Anatomy of basal ganglia

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Anatomy of basal ganglia

  1. 1. BASAL GANGLIA Dr. Israa M. Sulaiman Department of Anatomy IMS/MSU
  2. 2. <ul><li>Define basal ganglia and describe the parts </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the main connections and functions </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the function and the disorders of basal ganglia such as Parkinsonism and tremors </li></ul>OBJECTIVES
  3. 3. Basal ganglia <ul><li>The basal ganglia is a collection of gray matter in the cerebrum including the corpus striatum, amygdala </li></ul><ul><li>and claustrum. </li></ul><ul><li>Has important connections with other regions of the brain, particularly: thalamus, subthalamic nuclei, red nucleus and substantia nigra </li></ul><ul><li>Important in coordinating movement. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Traditional Concepts of Basal Ganglia Corpus Striatum Caudate Nucleus Lenticular Nucleus Putamen Globus Pallidus Paleostriatum Pallidum Corpus Amygdaloideum Archistriatum Neostriatum Striatum Basal Ganglia
  5. 5. 1. Putamen 2. Tail of caudate nucleus 3. Caudatolenticular gray bridge 4. Amygdaloid body 5. thalamus Lateral surface of basal ganglia
  6. 6. 1. head of caudate nucelus 2. body of caudate nucelus 3. caudatolenticular gray bridge 4. putamen 5. tail of caudate nucleus 6. external segment of globus pallidus 7. internal segment of globus pallidus 8. amygdaloid body 9. nucleus accumbens septi Medial surface of basal ganglia
  7. 7. Components of Basal Ganglia Corpus Striatum Striatum ----- Caudate Nucleus & Putamen Pallidum ----- Globus Pallidus (GP) Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta (SNc) Pars Reticulata (SNr) Subthalamic Nucleus (STN) Ventral Striatum and Ventral Pallidum Nucleus Accumbens Septi Non cholinergic portion of Substantia Innominata Basal Ganglia Components
  8. 8. STRIATUM Caudate Nucleus Head, (Corpus), Tail caudatolenticular gray bridge Putamen Ventral Striatum : Nucleus Accumbens (Septi) Basal Ganglia Components
  9. 9. BASAL GANGLIA BASAL GANGLIA CORPUS STRIATUM AMYGDALA NEOSTRIATUM CAUDATE NUCLEUS PALEOSTRIATUM PUTAMEN GLOBUS PALLIDUS LENTIFORM NUCLEUS CLAUSTRUM
  10. 10. TERMINOLOGIES Neurological structure Basal nuclei Corpus striatum Caudate nucleus + lentiform nucleus Amygdala Amygdaloid nucleus Claustrum Claustrum Neostriatum Caudate nucleus + putamen Paleostriatum Globus pallidus Caudate nucleus Caudate nucleus Lentiform nucleus Globus pallidus + putamen
  11. 11. Anterior horn Inferior horn Posterior horn Amygdaloid nucleus Basal ganglia
  12. 12. Basal Ganglia Components Striosome and Matrix compartment AchE
  13. 13. Putamen Globus pallidus external segment internal segment Subthalamic Nucleus Substantia nigra Internal capsule Components of Basal Ganglia
  14. 14. habenular nucleus tectum (superior colliculus) PPN (pedunculopontine nucleus) amygdaloid body raphe Cerebral Cortex STN Pallidum SNr STRIATUM Connections of the Basal Ganglia SNc Thalamus
  15. 15. Basal Ganglia (Prefronatal Complex Loop) Connections Prefrontal Association Cortex Primary Motor Area (M I) THALAMUS (VLm, VAmc, MD) STRIATUM (Caudate Nucleus) SNr (Substantia Nigra, pars reticulata) pyramidal tract LMN
  16. 16. Basal Ganglia (Limbic Loop) Connections Orbitofrontal Cortex Anterior Cingulate Gyrus Hippocampal Formation THALAMUS (VAmc, MD) Ventral Striatum Caudate Nucleus Ventral Pallidum GPi, SNr
  17. 17. Basal Ganglia (Oculomotor Loop) Connections Frontal Eye Field (area 8) Primary Motor Area (M I) THALAMUS (VLm, VAmc, MD) STRIATUM (Caudate Nucleus) SNr (Substantia Nigra, pars reticulata) pyramidal tract LMN Tectum
  18. 18. Basal Ganglia (SNc and CM-PF nuclear complex) Connections Pallidum Striatum THALAMUS (CM-PF) Pallidum Striatum SNc
  19. 19. Basal Ganglia (Brain Stem Efferents) Phylogeny GPi SNr Tectum (superior colliculus) SpL nDCP DIP (thalamus) Neostriatum Intermediale (motor cortex) aves (birds) GPi SNr Tectum (superior colliculus) nPC VA-VL complex (thalamus) motor cortex mammals
  20. 20. Basal Ganglia (STN) Connections SNr GPi STN GPe subthalamic fasciculus Output Portion of Basal Ganglia Cerebral Coretx Thalamus (CM-PF) PPN Subthalamic Nucleus
  21. 22. Caudate nucleus Putamen Globus pallidus Claustrum Lentiform nucleus Insula Basal ganglia HORIZONTAL SECTION ANTERIOR POSTERIOR
  22. 23. Thalamus Amygdala SUPERIOR INFERIOR CORONAL SECTION Basal ganglia Caudate nucleus Claustrum Lentiform nucleus
  23. 24. Thalamus Substantia nigra Subthalamic nucleus SUPERIOR INFERIOR CORONAL SECTION Basal ganglia Caudate nucleus Tail of Caudate nucleus
  24. 25. Thalamus Substantia nigra Red nucleus SUPERIOR INFERIOR CORONAL SECTION Basal ganglia
  25. 26. <ul><ul><li>corpus striatum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Caudate nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Putamen </li></ul><ul><li>Globus pallidus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lentiform nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Putamen </li></ul><ul><li>Globus pallidus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>neostriatum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Caudate nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Putamen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>paleostriatum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Globus pallidus </li></ul>Caudate n Thalamus POST ANT Horizontal section Globus pallidus Putamen Lateral ventricle-Ant horn Third ventricle Lateral ventricle-Post horn
