Hypothalmamus and limbic system By Dr Manah Chandra Changmai
The hypothalamus consists of only 4 cm 3  of neural tissue, or 0.3% of the total brain. The hypothalamus extends from the ...
<ul><li>It lies beneath the thalamus and anterior to the tegmental part of the subthalamus and the mesencephalic tegmentum...
Hypothalamus  Lamina terminalis Mamillary body Hypothalamic sulcus Septum pellucidum Pellucidum  Choroid plexus Aqueduct  ...
Subdivisions of the hypothalamus Divided into three zones Periventricular zone Intermediate zone Lateral zone The perivent...
The hypothalamus also divide anteropoateriorly into four regions Preoptic -Adjoins lamina terminalis Supraoptic(chiasmatic...
 
Hypothalamus
 
Hypothalamus and nuclei within them Medial Zone (Periventricular and intermediate ) Lateral Zone Preoptic region Preoptic ...
Hypothalamus
Hypothalamus
Connections of the hypothalamus Hypothalamus is concerned with visceral function Connected to various parts of limbis syst...
Afferent connections The hypothalamus recieves visceral(including Taste) through spinal cord and brainstem. Afferents from...
Cortico-hypothalamic fibres  Hypothalamus receive fibres from the cortex of the frontal lobe Many fibres relay in the thal...
Hypothalamus  Limbic system -Hippocampus -septal nuclei -Amygdaloid complex Neocortex  Thalamus  -From mamillary body Visc...
Control of hypophysis cerebri by hypothalamus Neurons in some hypothalamic nuclei produce Bioactive peptides discharged to...
Axons of paraventriculo-hypophyseal tract join axons arising from supra-optic nucleus to form supraoptico-hypophyseal trac...
Control of hypophysis cerebri by hypothalamus
Control of adenohypophysis by hypothalamus Hypothalamus control adenohypophysis by Producing number of releasing factors. ...
 
Limbic system
Limbic system Limbic system,in the past are believed to  play an important role in the control of visceral activity The ar...
Areas forming the limbic cortex Hippocampus (ammon’s horn ) and dentate gyrus Entorhinal cortex Gyrus cinguli and paraterm...
Fibres bundles related to the limbic system 1.Olfactory nerves,tract and striae 2.Fornix  3.Stria terminalis 4.Stria medul...
Amygdaloid nuclear complex -The region is called amygdaloid body or amygdala.  -Situated near the temporal pole of cerebra...
Septal region -Masses of grey matter lie immediately anterior to lamina terminalis and the anterior commissure. -Continous...
Hippocampal formation -Develops in relation to medial surface of cerebral hemisphere -C shaped in accordance with outline ...
 
Hippocampus
 
Fibre bundles of limbic system Stria teminalis -Related to inferior horn and central part of The lateral ventricle -It beg...
Anterior commissure -Situated in the anterior wall of the third ventricle at the upper end of lamina terminalis The Fornix...
Fornix
<ul><li>The hypothalamus and limbic system helps regulate five basic physiological needs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Control...
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Anatomy of hypothalamus n limbic system

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  • very very nice explanation on limbic system and hypothalamus,very nicely presented ,it is more easy then in snell neuroanatomy, stay blessed
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Anatomy of hypothalamus n limbic system

