Higher functions Language (Speech) It is expression of thoughts and ideas through production of sounds. To understand the spoken and printed words and to express idea in speech and writing is called language.
Printed words will be seen by the primary visual area Words are interpreted by the visual association area These words are converted into internal words by the Dejerine area (angular gyrus) These words are then interpreted by Wernicke’s area Broca’s area will coordinate Motor area for the spoken speech Exner’s area (motor writing centre) along with motor area to initiates appropriate muscle movements of hand and fingers to written speech Pathway for Spoken and Written speech
Aphasia: abnormalities of speech functions
1. Sensory aphasia
2. Conduction aphasia
3. Motor aphasia
4. Global aphasia
Learning and memory
Learning and memory are two important higher functions of the nervous system.
Learning means to gather experience or knowledge
Memory is to retain this knowledge for future use
Conditioned reflex - Important for learning
Unconditioned reflex or inborn reflex
Pavlov’s classical dog experiment
Types of conditioned reflex
1. Operant conditioning :An animal learns to repeat a behavior which is rewarding or to avoid a behavior associated with punishment.
2. Discriminate conditioning: Animal is taught to discriminate between different signals with great accuracy.
Basis of conditioned reflex
Development of new connection in the nervous system
Memory is the ability to store what is learned or experienced and can be recalled in need.
. Memory systems Types of declarative and nondeclarative memory Declarative : easy to form and easily forgotten Nondeclarative : require repetition and practice over a long period, but less likely to be forgotten
Types of Declarative Memory Short-term (seconds to hours) and long-term memory
Short-term declarative memory
1. temporary, limited in capacity, requires repetition
Long-term declarative memory
1. more permanent, large capacity, does not require repetition
2. consolidation = process of retention in long-term memory
I. Inferotemporal Cortex
A. Visual association area )
B. Experimental lesion studies
1. loss of visual discrimination task
2. basic vision normal
3. loss of memory
Inferotemporal Cortex (area IT)
C. Face recognition neurons
1. face selectivity
2. facial memory
II. Temporal Lobe & Memory
A. inputs: all sensory association areas
B. outputs: hypothalamus via fornix
III. Papez circuit
IV. Prefrontal Cortex
Hypothesized functions 1. complex planning
2. problem solving
Memory of recent events.
Medial temporal lobe:
Consolidates short term into long term memory.
Hippocampus is critical component of memory.
Acquisition of new information, facts and events requires both the medial temporal lobe and hippocampus.
Consolidation of short-term memory into long-term memory.
Requires activation of genes, leading to protein synthesis and formation of new synaptic connections.
Altered postsynaptic growth of dendritic spines in area of contact.
Cerebral cortex stores factual information:
Visual memories lateralized to left hemisphere.
Visuospatial information lateralized to right hemisphere.
Involved in performing exact mathematical calculations.
Complex, problem-solving and planning activities.
Type of synaptic learning.
Synapses that are 1 st stimulated at high frequency will subsequently exhibit increased excitability.
Glutamate binds to NMDA and AMPA receptors.
Opens Ca 2+ and Na + channels.
Ca 2+ causes, release of NO from postsynaptic neuron.
NO acts as a retrograde messenger, causing release of NT in bouton.
Amnesia = loss of memory and/or the ability to learn