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  1. 1. The function of the circulation<br />To service the needs of the body tissues<br />To transport nutrients to the body tissues,<br /> To transport waste products away, <br />To conduct hormones from one part of the body to another<br />To maintain an appropriate environment in all the tissue fluids of the body for optimal survival and function of the cells <br />
  2. 2. Physical Characteristics of the Circulation <br />The circulation is divided into:<br />The systemic circulation<br />The pulmonary circulation<br />Because the systemic circulation supplies blood flow to all the tissues of the body except the lungs, it is also called the greater circulation or peripheral circulation. <br />
  3. 3. Functional Parts of the Circulation<br />The function of the arteries is to transport blood under high pressure to the tissues<br /> The arteries have strong vascular walls, and blood flows at a high velocity in the arteries<br />
  4. 4. The arterioles :<br /><ul><li>are the last small branches of the arterial system
  5. 5. act as control conduits through which blood is released into the capillaries
  6. 6. have a strong muscular wall that can close the arteriole completely or can, by relaxing, dilate it ,</li></ul> thus having the capability of vastly altering blood flow in each tissue bed in response to the need of the tissue<br />
  7. 7. The function of the capillaries is to :<br /><ul><li>exchange fluid, nutrients, electrolytes, hormones, and other substances between the blood and the interstitial fluid.
  8. 8. The capillary walls are very thin and have numerous minute capillary pores permeable to water and other small molecular substances</li></li></ul><li>The venules:<br /><ul><li>collect blood from the capillaries,
  9. 9. coalesce into progressively larger veins.
  10. 10. The veins function
  11. 11. as conduits for transport of blood from the venules back to the heart.
  12. 12. they serve as a major reservoir of extra blood.</li></ul>Because the pressure in the venous system is very low, the venous walls are thin. <br />
  13. 13. Volumes of Blood in the Different Parts of the Circulation<br />about 84 per cent of the entire blood volume of the body is in the systemic circulation, <br />and 16 per cent in heart and lungs. <br />Of the 84 per cent in the systemic circulation,<br /> 64 per cent is in the veins, <br />13 per cent in the arteries,<br />and 7 per cent in the systemic arterioles and capillaries. <br />The heart contains 7 per cent of the blood,<br /> and the pulmonary vessels, 9 per cent<br />
  14. 14. Cross-sectional areas and Blood flow<br />- If all the systemic vessels of each type were put side by side, their approximate total cross-sectional areas for the average human being would be as follows:<br />Because the same volume of blood must flow through each segment of the circulation each minute, the velocity of blood flow is inversely proportional to vascular cross-sectional area. Thus, under resting conditions, the velocity averages about 33 cm/sec in the aorta but only 1/1000 as rapidly in the capillaries, about 0.3 mm/sec. <br />
  15. 15.
  16. 16. Velocity of blood flow<br />Blood velocity: <br />Changes as it travels through the systemic circulation<br />Is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area<br />Slow capillary flow allows adequate time for exchange between blood and tissues<br />
  17. 17. Pressure in various portion of the circulation<br />Blood pressure means the force exerted by the blood against any unit area of the vessel wall<br />Blood pressure almost always is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg)<br />Because the heart pumps blood continually into the aorta, the mean pressure in the aorta is high, averaging about 100 mm Hg <br />Heart pumping is pulsatile, the arterial pressure alternates between a systolic pressure level of 120 mm Hg and a diastolic pressure level of 80 mm Hg, as shown on the left <br />As the blood flows through the systemic circulation, its mean pressure falls progressively to about 0 mm Hg by the time it reaches the termination of the venaecavae where they empty into the right atrium of the heart. <br />
  18. 18.