  1. 1. Hypothalmamus and limbic system By Dr Manah Chandra Changmai
  2. 2. The hypothalamus consists of only 4 cm 3 of neural tissue, or 0.3% of the total brain. The hypothalamus extends from the lamina terminalis to a vertical plane posterior to the mammillary bodies, and from the hypothalamic sulcus to the base of the brain beneath the third ventricle. Hypothalamus Hypothalamus
  3. 3. <ul><li>It lies beneath the thalamus and anterior to the tegmental part of the subthalamus and the mesencephalic tegmentum </li></ul><ul><li>Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Anteriorly: </li></ul><ul><li>Extends upto lamina terminalis and merges with olfactory Structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Posteriorly : </li></ul><ul><li>Merges with ventral thalamus and through it to the Tegmentum of midbrain. </li></ul><ul><li>Medial side: </li></ul><ul><li>Forms the wall of the third ventricle below the levelOf hypothalamic sulcus. </li></ul><ul><li>Laterally : </li></ul><ul><li>Contact with the internal capsule </li></ul><ul><li>Inferiorly: </li></ul><ul><li>Related to the structures of the third ventricle </li></ul>
  4. 4. Hypothalamus Lamina terminalis Mamillary body Hypothalamic sulcus Septum pellucidum Pellucidum Choroid plexus Aqueduct Interventricular foramen
  5. 5. Subdivisions of the hypothalamus Divided into three zones Periventricular zone Intermediate zone Lateral zone The periventricular and intermediate zones are often described together as medial zone
  6. 6. The hypothalamus also divide anteropoateriorly into four regions Preoptic -Adjoins lamina terminalis Supraoptic(chiasmatic) -Lie above optic chiasma Tuberal (infundibulotuberal) -includes infundibulum tubercinereum Mamillary (posterior) -consists of mamillary body and area above it)
  7. 8. Hypothalamus
  8. 10. Hypothalamus and nuclei within them Medial Zone (Periventricular and intermediate ) Lateral Zone Preoptic region Preoptic nucleus Supraoptic region Paraventricular nucleus Periventricular cell grps Suprachiasmatic nucleus Intermediate cell group Suprachiasmatic nucleus Tuberal region Dorsimedial nucleus Ventrimedial nucleus Arcuate/infundibular nu. Premamillary nucleus Lateral tuberal nucleus Mamillary or posterior region Posterior nucleus Tuberomamillary nucleus Mamillary body Mamillary nuclei
  9. 11. Hypothalamus
  10. 12. Hypothalamus
  11. 13. Connections of the hypothalamus Hypothalamus is concerned with visceral function Connected to various parts of limbis system,reticular formation,autonomic centres in brainstem and spinal cord. It also releases secretions into the blood stream and into CSF.
  12. 14. Afferent connections The hypothalamus recieves visceral(including Taste) through spinal cord and brainstem. Afferents from nucleus of tractus solitarius to hypothalamus carry taste sensation. Somatic afferents reach through collaterals of major ascending tract Afferents from olfactory pathway and limbic system. anterior perforated substance,septal nuclei Amygdaloid complex,hippocampus,piriform cortex. Hypothalamus Limbic system Neocortex Thalamus Ascending Somatosensory pathway Visceral centres In brainstem & Spinal cord. Visual input
  13. 15. Cortico-hypothalamic fibres Hypothalamus receive fibres from the cortex of the frontal lobe Many fibres relay in the thalamus (medial dorsal and midline nuclei and reach hypothalamus through periventricular fibres Efferent connections The hypothalamus sends fibres to autonomic Centres in brain and spinal cord In brainstem:-Nucleus of solitary tract -Dorsal nucleus of vagus -Nucleus ambigus -Parabrachial nucleus
  14. 16. Hypothalamus Limbic system -Hippocampus -septal nuclei -Amygdaloid complex Neocortex Thalamus -From mamillary body Visceral centre in Brainstem -nu. Of tractus solitary tract -Dorsal nu. Of vagus -nu. Ambogus -Parabrachial nu. Spinal cord :Intermediolateral grey column Neoendocrine influence of hypophysis cerebri Efferent connections of Hypothalamus
  15. 17. Control of hypophysis cerebri by hypothalamus Neurons in some hypothalamic nuclei produce Bioactive peptides discharged to neighbourhood Capillaries(neurosecretion) Control of neurohypophysis(posterior lobe) -Vasopressin is secreted in supraoptic nuclei -Oxytocin is secreted in paraventricular nucleus. -Axons of the paraventricular nucleus descends Towards the supraoptic nucleus and joins the axon From supraoptic nucleus as the paraventriculohypo Physeal tract.