  26. 27. <ul><li>Caudate nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Putamen </li></ul><ul><li>Globus pallidus </li></ul><ul><li>Claustrum </li></ul><ul><li>Amygdala (part of limbic system) </li></ul>Basal ganglia Caudate n Thalamus POST ANT Horizontal section Globus pallidus Putamen Lateral ventricle-Ant horn Third ventricle Lateral ventricle-Post horn
  27. 28. <ul><li>C-shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Head, body,tail </li></ul><ul><li>Large head,tapering curved tail </li></ul><ul><li>Head-frontal lobe </li></ul><ul><li>Tail-occipital lobe </li></ul><ul><li>End of tail-temporal lobe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-terminates in amygdaloid nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(roof of inf horn of lateral ventricle) </li></ul></ul>Caudate nucleus Lentiform Caudate nucleus thalamus Caudate Amygdaloid Putamen Globus pallidus
  28. 29. Caudate nucleus
  29. 30. Lentiform nucleus Lentiform thalamus Caudate Amygdaloid Putamen Globus pallidus Putamen – lateral medullary lamina – Globus Pallidus Lat GP – medial medullary lamina – Med GP
  30. 31. Lentiform nucleus Putamen Globus pallidus Lateral medullary lamina Medial medullary lamina Lat GP Med GP
  31. 32. Lentiform nucleus <ul><li>Wedge-shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Internal capsule </li></ul><ul><li>External capsule </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme capsule </li></ul><ul><li>Claustrum </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral and medial medullary lamina </li></ul>Caudate n Thalamus POST ANT Horizontal section Globus pallidus Putamen Lateral ventricle-Ant horn Third ventricle Lateral ventricle-Post horn
  32. 33. Amygdaloid nucleus Lentiform thalamus Caudate Amygdaloid Putamen Globus pallidus Temporal lobe - Roof of inf horn of lateral ventricle
  33. 34. Caudate n Thalamus Globus pallidus Putamen Subthalamic nuclei Substantia nigra Substantia nigra Subthalamic nuclei Coronal section
  34. 35. Connections <ul><li>Caudate nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Putamen </li></ul><ul><li>Globus pallidus – output leaves </li></ul>receive input
  35. 36. <ul><li>Connections of striatum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caudate nucleus & putamen – input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receive afferent - cerebral cortex, intralaminar thalamic nuclei, subs nigra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efferent – globus pallidus, subs nigra </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Connections of globus pallidus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 segments – med & lat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Med & subs nigra – output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receive afferent – striatum, subthalamic nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efferent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lat – subthalamic N </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Med – thalamus (VA,VL,CM) – motor areas </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 37. Connections CN/ i/laminar thal
  37. 38. Connections of basal ganglia <ul><li>Afferent </li></ul><ul><li>Corticostriate </li></ul><ul><li>Thalamostriate </li></ul><ul><li>Nigrostriate </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstem striatal fibres </li></ul><ul><li>Striatopallidal </li></ul><ul><li>Subthalamic nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly end in neostriatum except subthalamic N end in paleostriatum </li></ul><ul><li>Efferent </li></ul><ul><li>Striatopallidal </li></ul><ul><li>Striatonigral </li></ul><ul><li>Pallidofugal fibres </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ansa lenticularis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fasciculus lenticularis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pallidotegmental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pallidosubthalamic </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. Corticostriate-Glutamate thalamostriate Nigrostriate-dopa Striatopallidal-GABA Brainstem striatal-serotonin Striatopallidal-GABA Striatonigral-GABA,Ach Ansa lenticularis Fasciculus lenticularis pallidotegmental pallidosubthalamic Caudate n Thalamus Globus pallidus Putamen Subthalamic nuclei Substantia nigra Subthalamus-pallidal Connections of basal ganglia Afferent fibres Efferent fibres Pallidofugal fibres
  39. 40. Connections of corpus striatum <ul><li>Afferent </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebral cortex-Corticostriate </li></ul><ul><li>Thalamic nuclei-Thalamostriate </li></ul><ul><li>Substantia nigra-Nigrostriate </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstem striatal fibres </li></ul><ul><li>Efferent </li></ul><ul><li>Globus pallidus-Striatopallidal </li></ul><ul><li>Substantia nigra-Striatonigral </li></ul>
  40. 41. <ul><li>Connections of striatum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caudate nucleus & putamen – input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receive afferent - cerebral cortex, intralaminar thalamic nulcei, subs nigra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efferent – globus pallidus, subs nigra </li></ul></ul>
  41. 42. premotor 1 o sensory 1 2 4 Brainstem supplementary motor 3
  42. 43. Connections of globus pallidus <ul><li>Afferent </li></ul><ul><li>Striatum-striatopallidal </li></ul><ul><li>Subthalamic nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Subthalamonigral- </li></ul><ul><li>Efferent </li></ul><ul><li>Thalamic nuclei-Ansa lenticularis </li></ul><ul><li>Subthalamus-Fasciculus lenticularis </li></ul><ul><li>Tegmental of midbrain-Pallidotegmental </li></ul><ul><li>Subthalamic nuclei-Pallidosubthalamic </li></ul>
