<ul><li>The Limbic System (coined by Paul Broca: Le Grande Lobe Limbique) </li></ul><ul><li>Limbic lobe: cingulate gyrus, ...
The Limbic System <ul><li>Parts of the brain underlying emotional behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with the olfactory...
 
Connections  <ul><li>1. Papez circuit </li></ul>
Connections <ul><li>2. Median forebrain bundle  </li></ul><ul><li>3.  Stria terminalis  </li></ul><ul><li>4. Ventral pathw...
Mediodorsal nuc of the thalamus (associated with Ant nuc) Orbitofrontal ctx (associated with HIPP) Ansa lenticularis = VA ...
The Amygdala <ul><li>Basolateral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projects to ventral st...
 
<ul><li>Extended amygdala:  Central medial group shares continuity and similarity with parts of substantia innominata and ...
AMYGDALA <ul><li>Coordinates behavioral & emotional responses to complex sensory input by integrating somatosensory and vi...
The Hippocampus <ul><li>Greek:  “Sea Monster” </li></ul><ul><li>Another terminology mess </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocortex/...
“ C” shaped structure in medial temporal lobe
Connections <ul><li>Afferents: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much of cortex is reciprocally connected to entorhinal cortex </li></...
Functions  <ul><li>1. Affect: It adds an affective, or emotional  component to  sensory experience. </li></ul><ul><li>2. M...
Kl ü ver-Bucy Syndrome Bilateral ablation of ant temporal lobes including amygdala
Klüver-Bucy Syndrome <ul><li>Emotional Blunting:  The subject suffering from Kluver-Bucy displays a flat affect and may no...
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Cns 16

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Cns 16

  1. 1. <ul><li>The Limbic System (coined by Paul Broca: Le Grande Lobe Limbique) </li></ul><ul><li>Limbic lobe: cingulate gyrus, isthmus, hippocampal gyrus, uncas </li></ul><ul><li>Sub cortical structures: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Hippocampus </li></ul><ul><li>2. Septal nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>3. Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>4. Amygdala </li></ul>
  2. 2. The Limbic System <ul><li>Parts of the brain underlying emotional behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with the olfactory system; rhinencephalon = “smell brain” </li></ul>“ The hypothalamus, the anterior thalamic nucleus, the cingulate gyrus, the hippocampus and their interconnections, constitute a harmonious mechanism which may elaborate the functions of central emotion as well as participate in the emotional expression.” - James Papez, 1939
  3. 4. Connections <ul><li>1. Papez circuit </li></ul>
  4. 5. Connections <ul><li>2. Median forebrain bundle </li></ul><ul><li>3. Stria terminalis </li></ul><ul><li>4. Ventral pathway </li></ul>
  5. 6. Mediodorsal nuc of the thalamus (associated with Ant nuc) Orbitofrontal ctx (associated with HIPP) Ansa lenticularis = VA Fugal Pathway
  6. 7. The Amygdala <ul><li>Basolateral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projects to ventral striatum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has pyramidal like cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receives input from primary sensory cortex, polysensory cortex and thalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connections are reciprocal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cortical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Olfactory amygdala </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receives direct input form olfactory system, both the olfactory bulb and olfactory cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Central Medial group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main output of amygdaloid complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Input from hippocampus, orbitofrontal, insula, anterior cingulate cortex as well as basolateral group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projects to hypothalamus, brainstem via stria terminalis and amygdaloventral fugal pathway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of “central autonomic network” </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>Extended amygdala: Central medial group shares continuity and similarity with parts of substantia innominata and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis </li></ul>
  8. 10. AMYGDALA <ul><li>Coordinates behavioral & emotional responses to complex sensory input by integrating somatosensory and viscerosensory information </li></ul>
  9. 11. The Hippocampus <ul><li>Greek: “Sea Monster” </li></ul><ul><li>Another terminology mess </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocortex/ archicortex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hippocampal formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dentate gyrus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hippocampus proper “Cornu ammonis” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subicular complex </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subiculum </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presubiculum </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>parasubiculum </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Entorhinal cortex </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 12. “ C” shaped structure in medial temporal lobe
  11. 13. Connections <ul><li>Afferents: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much of cortex is reciprocally connected to entorhinal cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cholinergic and GABA input via septal nuclei </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amygdala </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VTA, LC, Raphe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Efferents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Via the fornix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precommissural: septal nuclei </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-commisural: mammillary bodies (to anterior thalamic nucleus via mammillothalamic tract) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Functions <ul><li>1. Affect: It adds an affective, or emotional component to sensory experience. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Memory </li></ul><ul><li>3. Learning </li></ul><ul><li>4. Emotional exteriorization </li></ul><ul><li>5. Preservation of self </li></ul><ul><li>6. Preservation of species: sex urge and behavior </li></ul>
  13. 15. Kl ü ver-Bucy Syndrome Bilateral ablation of ant temporal lobes including amygdala
  14. 16. Klüver-Bucy Syndrome <ul><li>Emotional Blunting: The subject suffering from Kluver-Bucy displays a flat affect and may not respond appropriately to stimuli. Following bilateral amygdala lesions, previously fierce monkeys will approach fear-inducing stimuli with no display of anger or fear. </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperphagia: Patients with Kluver-Bucy often suffer from extreme weight gain without a strictly monitored diet. This is likely for the purpose of oral stimulation or exploration and not indicative of a satiety disorder. There is a strong tendency for those with Kluver-Bucy to compulsively place inedible objects in their mouths. </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate Sexual Behavior: Human subjects with Kluver-Bucy may fail to publicly observe social sexual morays and there may be an increase in their sexual activity. Monkeys with bilateral amygdala lesions demonstrate atypical sex behaviors, mounting inanimate objects and members of the same sex. </li></ul><ul><li>Visual Agnosia: Subjects with Kluver-Bucy suffer from &quot;psychic blindness,&quot; i. e. an inability to visually recognize objects. Oral compulsions may provide an alternate means of object identification. </li></ul>

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