Dna and rna
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Dna and rna

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Dna and rna Dna and rna Presentation Transcript

  • DNA and RNA June.19.2010
  • Chemical structure of DNA
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  • The chemical nature of RNA differs from that of DNA RNA is a polymer of purine and pyrimidine ribonucleotides linked together by 3’, 5’- phosphodiester Bridges analogous to those in DNA. Although sharing many features with DNA, RNA possesses several specific differences
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  • DNA OH¯ OH¯ DNA RNA DNA RNA
  • Types of RNA
    • Messenger RNA (mRNA)
    • Transfer RNA (tRNA)
    • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
    • Small stable RNA (sRNA)
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA)
    • The most heterogeneous in size and stability.
    • It is synthesized as large precursor forms known as heterogenous nuclear RNA or hnRNA .
    • All members of the class function as messengers conveying the information in a gene to the protein synthesizing machinery, where it serve as a template on which a specific sequence of amino acids is polymerized to form a specific protein molecule.
    • Newly synthesized mRNA combines with protein to form mRNA-protein complex
    • (mRNA), which come out through nuclear pore by simple diffusion into the cytoplasm
    • to serve as templates for protein synthesis.
    • The 5’ terminal of mRNA is “capped” by a 7-methylguanosine triphosphate that is linked to an adjuacent 2’ – O -methy ribonucleoside at its 5’-hydroxyl through the three
    • Phosphates.
    • The mRNA molecules frequently contain internal 6-methyladenylates and other 2’ – O -methylated nucletides.
    • The cap is involved in the recognition of mRNA by the translating machinery, and it
    • probably helps stabilize the mRNA by preventing the attack of 5’-exonucleases. The protein-synthesizing machinery begins translating the mRNA into proteins beginning downstream of the 5’ or capped terminal.
    • The other end of most mRNA molecules, the 3’-hydroxyl terminal, has an attached polymer of adenylate residuces 20-250 nucleotides in length. (Poly(A) tail).
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  • Posttranscriptional modification of mRNA showing the 7-methylguanosine cap and poly-A tail.
  • Transfer RNA (tRNA)
    • tRNA molecules vary in length from 74 to 95 nucleotides, have clover leaf like
    • structure.
    • The tRNA molecule serve as adapters for the translation of the information in the
    • sequence of nucleotides of the mRNA into specific amino acids.
    • There are at least 20 species of tRNA molecules in every cell, at least one
    • corresponding to each of the 20 amino acids required for protein synthesis.
    • All tRNA molecules have four main arms. The acceptor arm terminates in the
    • nucleotides CCA.
  • Thymidine, pseudouridine, cytidine
  • A. Characteristic tRNA secondary structure. B. Folded (tertiary) tRNA structure found in cells. D = dihydro-uracil. ψ = pseudouracil.
  • Primary tRNA transcript. B. Functional tRNA after posttranscriptional modification. Modified bases include D (dihydrouracil), ψ ( pseudouracil), and  m , which means that the base has been methylated.
  • AUG
  • Genetic Code
  • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
    • Ribosomal RNAs are synthesized in large precursor form known as pre rRNA.
    • Four rRNA molecules 5, 5.8, 18 and 28 S are present in eukaryotes formed from
    • 40S and 60S subunit.
    • rRNA are required for the formation of ribosomes.
    • 16S RNA is involved in initiation of protein synthesis.
  • Posttranscriptional processing of eukaryotic ribosomal RNA by ribonucleases (RNases)
  • Prokaryotic and eukaryotic rRNAs
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  • Structure of eukaryotic messenger RNA
  • Alternative splicing patterns in eukaryotic mRNA.
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  • Differences between DNA and RNA DNA RNA 1. Sugar moiety is deoxyribose. Sugar moiety is ribose. 2. Uracil is absent. Thymine is absent. . 3. Double stranded molecules. Single stranded molecules. 4. Sum of purine bases is equal to sum of pyrimidine base. (A+G)=(C+T) Sum of purine bases is not equal to sum of pyrimidine base. (A+G)#(C+T) 5. Resistant to hydrolysis by alkali because of absence of hydroxyl group on 2 carbon atom of deoxyribose. Because of presence of hydroxyl group on 2 carbon atom of ribose, RNA is easily hydrolyzed by alkali.
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  • 以上です。