  16. 18. Axons of paraventriculo-hypophyseal tract join axons arising from supra-optic nucleus to form supraoptico-hypophyseal tract. The axons of supraoptico-hypophyseal tract pass down into neurohypophysis where they branch and end in relation to capillaries and release their secretion. Together known as Hypoyhalamo-hypophyseal tract Paraventicular nucleus Hypophysis cerebri Supraoptic nucleus Paraventriculo- Hypophyseal tract Supraoptico-hypophyseal tract Control of hypophysis cerebri by hypothalamus
  17. 19. Control of hypophysis cerebri by hypothalamus
  18. 20. Control of adenohypophysis by hypothalamus Hypothalamus control adenohypophysis by Producing number of releasing factors. Releasing factors travel through tubero- hypophyseal tract which recieves fibres from various nuclei. Release the factors into the capillaries The capillaries carry the factors into the pars anterior of hypophysis cerebri through hypothalamo-hypophseal portal system. Paraventricular nucleus Hypophysis cerebri Supra-chiasmatic nucleus Limbic system Fibres from brainstem Tubero-infundibular tract
  19. 22. Limbic system
  20. 23. Limbic system Limbic system,in the past are believed to play an important role in the control of visceral activity The areas of cerebral cortex in the region are often refereed to as LIMBIC LOBE
  21. 24. Areas forming the limbic cortex Hippocampus (ammon’s horn ) and dentate gyrus Entorhinal cortex Gyrus cinguli and paraterminal gyrus Part of the parahippocampal gyrus The indisium griseum ( regarded as vestigial part of limbic cortex) The amygdaloid nuclei
  22. 25. Fibres bundles related to the limbic system 1.Olfactory nerves,tract and striae 2.Fornix 3.Stria terminalis 4.Stria medullaris thalami 5.Diagonal band 6.Anterior commissure Anterior commissure
  23. 26. Amygdaloid nuclear complex -The region is called amygdaloid body or amygdala. -Situated near the temporal pole of cerebral hemisphere. -Lie in close relation to anterior end of inferior horn of lateral ventricle. -The lower end of stria terminalis lie in relation to amygdaloid complex.
  24. 27. Septal region -Masses of grey matter lie immediately anterior to lamina terminalis and the anterior commissure. -Continous inferiorly with diagonal band -superiorly with indusium griseum. -Related specially to hippocampus and to hypothalamus. Septal region
  25. 28. Hippocampal formation -Develops in relation to medial surface of cerebral hemisphere -C shaped in accordance with outline of body and inferior horn of the ventricle. -Underdeveloped thin layer of grey matter lining the upper surface of corpus callosum is called INDUSIUM GRISEUM -Dendate gyrus present in relation to inferior horn of lateral ventricle.
  26. 30. Hippocampus
  27. 32. Fibre bundles of limbic system Stria teminalis -Related to inferior horn and central part of The lateral ventricle -It begins in amygdaloid complex and runs backwards in the roof of the inferior horn -It terminates near interventricular foramen and anterior commissure by dividing into various bundle.
  28. 33. Anterior commissure -Situated in the anterior wall of the third ventricle at the upper end of lamina terminalis The Fornix -Made up of fibres arising from hippocampus -Body of the fornix suspended from corpus callosum by septum pellucidum -Posteriorly,divides into two crura. -The crura are interconnected by fibres passing from one another forming hippocampal commissure. Anterior commissure Fornix Septum pellucidum
  29. 34. Fornix
  30. 35. <ul><li>The hypothalamus and limbic system helps regulate five basic physiological needs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Controls blood pressure and electrolyte (drinking and salt appetite). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Regulates body temperature through influence both of the autonomic nervous system and of brain circuits directing motivated behavior (e.g. behavior that seeks a warmer or cooler environment). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) Regulates energy metabolism through influence on feeding, digestion, and metabolic rate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4) Regulates reproduction through hormonal control of mating, pregnancy and lactation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5) Directs responses to stress by influencing blood flow to specific tissues, and by stimulating the secretion of adrenal stress hormones. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 36. Thank you
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