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Biochem fluid and electrolyte (may.14.2010)

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  • 1. FLUID AND ELECTROLYTES
    May.14.2010
  • 2. 2e
    2e
    105˚
    WATER[H2O]
    • 97% - Seawater.
    • 3. 2.7% - Ice.
    • 4. 0.3 -Fresh water.
    • 5. A water molecule is an irregular , slightly skewed tetrahedron with oxygen at its center.
    O
    H
    H
  • 6. (3 or 2 also)
  • 7. LEWIS STRUCTURE OF
    A WATER MOLECULE



    O
    H

    H
    H


    +
    +
    H
    Covalent bond
    A covalent bond is a chemical bond formed by the sharing of a pair of electrons between two atoms.

    O
    O













    H
    H
    The approximate shape and charge distribution of water.
  • 8. THE DIPLOE NAUTRE OF A WATER
    MOLECULE.
  • 9. HYDROGEN BONDS BETWEEN WATER MOLECULES
    Hydrogen bonds
    Hydrogen bonds between water molecules. The oxygen atoms are shown in blue.
  • 10. RELATIVE BOND ENERTY
    (ionic)
    Bond strength increases left to right.
  • 11. WATER’S FUNCTIONS
    • Carries nutrients and waste products.
    • 12. Actively participates in chemical reactions.
    • 13. Serves as a solvent for minerals, vitamins, amino acids glucose, and other small molecules.
    • 14. Serves as a lubricant and cushion around joints.
    • 15. Acts as a shock absorber(eyes, spinal column, amniotic sac)
    • 16. Aids in maintaining body’s temperature.
  • BODY WATER CONTENT
    Its about 75% in the newborn.
    Total water content declines throughout life.
    Healthy males are about 60% water; healthy females are
    around 50%
    This difference reflects females’:
    Higher body fat
    Smaller amount of skeletal muscle
    Less than 50% in older individual.
    Water content is greatest in brain tissue (about 90%) and
    least in adipose tissue (10%).
  • 17. DAILY WATER BALANCE
    Daily Balance of Water Intake and Production in Sedentary Healthy Adults In a Temperate Climate
    At least 500 ml of urine per day is required just to excrete urea, creatinine, and other Solutes.
    Insensible losses from the skin and from the lungs can occur even when resting at normal room temperature.
  • 18. FLUIDS COMPARTMENTS
    Fluid between the cells
    (intercellular or interstitial)
    Cell
    membrane
    Nucleus
    ICF
    Blood vessel
  • 19. FLUIDS COMPARTMENTS
    Water occupies two main fluid compartments.
    Intracellular fluid (ICF) – about two thirds by volume, contained in cells
    Extracellular fluid (ECF) – consists of two major subdivisions
    Plasma – the fluid portion of the blood
    Interstitial fluid (IF) – fluid in spaces between cells
    Other ECF – lymph, cerebrospinal fluid, eye humors, synovial fluid, serous fluid, and gastrointestinal secretions.
  • 20. ECF AND ICF FLUID
    • Each fluid compartment of the body has a distinctive pattern of electrolytes
    • 21. Extracellular fluids are similar (except for the high protein content of plasma)
    • 22. Sodium is the chief cation
    • 23. Chloride is the major anion
    • 24. Intracellular fluids have low sodium and chloride
    • 25. Potassium is the chief cation
    • 26. Phosphate is the chief anion
  • COMPOSITION OF BODY FLUIDS
    Solutes are broadly classified into:
    Electrolytes – inorganic salts, all acids and bases, and some proteins
    Nonelectrolytes – examples include glucose, lipids, creatinine, and urea
    Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes
    Water moves according to osmotic gradients
  • 27. ELECTROLYTES
    Nucleus
    The major components of plasma, intestitial fluid, and intracellular fluid. Crosshatching refers to other or minor components. Pr- , anionic proteins.
  • 28. WATER DISORDERS
    Dehydration (loss of water)
    Edema(accumulation of water)
    Atypical accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space, leading to tissue swelling.
  • 29.
  • 30. DEHYDRATION
    Cells lose H2O to ECF by osmosis; cells shrink
    3
    ECF osmotic pressure rises
    2
    Excessive loss of H2O from ECF
    1
    Mechanism of dehydration
  • 31. BODY FLUID AND ELECTROLYTES
    Electrolytes are substances that become ions in solution and acquire the
    capacity to conduct electricity.
    Sodium.
    Potassium
    Chloride
    Bicarbonate
