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This is immunity where the body is “actively” producing antibodies to fight infection.
Ex: You have a throat infection and you are actively creating antibodies to fight it.
Vaccination: An injection of a weakened strain of an infectious microbe (pathogen) that causes the body to undergo active immunity (produce antibodies).
This is immunity where antibodies are given to a person from the blood of another person or animal.
This immunity only lasts for a short period of time.
ex: Breastfeeding mothers pass antibodies to their children through the milk.
Natural active acquired immunity: person comes down with measles Artificial active acquired immunity: person is immunized with a vaccine Artificial passive acquired immunity: Person receives serum with antibodies Natural passive acquired immunity: Baby receives antibodies with mother’s milk - colostrum
Self protein displaying an antigen T cell receptor Interleukin-2 stimulates cell division Cytotoxic T cell Interleukin-2 activates other T cells and B cells Cell-mediated immunity (attack on infected cells) Humoral immunity (secretion of antibodies by plasma cells) B cell Helper T cell APC Interleukin-1 activates helper T cell
Cytotoxic T cells bind to infected body cells and destroy them
Cytotoxic T cell binds to infected cell 1 2 3 Perforin makes holes in infected cell’s membrane Infected cell is destroyed INFECTED CELL Perforin molecule Cytotoxic T cell Foreign antigen Hole forming
Cellular Immunity .vs. Antibody Immunity
Carried out by T-Cells
Infected cells are killed by Cytotoxic T –Cells.
Carried out by B-cells
Antibodies are produced and dumped into blood stream.
Antibodies bind to antigens and deactivate them.
Cellular Immunity Antibody or Humoral Immunity
Immune Response Explained
Antigen infects cells.
Macrophage ingests antigen and displays portion on its surface.
Helper T- Cell recognizes antigen on the surface of the macrophage and becomes active.
Active Helper T-Cell activates Cytotoxic T-Cells and B-Cells.
Cytotoxic T-Cells divide into Active Cytotoxic T-cells and Memory T – Cells.
Active Cytotoxic T-Cells kill infected cells.
At the same time, B-Cells divide into Plasma Cells and Memory B- Cells.
Plasma cells produce antibodies that deactivate pathogen.
Memory T and Memory B cells remain in the body to speed up the response if the same antigen reappears.
Supressor T-Cells stop the immune response when all antigens have been destroyed.
Immune Response Summary Displays copy of antigen on surface of cell Cellular Immunity Antibody Immunity Antigen Macrophage Helper T - Cell Active Cytotoxic T-Cell Active B - Cell Kills Infected Cells Memory T- Cell Plasma Cell Memory B-Cell Antibodies Deactivates Antigens
Autoimmune diseases are diseases where the immune system begins to attack itself.
Rheumatoid Arthritis – crippling disease of the joints.
Lupus – disease of blood and organs.
Multiple Sclerosis – disease of nervous system
Cures/Treatments: No known cures. Usually treated with drugs.
HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus Attacks helper T cells Without production of IL-2, there is no second signal, and humoral and cell mediated immunity are shut off. See increase in rare diseases: TB, Kaposi sarcoma, etc.
- An exaggerated response by the immune system to an allergen.
Allergen: a normally harmless substance that causes an allergic reaction.
ex: dust, pollen, mould, food, insect stings
Types of Allergic reactions
There are two types of allergic reactions.
a. Immediate – occurs within seconds and normally lasts for about 30 mins.
b. Delayed – takes longer to react and can last for a much longer time.
What happens during an allergic reaction?
During an allergic reaction antibodies cause histamines to be released from certain cells.
a. Swelling of tissues
b. Release of fluids (runny noses and eyes)
c. muscle spasms (some cases)
Anaphylaxis or anaphylactic shock:
This is the sudden and severe allergic reaction to a substance that can cause death.
Treatments for Allergies
Avoidance of material – especially food.
Immediate Type Hypersensitivity
Exposure to certain antigens (allergens) results in the formation of IgE antibodies
IgE antibodies bind to mast cells by the Fc end.
When the antigen is encountered again, binding with the antibody causes mast cell to release histamine granules.
Delayed Hypersensitivity A type of cell mediated immunity. Td cell – requires usual two signals Second time antigen is encountered, Td cell produces several cytokines that attract and activate macrophages, resulting in an inflammatory reaction. Example: TB skin test