CEREBRUM AND BASE OF THE SKULL BY DR MANAH CHANDRA CHANGMAI IMS
Able to describe the general structure of the Cerebrum and Cerebral Cortex. Able to identify the Cerebrum, the Lobes of the Brain, the Cerebral Cortex, and its major regions/divisions. Able to describe the primary functions of the Lobes and the Cortical Regions of the Brain. Objectives
It is the boundary between frontal and parietal lobes
It starts at the superomedial border, a little behind the midpoint between frontal and occipital poles.It runs downards and forwards for about 8-10cm to end little above the posterior ramus of lateral sulcus.
It demarcates the motor and sensory area of the cerebral cortex.
The posterior region of the medial surface is traversed by parieto-occipital and calcarine sulcus .The parieto-occipital sulcus marks the boundary between parietal and occipital lobes.
The visual cortex lies above and below the calcarine sulcus.
In the inferior cerebral surface
Orbital sulcus Occipitotemporal sulcus Collateral sulcus Rhinal sulcus Sulcus and important structures on inferior surface of cerebral hemisphere Olfactory sulcus
Insula -Present within the lateral sulcus Between temporal and frontal Lobe. -The overlying cortical areas are called opercula formed from the parts of frontal,temporal and parietal lobe -Functions linked to emotion and body’s homeostasis -i.e perception,motor control,self awarness,congnitive functioning interpersonal experience Insula
Primary Motor Cortex ( Precentral Gyrus) – Cortical site involved with controlling movements of the body.
Broca’s Area – Controls facial neurons, speech, and language comprehension. Located on Left Frontal Lobe.
Broca’s Aphasia – Results in the ability to comprehend speech, but the decreased motor ability (or inability) to speak and form words. Orbitofrontal Cortex – Site of Frontal Lobotomies
* Desired Effects:
- Diminished Rage
- Decreased Aggression
- Poor Emotional Responses
* Possible Side Effects: - Epilepsy - Poor Emotional Responses - Perseveration (Uncontrolled, repetitive actions, gestures, or words) Frontal lobes cortical regions Primary motor cortex Broca’s area Orbitofrontal cortex
Primary Somatosensory Cortex (Postcentral Gyrus) – Site involved with processing of tactile and proprioceptive information.
Somatosensory Association Cortex - Assists with the integration and interpretation of sensations relative to body position and orientation in space. May assist with visuo-motor coordination
Primary Gustatory Cortex – Primary site involved with the interpretation of the sensation of Taste.
Parietal lobe cortical areas Associated somatosensory area(7) Primary gustatory area (40) Primary somatosensory area (3, 1, 2)
Primary Visual Cortex – This is the primary area of the brain responsible for sight -recognition of size, color, light, motion, dimensions, etc. Visual Association Area – Interprets information acquired through the primary visual cortex. Occipital lobe and cortical regions
. A non-progressive disorder • Caused by brain injury pre (70-80%), peri, or post natally • Injure occurs before CNS reaches maturity • Patients often have great potential masked by their connections Cerebral palsy • Malfunction of motor centers • Postural and balance difficulties • Normal life expectancy possible • Early death respiratory Manifestation
Spastic • 52-70% of all CPs • Hyperirritability of muscles • Arms flexed, legs internally rotated • Difficulty bending into a sitting position • Difficulty with head control • Postural difficulty • May not have protective extension Athetoid or Dyskinetic Type
• 25- 30% of CPs
• Uncontrollable writhing movements of
opposing muscle groups
• All four extremities involved
• Neck and face involved
• Voluntary movements are flailing
• Difficulty uprighting and balancing
• Tremors (rare form) of CP • Rigid 5 -10% of CPs • Flaccid (Hypotonicity) • Mixed 15 - 40% of CPs • 5 to 10 % • Affects balance and coordination. • They may walk with an unsteady gait with feet far apart, and they have difficulty with motions that require precise coordination, such as writing. Ataxic cerebral palsy Other types