This is immunity where the body is “actively” producing antibodies to fight infection.
Ex: You have a throat infection and you are actively creating antibodies to fight it.
Vaccination: An injection of a weakened strain of an infectious microbe (pathogen) that causes the body to undergo active immunity (produce antibodies).
This is immunity where antibodies are given to a person from the blood of another person or animal.
This immunity only lasts for a short period of time.
ex: Breastfeeding mothers pass antibodies to their children through the milk.
Natural active acquired immunity: person comes down with measles Artificial active acquired immunity: person is immunized with a vaccine Artificial passive acquired immunity: Person receives serum with antibodies Natural passive acquired immunity: Baby receives antibodies with mother’s milk - colostrum
Self protein displaying an antigen T cell receptor Interleukin-2 stimulates cell division Cytotoxic T cell Interleukin-2 activates other T cells and B cells Cell-mediated immunity (attack on infected cells) Humoral immunity (secretion of antibodies by plasma cells) B cell Helper T cell APC Interleukin-1 activates helper T cell
Autoimmune diseases are diseases where the immune system begins to attack itself.
Rheumatoid Arthritis – crippling disease of the joints.
Lupus – disease of blood and organs.
Multiple Sclerosis – disease of nervous system
Cures/Treatments: No known cures. Usually treated with drugs.
HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus Attacks helper T cells Without production of IL-2, there is no second signal, and humoral and cell mediated immunity are shut off. See increase in rare diseases: TB, Kaposi sarcoma, etc.
Delayed Hypersensitivity A type of cell mediated immunity. Td cell – requires usual two signals Second time antigen is encountered, Td cell produces several cytokines that attract and activate macrophages, resulting in an inflammatory reaction. Example: TB skin test