  43. 44. <ul><li>Connections of globus pallidus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 segments – med & lat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Med GP & subs nigra – output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receive afferent – striatum, subthalamic nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efferent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lat GP – subthalamic N </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Med GP – thalamus (VA,VL,CM) – motor areas </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 45. 1 2 Ansa lenticularis Fasc lenticularis Pallidosubthalamic Pallidotegmental
  45. 46. Function <ul><li>Cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and thalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>motor activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>muscle tone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organisation of movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What type ? -cerebral cortex </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to perform? -basal ganglia+cerebellum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assist in regulation-thalamus </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 47. <ul><li>Part of extra-pyramidal motor system </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate behaviour & movement – required and appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibit unwanted & inappropriate </li></ul>Function
  47. 48. <ul><li>“ Brake hypothesis” </li></ul><ul><li>The deficits tend to fall into one of two categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the presence of extraneous unwanted movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an absence or difficulty with intended movements. </li></ul></ul>
  48. 49. <ul><li>The balance between the cerebellum and the basal ganglia allows smooth, coordinated movement, and a disturbance in either system will show up as movement disorders. </li></ul>Function
  49. 50. <ul><li>Destruction of primary motor – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unable to perform fine discrete movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But still able to perform crude movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Destruction of corpus striatum – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total paralysis </li></ul></ul>
  50. 51. Cerebral cortex Corticospinal Corticobulbar Corticostriatal Direct Indirect Striatonigral Striatopallidal inhibitory Disinhibit neurone thalamus Facilitate movement Subthalamic N Med pallidal inhibitory inhibitory Lat pallidal Activate neurone Inhibit unwanted movement excitatory
  51. 52. Disease of basal ganglia <ul><li>Change in muscle tone </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormal involuntary movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parkinsonism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effect on the opposite side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Degeneration of dopamine-producing cells in substantia nigra-depletion of dopamine in striatum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resting tremor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rigidity – simultaneous contraction of flexors and extensors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bradykinesia = Slowness of movement – brake cannot be released </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No paralysis, sensory loss, ataxia </li></ul></ul></ul>
  52. 53. Cerebral cortex Corticospinal Corticobulbar Corticostriatal Direct Indirect Striatonigral Striatopallidal inhibitory Disinhibit neurone thalamus Facilitate movement Subthalamic N Med pallidal inhibitory inhibitory Lat pallidal Activate neurone Inhibit unwanted movement excitatory
  53. 54. Corticostriate-Glutamate thalamostriate Nigrostriate-dopa Striatopallidal-GABA Brainstem striatal-serotonin Striatopallidal-GABA Striatonigral-GABA,Ach Ansa lenticularis Fasciculus lenticularis pallidotegmental pallidotsubthalamic Caudate n Thalamus Globus pallidus Putamen Subthalamic nuclei Substantia nigra Subthalamus-pallidal Connections of basal ganglia Afferent fibres Efferent fibres Pallidofugal fibres
  54. 55. <ul><ul><li>Huntington’s disease – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hereditary disease of unwanted movements. It results from degeneration of the caudate and putamen, and produces continuous dance-like movements of the face and limbs -choreoathetosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemiballism - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>flailing movements of one arm and leg (one-sided), which is caused by damage (i.e., stroke) of the subthalamic nucleus. </li></ul></ul></ul>Disease of basal ganglia
  55. 56. Caudate n Thalamus Globus pallidus Putamen Subthalamic nuclei Substantia nigra Afferent fibres Efferent fibres
  56. 57. Caudate n Thalamus Globus pallidus Putamen Subthalamic nuclei Substantia nigra Afferent fibres Efferent fibres
  57. 58. Connections of basal ganglia-afferent fibres A-Brainstem striatal fibres B-thalamostriate C-corticostriate D-subthalamic E-nigrostriate Match the connections - EXCERCISE
  58. 59. Connections of basal ganglia-efferent fibres A-pallidosubthalamic B-striatopallidal C-ansa lenticularis D-striatonigral Match the connections - EXCERCISE
  59. 60. THANK YOU

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