevent the retrograde flow of gastric contents. • Transport is achieved by peristaltic contractions and relaxation of the esophageal sphincters (upper and lower), usually controlled by reflexes and by the autonomic nervous system. • In humans the esophagus is covered by nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium. • In general, it has the same layers as the rest of the digestive tract. In the submucosa are groups of small mucus-secreting glands, the esophageal glands, whose secretion facilitates the transport of foodstuffs and protects the mucosa.
    • • In the lamina propria of the region near the stomach are groups of glands, the esophageal cardiac glands, that also secrete mucus. • At the distal end of the esophagus, the muscular layer consists of only smooth muscle cells that, close to the stomach, form the lower esophageal sphincter; in the mid portion, a mixture of striated and smooth muscle cells; and at the Layers of Esophageal proximal end, only striated muscle Wall: 1. Mucosa cells. 2. Submucosa 3. Muscularis 4. Adventitia • Only that portion of the esophagus 5. Striated muscle 6. Striated and smooth that is in the peritoneal cavity is 7. Smooth muscle covered by serosa. The rest is 8. Lamina muscularis mucosae covered by a layer of connective 9. Esophageal glands tissue, the adventitia, that blends into the surrounding tissue.
    • Histological Structure. The esophagus has four coats: an external or fibrous coat a muscular coat a submucous or areolar coat and an internal or mucous coat. The muscular coat (tunica muscularis) isble thickness: an external of longitudinal and an internal of circular fibers.  The muscular fibers in the upper part of the esophagus are a red color, and consist chiefly of the striped variety; but below they consist for the most part of involuntary fibers.
    • Section of the human esophagus. The section is transverse and from near the middle of the gullet. a. Fibrous covering. b. Divided fibers of longitudinal muscular coat. c. Transverse muscular fibers. d. Submucous or areolar layer. e. Muscularis mucosæ. f. Mucous membrane, with vessels and part of a lymphoid nodule. g. Stratified epithelial lining. h. Mucous gland. i. Gland duct
    • • The oesophagus has a stratified squamous epithelial lining (SE) which protects the oesophagus from trauma; • the submucosa (SM) secretes mucus from mucous glands (MG). • The lumen of the oesophagus is surrounded by layers of muscle (M)
    • • ESOPHAGUS Stained with H&E 1 - tunica mucosa 2 - tunica submucosa 3 - tunica muscularis propria 5 - epithelium of the mucosa 6 - lamina propria of the mucosa 9 - glands in the submucosa
    • • ESOPHAGUS Stained with H&E 1 - tunica mucosa 2 - tunica submucosa 3 - tunica muscularis 4- tunica adventitia 5 - epithelium of the mucosa 6 - lamina propria of the mucosa 7 - muscularis mucosae 8 - glands in the lamina propria
    • • ESOPHAGUS Stained with H&E 1 - tunica mucosa 2 - tunica submucosa 3 - tunica muscularis propria 4 - tunica adventitia 5 - epithelium of the mucosa 6 - lamina propria of the mucosa 7 - muscularis mucosae 8 - glands in the lamina propria
    • GASTRO-ESOPHAGEAL JUNCTION Stained with H&E 1 – stomach 2 - esophagus
    • GASTRO-ESOPHAGEAL JUNCTION Stained with H&E 1 – stomach 2 -esophagus