    Help keep fluids in proper compartments.
    -Intracellular water
    -Extracellular water
  • 32. NORMAL VALUE
    mmol/L
  • 33. SODIUM IN FLUID ANDELECTROLYTE BALANCE
    • Sodium holds a central position in fluid and electrolyte balance
    • 34. Sodium salts:
    • 35. Account for 90-95% of all solutes in the ECF
    • 36. Sodium is the single most abundant cation in the ECF
    • 37. Sodium is the only cation exerting significant osmotic pressure
    • 38. Changes in plasma sodium levels affect:
    • 39. Plasma volume, blood pressure
    • 40. ICF and interstitial fluid volumes
  • SODIUM - FUNCTIONS
    • Membrane potentials
    • 41. Accounts for 90 - 95% of osmolarity of ECF
    • 42. Na+- K+ pump
    • 43. exchanges intracellular Na+ for extracellular K+
    • 44. creates gradient for co-transport of other solutes (glucose)
    • 45. generates heat
    • 46. NaHCO3 has major role in buffering pH
  • SODIUM - IMBALANCE
    • Hypernatremia
    • 47. plasma sodium > 145 mmol/L
    • 48. from IV saline
    • 49. water retension, hypertension and edema
    • 50. Hyponatremia
    • 51. plasma sodium < 136 mmol/L
    • 52. result of excess body water, quickly corrected by excretion of excess water
  • POTASSIUM - FUNCTIONS
    • Most abundant cation of ICF
    • 53. Determines intracellular osmolarity
    • 54. Membrane potentials (with sodium)
    • 55. Na+-K+ pump
  • POTASSIUMHOMEOSTASIS
    • 90% of K+ in glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed by the PCT
    • 56. DCT and cortical portion of collecting duct secrete K+ in response to blood levels
    • 57. Aldosterone stimulates renal secretion of K+
  • POTASSIUM AND MEMBRANE
  • 58. CHLORIDE FUNCTIONS
    • ECF osmolarity
    • 59. most abundant anions in ECF
    • 60. Stomach acid
    • 61. required in formation of HCl
    • 62. Chloride shift
    • 63. CO2 loading and unloading in RBC’s
    • 64. pH
    • 65. major role in regulating pH
  • OSMOSIS AND WATER BALANCE
    • OSMOSIS
    • 66. Is the movement of water across a semipermeable membrane
    • 67. Is affected by the concentration gradient of dissolved substances
  • OSMOSIS
    Water can flow both ways
    across the divider, but has a
    greater tendency to move from
    side A to side B, where there
    is a greater concentration of
    solute. The volume of water
    becomes greater on side B,
    and the concentrations on
    side A and B become equal.
    With equal numbers of solute
    particles on both sides, the
    concentrations are equal,
    and the tendency of water to
    move in either direction is
    about the same.
    3
    2
    1
    Now additional solute is
    added to side B. Solute cannot
    flow across the divider (in the
    case of a cell, its membrane).23
  • 68. OSMOSIS
    When immersed in water, raisins get plump because water moves
    toward the higher concentration of sugar inside the raisins.
  • 69. When sprinkled with salt, vegetables “sweat” because water moves
    toward the higher concentration of salt outside the eggplant.
  • 70. TONICITY
    • TONICITY
    • 71. Is the ability of a solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water
    • 72. IF A SOLUTION IS ISOTONIC
    • 73. The concentration of solutes is the same as it is inside the cell, and water will move in and out of the cell at the same rate
    • 74. IF A SOLUTION IS HYPERTONIC
    • 75. The concentration of solutes is greater than it is inside the cell, and the cell will lose water
    • 76. IF A SOLUTION IS HYPOTONIC
    • 77. The concentration of solutes is less than it is inside the cell, and the cell will gain water
  • Hypertonic solution
    Hypotonic solution
    Isotonic solution
    Animal cell. An
    animal cell fares best
    in an isotonic environ-
    ment unless it has
    special adaptations to
    offset the osmotic
    uptake or loss of
    water.
    (a)
    H2O
    H2O
    H2O
    H2O
    Normal
    Shriveled
    Lysed
    H2O
    H2O
    H2O
    Plant cell. Plant cells
    are turgid (firm) and
    generally healthiest in
    a hypotonic environ-
    ment, where the
    uptake of water is
    eventually balanced
    by the elastic wall
    pushing back on the
    cell.
    (b)
    H2O
    Turgid (normal)
    Flaccid
    Plasmolyzed
    THE WATER BALANCE OF LIVING CELLS
  • 78. 有難う御座ます。