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Cns 13
 

Cns 13

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  • Dualism-mind is separate from the body Descartes believed that the pineal body directed fluid from the ventricles into the holow fibers we call nerves-this induced muscle action. The pineal gland is where the soul controls the physical body Monism: the belief that the mind is the working of the body (no need for a separate soul. Determinism-the notion that mental states are produced by physical mechanisms. Reductionists-we break complex phenomena into less complicated sytems.
  • Dualism-mind is separate from the body Descartes believed that the pineal body directed fluid from the ventricles into the holow fibers we call nerves-this induced muscle action. The pineal gland is where the soul controls the physical body Monism: the belief that the mind is the working of the body (no need for a separate soul. Determinism-the notion that mental states are produced by physical mechanisms. Reductionists-we break complex phenomena into less complicated sytems.

Cns 13 Cns 13 Presentation Transcript

  • Electroencephalogram (EEG), Wakefulness and Sleep
    • Electroencephalogram (EEG)
    1. Brain Waves
  • Brain Waves: State of the Brain
    • Normal brain function involves continuous electrical activity
    • Patterns of neuronal electrical activity recorded are called brain waves
    • Brain waves change with age, sensory stimuli, brain disease, and the chemical state of the body
    • An electroencephalogram (EEG) records this activity
    • EEGs can be used to diagnose and localize brain lesions, tumors, infarcts, infections, abscesses, and epileptic lesions
    • A flat EEG (no electrical activity) is clinical evidence of death
  • The EEG be recorded with Scalp electrodes through the unopened skull or with electrodes on or in the brain. A normal EEG
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG)
    • Measures synaptic potentials produced at cell bodies and dendrites.
      • Create electrical currents.
    • Used clinically diagnose epilepsy and brain death.
  • EEG Patterns
    • Alpha: low-amplitude, slow, synchronous waves indicating an “idling” brain
      • Recorded from parietal and occipital regions.
        • Person is awake, relaxed, with eyes closed.
          • 10-12 cycles/sec
          • 50 ~100  V .
    • Beta:high-amplitude waves seen in deep sleep and when reticular activating system is damped
      • Strongest from frontal lobes near precentral gyrus.
        • Produced by visual stimuli and mental activity.
        • Evoked activity.
          • 13-25 cycles/sec.
  • Alpha Block: Replacement of the alpha rhythm by an asynchronous, low-voltage beta rhythm when opening the eyes.
    • Theta : more irregular than alpha waves
      • Emitted from temporal and occipital lobes.
      • Common in newborn some sleep in adult.
      • Adult indicates severe emotional stress.
        • 5-8 cycles/sec.
    • Delta: high-amplitude waves;
      • Common during sleep and awake infant.
      • In awake adult indicate brain damage.
        • 1-5 cycles/sec.
  • SPONTANEOUS CORTICAL ELECTRICAL POTENTIALS: THE EEG
  • Diagrammatic comparison of the electrical responses of the axon and the dendrites of a large cortical neuron. 2. Mechanism of EEG Current flow to and from active synaptic knobs on the dendrites produces wave activity, while AP are transmitted along the axon.
  • Mechanism of EEG
    • Continuous graph of changing voltage fields at scalp surface resulting from ongoing synaptic activity in underlying cortex
    • Inputs from subcortical structures
      • Thalamus
      • Brainstem reticular formation
    • EEG signals generated by cortex
    • Currents in extracellular space generated by summation of EPSPs and IPSPs
  • Evoked cortical potential
    • Electrical activities in cortex after stimulation of a sense organ
    • 1. Primary evoked potential
    • 2. Diffuse evoked potential
  • EEG Records During Epileptic Seizure Epilepsy is characterized by uncontrolled excessive activity of either a part or all of the central nervous system. Grand mal epilepsy: characterized by extreme neuronal discharges in all areas of the brain, last from a few seconds to 3 to 4 minutes. Petit mal epilepsy: Characterized by 3 to 30 seconds of unconsciousness or diminished consciousness during which the person has several twitch-like contractions of the muscle.
  • II Wakefulness and Sleep
  • Sleep
    • Sleep is a behavior and an altered state of consciousness
      • Sleep is associated with an urge to lie down for several hours in a quiet environment
        • Few movement occur during sleep (eye movements)
      • The nature of consciousness is changed during sleep
        • We experience some dreaming during sleep
        • We may recall very little of the mental activity that occurred during sleep
    • We spend about a third of our lives in sleep
      • A basic issue is to understand the function of sleep
  • EEG Sleep Patterns
    • There are two major types of sleep:
      • Non-rapid eye movement (NREM)
