Biochem   fluid and electrolyte (may.14.2010)
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Biochem fluid and electrolyte (may.14.2010)

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    Biochem   fluid and electrolyte (may.14.2010) Biochem fluid and electrolyte (may.14.2010) Presentation Transcript

    • FLUID AND ELECTROLYTES
      May.14.2010
    • 2e
      2e
      105˚
      WATER[H2O]
      • 97% - Seawater.
      • 2.7% - Ice.
      • 0.3 -Fresh water.
      • A water molecule is an irregular , slightly skewed tetrahedron with oxygen at its center.
      O
      H
      H
    • (3 or 2 also)
    • LEWIS STRUCTURE OF
      A WATER MOLECULE



      O
      H

      H
      H


      +
      +
      H
      Covalent bond
      A covalent bond is a chemical bond formed by the sharing of a pair of electrons between two atoms.

      O
      O













      H
      H
      The approximate shape and charge distribution of water.
    • THE DIPLOE NAUTRE OF A WATER
      MOLECULE.
    • HYDROGEN BONDS BETWEEN WATER MOLECULES
      Hydrogen bonds
      Hydrogen bonds between water molecules. The oxygen atoms are shown in blue.
    • RELATIVE BOND ENERTY
      (ionic)
      Bond strength increases left to right.
    • WATER’S FUNCTIONS
      • Carries nutrients and waste products.
      • Actively participates in chemical reactions.
      • Serves as a solvent for minerals, vitamins, amino acids glucose, and other small molecules.
      • Serves as a lubricant and cushion around joints.
      • Acts as a shock absorber(eyes, spinal column, amniotic sac)
      • Aids in maintaining body’s temperature.
    • BODY WATER CONTENT
      Its about 75% in the newborn.
      Total water content declines throughout life.
      Healthy males are about 60% water; healthy females are
      around 50%
      This difference reflects females’:
      Higher body fat
      Smaller amount of skeletal muscle
      Less than 50% in older individual.
      Water content is greatest in brain tissue (about 90%) and
      least in adipose tissue (10%).
    • DAILY WATER BALANCE
      Daily Balance of Water Intake and Production in Sedentary Healthy Adults In a Temperate Climate
      At least 500 ml of urine per day is required just to excrete urea, creatinine, and other Solutes.
      Insensible losses from the skin and from the lungs can occur even when resting at normal room temperature.
    • FLUIDS COMPARTMENTS
      Fluid between the cells
      (intercellular or interstitial)
      Cell
      membrane
      Nucleus
      ICF
      Blood vessel
    • FLUIDS COMPARTMENTS
      Water occupies two main fluid compartments.
      Intracellular fluid (ICF) – about two thirds by volume, contained in cells
      Extracellular fluid (ECF) – consists of two major subdivisions
      Plasma – the fluid portion of the blood
      Interstitial fluid (IF) – fluid in spaces between cells
      Other ECF – lymph, cerebrospinal fluid, eye humors, synovial fluid, serous fluid, and gastrointestinal secretions.
    • ECF AND ICF FLUID
      • Each fluid compartment of the body has a distinctive pattern of electrolytes
      • Extracellular fluids are similar (except for the high protein content of plasma)
      • Sodium is the chief cation
      • Chloride is the major anion
      • Intracellular fluids have low sodium and chloride
      • Potassium is the chief cation
      • Phosphate is the chief anion
    • COMPOSITION OF BODY FLUIDS
      Solutes are broadly classified into:
      Electrolytes – inorganic salts, all acids and bases, and some proteins
      Nonelectrolytes – examples include glucose, lipids, creatinine, and urea
      Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes
      Water moves according to osmotic gradients
    • ELECTROLYTES
      Nucleus
      The major components of plasma, intestitial fluid, and intracellular fluid. Crosshatching refers to other or minor components. Pr- , anionic proteins.
    • WATER DISORDERS
      Dehydration (loss of water)
      Edema(accumulation of water)
      Atypical accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space, leading to tissue swelling.
    • DEHYDRATION
      Cells lose H2O to ECF by osmosis; cells shrink
      3
      ECF osmotic pressure rises
      2
      Excessive loss of H2O from ECF
      1
      Mechanism of dehydration
    • BODY FLUID AND ELECTROLYTES
      Electrolytes are substances that become ions in solution and acquire the