  19. 19. Diameter, total cross sectional area, mean blood pressure at entrance and mean fluid velocity of blood vessels<br />
  20. 20. Blood Flow <br />Blood flow is defined as the quantity blood passing a given point in the circulation in a given period and is normally expressed in ml/min<br />Overall blood flow in the total circulation of an adult is about 5000 ml/min….The cardiac output<br />
  21. 21. Interrelationships Among Pressure, Flow, and Resistance<br />Blood flow through a blood vessel is determined by two factors: <br />(1) pressure differenceof the blood between the two ends of the vessel, which is the force that pushes the blood through the vessel<br /> (2) the impediment to blood flow through the vessel, which is called vascular resistance<br />Resistance occurs as a result of friction between the flowing blood and the intravascular endothelium all along the inside of the vessel.<br />
  22. 22. The flow through the vessel can be calculated by the following formula, which is called Ohm's law:<br />F=∆P/Rin which F is blood flow, ΔP is the pressure difference (P1 - P2) between the two ends of the vessel, and R is the resistance<br />
  23. 23. Blood Flow, Blood Pressure, and Resistance<br />Blood flow (F) is directly proportional to the difference in blood pressure (P) between two points in the circulation<br />If P increases, blood flow speeds up; if P decreases, blood flow declines<br />Blood flow is inversely proportional to resistance (R)<br /> If R increases, blood flow decreases <br />R is more important than P in influencing local blood pressure<br />
  24. 24. Modes of flow in vessles<br />Blood flow can either be laminar or turbulent<br />
  25. 25. Laminar Flow<br />When blood flows through a long smooth vessel it flows in straight lines, with each layer of blood remaining the same distance from the walls of the vessel throughout its length<br />When laminar flow occurs the different layers flow at different rates creating a parabolic profile<br />The parabolic profile arises because the fluid molecules touching the walls barely move because of adherence to the vessel wall. The next layer slips over these, the third layer slips over the second and so on.<br />
  26. 26. Turbulent flow<br />When the rate of blood flow becomes too great, when it passes by an obstruction in a vessel, when it makes a sharp turn, or when it passes over a rough surface, the flow may then become turbulent<br />Turbulent flow means that the blood flows crosswise in the vessel as well as along the vessel, usually forming whorls in the blood called eddy currents. When eddy currents are present, the blood flows with much greater resistance than when the flow is streamline because eddies add tremendously to the overall friction of flow in the vessel. <br />
  27. 27. Turbulent flow<br />The tendency for turbulent flow increases in direct proportion to the velocity of blood flow, the diameter of the blood vessel, and the density of the blood, and is inversely proportional to the viscosity of the blood, in accordance with the following equation:<br />Re=(v.d.ρ)/ η <br />where Re is Reynolds' number and is the measure of the tendency for turbulence to occur, ν is the mean velocity of blood flow (in centimeters/second), d is the vessel diameter (in centimeters), ρ is density, and η is the viscosity (in poise) <br />
  28. 28. Resistance<br />Resistance is the impediment to blood flow in a vessel<br />Resistance cannot be measured by any direct means, instead, resistance must be calculated from measurements of blood flow and pressure difference between two points in the vessel such that: <br />F=(PA-PV)/R<br />Where F= Flow, PA-PV=difference between mean arterial and venous pressures, R=resistance<br />Resistance to blood flow within a vascular network is determined by the length and diameter of individual vessels, physical characteristics of the blood (viscosity, laminar flow vs. turbulent flow)<br />
  29. 29. Total Peripheral Vascular Resistance and Total Pulmonary Vascular Resistance<br />The rate of blood flow through the entire circulatory system is equal to the rate of blood pumping by the heart-that is approximately 100 ml/sec. <br />The pressure difference from the systemic arteries to the systemic veins is about 100 mm Hg. <br />Therefore, the resistance of the entire systemic circulation, called the total peripheral resistance, is about 100/100, or 1 PRU. <br />
  30. 30. In the pulmonary system, the mean pulmonary arterial pressure averages 16 mm Hg and the mean left atrial pressure averages 2 mm Hg, giving a net pressure difference of 14 mm <br />Therefore, when the cardiac output is normal at about 100 ml/sec, the total pulmonary vascular resistance calculates to be about 0.14 PRU<br />
  31. 31. Conductance<br />Conductance is a measure of the blood flow through a vessel for a given pressure difference and is usually expressed in milliliters per second per millimeter of mercury pressure <br />Conductance is equal to the reciprocal of resistance<br />
  32. 32. Very Slight Changes in Diameter of a Vessel Can Change Its Conductance Tremendously<br />Three vessels with relative diameters of 1, 2, and 4 but with the same pressure difference of 100 mm Hg. Although the diameters of these vessels increase only fourfold, the respective flows are 1, 16, and 256 ml/mm. Thus, the conductance of the vessel increases in proportion to the fourth power of the diameter: Conductance α Diameter4<br />
  33. 33.
  34. 34. The relationship between conductance and diameter can be explained by considering the number of ‘layers’ of blood in a vessel. For a small vessel a large proportion of the blood is in contact with the wall of the vessel.<br />By integrating the velocities of all the concentric rings of flowing blood and multiplying them by the areas of the rings, one can derive the following formula, known as Poiseuille's law:<br />F= π∆Pr4 / 8 ηlin which F is the rate of blood flow, ΔP is the pressure difference between the ends of the vessel, r is the radius of the vessel, l is length of the vessel, and η is viscosity of the blood. <br />Poiseuille's Law<br />
  35. 35. Effect of Blood Hematocrit and Blood Viscosity on Vascular Resistance and Blood Flow<br /> The greater the viscosity, the less the flow in a vessel if all other factors are constant<br /> When the hematocrit rises , which it often does in polycythemia, the blood viscosity can increase, and its flow through blood vessels is greatly retarded<br />
  36. 36. Effect of pressure on vascular resistance and blood flow<br />Increase in arterial pressure not only increases the force that pushes blood through the vessels but also distends the vessels at the same time, which decreases vascular resistance.<br />