      • Rapid eye movement (REM)
    • REM (rapid eye movement):
        • Dreams occur.
        • Low-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations.
        • Similar to wakefulness (beta waves).
    • Non-Rem (resting):
        • High-amplitude, low-frequency waves (delta waves).
  • Types of Sleep
    • One passes through four stages of NREM during the first 30-45 minutes of sleep
    • REM sleep occurs after the fourth NREM stage has been achieved
  • Non-REM Sleep
    • Alpha, delta, theta activity are present in the EEG record
      • Stages 1 and 2: Alpha waves
      • Stages 3 and 4: delta activity (synchronized)
        • Termed slow-wave sleep (SWS)
    • Light, even respiration
    • Muscle control is present (toss and turn)
    • Dreaming (could but not vivid, rational)
      • Difficult to rouse from stage 4 SWS
  • Types and Stages of Sleep: NREM
      • Stage 1 – eyes are closed and relaxation begins; the EEG shows alpha waves; one can be easily aroused
      • Stage 2 – EEG pattern is irregular with sleep spindles (high-voltage wave bursts); arousal is more difficult
      • Stage 3 – sleep deepens; theta and delta waves appear; vital signs decline; dreaming is common
      • Stage 4 – EEG pattern is dominated by delta waves; skeletal muscles are relaxed; arousal is difficult
  • REM Sleep
    • Presence of beta activity (desynchronized EEG pattern)
    • Physiological arousal threshold increases
        • Heart-rate quickens
        • Breathing more irregular and rapid
        • Brainwave activity resembles wakefulness
        • Genital arousal
    • Pontine-Geniculate-Occipital (PGO) waves
    • Loss of muscle tone (paralysis)
    • Vivid, emotional dreams
    • May be involved in memory consolidation
  • Pontine-geniculate-occipital (PGO) wave – A synchronized burst of electrical activity that originates in the pons and like a wave it activates the lateral geniculate nucleus (first relay of visual information) and then the occipital lobe, specifically in the visual cortex (which receives and puts together the visual information that comes from the lat. geniculate nucleus). PGO waves appear seconds before and during REM sleep.
  • Sleep Stage Cycles
    • A typical sleep pattern alternates between REM and NREM sleep
    • SWS precedes REM sleep
    • REM sleep lengthens over the night
    • Basic sleep cycle = 90 minutes
    • The suprachiasmatic and preoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus regulate the sleep cycle
  •  
  • Importance of Sleep
    • Sleep is necessary for survival
    • Sleep appears necessary for our nervous systems to work properly.
    • During the SWS, growth hormone secretion increase and important for the infants growth and physical restorative process of adult
    • During REM, brain blood flow and protein synthesis increase, and it is important for the mental development of infants and long-term memory and mental restoration in adults.
    • Daily sleep requirements decline with age
  • What Happens if We are Deprived of Sleep?
    • Lack of alertness
    • Fatigue
    • Memory problems
    • Irritability
    • Depression
    • Lack of motivation
    • Accidents
    • Fibro Myalgia
  • Neural Regulation of Arousal
    • Electrical stimulation of the brain stem induces arousal
      • Dorsal path: RF--> to medial thalamus --> cortex
      • Ventral path: RF --> to lateral hypothalamus, basal ganglia, and the forebrain
    • Neurotransmitters involved in arousal:
      • NE neurons in locus coeruleus (LC) show high activity during wakefulness, low activity during sleep (zero during REM sleep)
        • LC neurons may play a role in vigilance
      • Activation of ACh neurons produces behavioral activation and cortical desynchrony
        • ACh agonists increase arousal, ACh antagonists decrease arousal
      • 5-HT: stimulation of the raphe nuclei induces arousal whereas 5-HT antagonists reduce cortical arousal
  • Neural Control of SWS
    • The ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPA) is important for the control of sleep
      • Lesions of the preoptic area produce total insomnia, leading to death
      • Electrical stimulation of the preoptic area induces signs of drowsiness in cats
      • VLPA neurons promote sleep
  • Sleep Disorders
    • Insomnia
    • habitual sleeplessness
    • possible causes: excessive noise, stress, drugs, medications, pain, uncomfortable temperature, sleep apnea, periodic limb movement disorder
    • Narcolepsy
    • Frequent, unexpected periods of sleepiness during the day
    • affects about 1 in 1000 people
    • symptoms: extreme daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations
    • involvement of orexin
  • Sleep Disorders
    • Somnambulism - sleepwalking
    • Nightmares - frightening dreams that wake a sleeper from REM
    • Night terrors - sudden arousal from sleep and intense fear accompanied by physiological reactions (e.g., rapid heart rate, perspiration) that occur during slow-wave sleep
    • Nocturnal Enuresis- bed wetting
    • Sleep apnea - failure to breathe when asleep