      capacity to conduct electricity.
      Sodium.
      Potassium
      Chloride
      Bicarbonate
      Help keep fluids in proper compartments.
      -Intracellular water
      -Extracellular water
    • NORMAL VALUE
      mmol/L
    • SODIUM IN FLUID ANDELECTROLYTE BALANCE
      • Sodium holds a central position in fluid and electrolyte balance
      • Sodium salts:
      • Account for 90-95% of all solutes in the ECF
      • Sodium is the single most abundant cation in the ECF
      • Sodium is the only cation exerting significant osmotic pressure
      • Changes in plasma sodium levels affect:
      • Plasma volume, blood pressure
      • ICF and interstitial fluid volumes
    • SODIUM - FUNCTIONS
      • Membrane potentials
      • Accounts for 90 - 95% of osmolarity of ECF
      • Na+- K+ pump
      • exchanges intracellular Na+ for extracellular K+
      • creates gradient for co-transport of other solutes (glucose)
      • generates heat
      • NaHCO3 has major role in buffering pH
    • SODIUM - IMBALANCE
      • Hypernatremia
      • plasma sodium > 145 mmol/L
      • from IV saline
      • water retension, hypertension and edema
      • Hyponatremia
      • plasma sodium < 136 mmol/L
      • result of excess body water, quickly corrected by excretion of excess water
    • POTASSIUM - FUNCTIONS
      • Most abundant cation of ICF
      • Determines intracellular osmolarity
      • Membrane potentials (with sodium)
      • Na+-K+ pump
    • POTASSIUMHOMEOSTASIS
      • 90% of K+ in glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed by the PCT
      • DCT and cortical portion of collecting duct secrete K+ in response to blood levels
      • Aldosterone stimulates renal secretion of K+
    • POTASSIUM AND MEMBRANE
    • CHLORIDE FUNCTIONS
      • ECF osmolarity
      • most abundant anions in ECF
      • Stomach acid
      • required in formation of HCl
      • Chloride shift
      • CO2 loading and unloading in RBC’s
      • pH
      • major role in regulating pH
    • OSMOSIS AND WATER BALANCE
      • OSMOSIS
      • Is the movement of water across a semipermeable membrane
      • Is affected by the concentration gradient of dissolved substances
    • OSMOSIS
      Water can flow both ways
      across the divider, but has a
      greater tendency to move from
      side A to side B, where there
      is a greater concentration of
      solute. The volume of water
      becomes greater on side B,
      and the concentrations on
      side A and B become equal.
      With equal numbers of solute
      particles on both sides, the
      concentrations are equal,
      and the tendency of water to
      move in either direction is
      about the same.
      3
      2
      1
      Now additional solute is
      added to side B. Solute cannot
      flow across the divider (in the
      case of a cell, its membrane).23
    • OSMOSIS
      When immersed in water, raisins get plump because water moves
      toward the higher concentration of sugar inside the raisins.
    • When sprinkled with salt, vegetables “sweat” because water moves
      toward the higher concentration of salt outside the eggplant.
    • TONICITY
      • TONICITY
      • Is the ability of a solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water
      • IF A SOLUTION IS ISOTONIC
      • The concentration of solutes is the same as it is inside the cell, and water will move in and out of the cell at the same rate
      • IF A SOLUTION IS HYPERTONIC
      • The concentration of solutes is greater than it is inside the cell, and the cell will lose water
      • IF A SOLUTION IS HYPOTONIC
      • The concentration of solutes is less than it is inside the cell, and the cell will gain water
    • Hypertonic solution
      Hypotonic solution
      Isotonic solution
      Animal cell. An
      animal cell fares best
      in an isotonic environ-
      ment unless it has
      special adaptations to
      offset the osmotic
      uptake or loss of
      water.
      (a)
      H2O
      H2O
      H2O
      H2O
      Normal
      Shriveled
      Lysed
      H2O
      H2O
      H2O
      Plant cell. Plant cells
      are turgid (firm) and
      generally healthiest in
      a hypotonic environ-
      ment, where the
      uptake of water is
      eventually balanced
      by the elastic wall
      pushing back on the
      cell.
      (b)
      H2O
      Turgid (normal)
      Flaccid
      Plasmolyzed
      THE WATER BALANCE OF LIVING CELLS
    • 有難う御座ます。