NurIzzaty Abdul Rahim</li></li></ul><li>Introduction<br />
- Articulation<br /><ul><li>Between rounded head of humerusand shallow, pear-shaped glenoid cavity of scapula.
Articular surface covered by hyaline articular cartilage.
Glenoid cavity is deepened by glenoid labrum (fibrocartilaginous rim).</li></li></ul><li>- Type<br /><ul><li>Synovial ball-and-socket joint.
Capsule</li></ul>Surrounds joint and attached :<br /><ul><li>Medially to the scapula beyond the supraglenoid tubercle and the margins of the labrum.
Laterally to the anatomical neck of humerus.</li></ul>Thin and lax, allow wide range of movement.<br />Strengthened by slips of tendons of subscapularis m., supraspinatus m., infraspinatus m. & teres minor (rotator cuff muscles). <br />
3 weak bands (superior, middle & inferior) of fibrous tissue that strengthen the anterior (front) of capsule.</li></ul>Transverse humeral Ligament<br /><ul><li>Bridge the upper part of bicipital grooves of humerus (between greater and lesser tubercles).
Tendon of long head biceps brachii passes deep to it.</li></ul>Coracohumeral Ligament<br /><ul><li>Strecthes from root of the coracoid process of scapula to greater tuberosity of humerus.
Strength the capsule above.</li></ul>Coracoacromial Ligament<br /><ul><li>Accessory ligament.
Extends between coracoid process of scapula and acromion.
Protects the superior aspect of joint.</li></li></ul><li>
Lateral rotation – Hand moves laterally.</li></ul>MAIN<br />ACCESSORY<br />MOVEMENT<br />
- Circumduction<br /><ul><li>Combination of dif. movements, results in hand moving along a circle. </li></li></ul><li>Applied Anatomy<br />Dislocation<br />is an injury to your joint in which the ends of your bones are forced from their normal positions. <br />This injury temporarily deforms and immobilizes your joint and may result in sudden and severe pain.<br />The shoulder is more prone to dislocate than any other joint.<br />This due to :<br /><ul><li>laxity of the capsule
Disproportionate area of articular surfaces</li></ul>Occurs when the arm is abducted<br />3 types of shoulder joints:<br />Glenohumeral joint<br />Acromioclavicular joint<br />Sternoclavicular joint<br />
Applied Anatomy<br />Dislocation of glenohumeral joint<br />Glenohumeral joint Extremely mobile<br />Providing wide movement at the expense of stability<br />Relatively small bony glenoid cavity <br />Supplemented by :<br />Robust fibrocartilagiousglenoid labrum<br />Ligamentous support<br />Make it susceptible to dislocation<br />Divided into :<br />Anterior dislocation<br />Posterior dislocation<br />
Applied Anatomy<br />Anterior dislocation<br />Occurs most frequently.<br />Usually associated with an isolated traumatic incident.<br />Clinically, all anterior dislocation are anteroinferior.<br />Once joint capsule and cartilage disrupted<br />Joint is susceptible to further (recurrent) dislocation<br />When dislocation occurs,<br /> During abduction, the head of humerus presses against the lower unsupported part of capsular ligament<br />Thus, almost always the dislocations primarily subglenoid,later it may become subcoracoid,subclavicular or subspinous.<br />Dislocations ends with :<br />Axillary nerve injured (by direct compression of humeral head on the nerve inferiorly as it passes through quadrangular space)<br />Lengthening effect of humerus may stretch the radial nerve which cause radial nerve paralysis<br />
Applied Anatomy<br />Occasionally, anteroinferior dislocation associated with fracture and require surgical reduction.<br />Posterior dislocation<br />Rare<br />Most common cause :<br />Extremely vigorous muscle contraction<br />associated with<br /> An epileptic seizure<br />caused by<br /> electrocution<br />
Applied Anatomy<br />Fractures of the clavicle and dislocations of the acromioclavicular<br />and sternoclavicular joints<br />Its relative size and the potential forces that it trasmits from the upper limb to the trunk, it is not surprising that it is often fractured.<br />The typical site of fracture is the middle third.<br />The medial and lateral thirds are rarely fractured.<br />The acromial end of the clavicle tends to dislocate at the acromioclavicular joints with trauma<br />The outer third of the clavicle is joined to the scapula by the conoid and trapezoid ligaments of the coracoclavicular ligament.<br />Minor injury,<br />tends to<br />Tear the fibrous joint capsule and ligaments of the acromioclavicular joint<br />resulting<br />Acromioclavicular separation on a plain radiograph<br />
Applied Anatomy<br />More severe trauma <br /> disrupt the conoid and trapezoid ligaments of coracoclavicular ligament<br />results in elevation and upward subluxation of the clavicle<br />The typical injury at the medial end of the clavicle is an anterior or posterior dislocation of the sternoclavicular joint.<br />Importantly, a posterior dislocation of the clavicle may impinge on the great vessels of the superior mediastinum and compress or disrupt them.<br />
SHOULDER TIP PAIN<br /><ul><li>Irritation of the diaphragm from any surrounding pathology causes referred pain in the shoulder
This is so because the phrenic nerve and supraclavicular nerves both arise from spinal segment C3,C4</li></ul>FROZEN SHOULDER / ADHESIVE CAPSULITIS<br /><ul><li>Is a disorder in which capsule and CT surrounding the glenohumeral joint becomes inflamed and stiff, and grows together with abnormal bands of tissue, called adhesions, greatly restricting motion and causing chronic pain
The patient may recover spontaneously in about 2 years</li></li></ul><li>
INFLAMMATION OF THE SUBACROMIAL (SUBDELTOID) BURSA<br /><ul><li>Subacromial Bursa between supraspinatus and deltoid muscles laterally and acromion medially
Supraspinatustendinopathy</li></ul>-this bursa may become inflamed, making movements of the glenohumeral joint painful<br /><ul><li>Treated by injection of corticosteroid</li></li></ul><li>
CLINICAL CASE<br /> A 35-year-old baseball pitcher came to the clinic with a history of a recurrent dislocation of the shoulder. An MRI scan was performed to assess the shoulder joint prior to any treatment.<br /><ul><li>The MRI demonstrates the anatomical structures in multiple planes,allowing the physician to obtain an overview of the shoulder and to assess any structures that may have been damaged and require surgical repair
The MRI findings are typical for an anterior inferior dislocation
These injuries include the abutment of the posterior superior aspect of the humeral head on the anterior inferior aspect of the glenoid cavity</li></li></ul><li>Continued…<br />This type of injury (when recurrent) may avulse a small fragment of the glenoid labrum and some cases this may attach to a small fragment of bone (the Bankart lesion).<br />When the shoulder is relocated, the intergrity of the capsular atttachmentantero-inferiorly has been disrupted and make it more prone to dislocate<br />An arthroscopic repair was performed<br />(is surgery that uses a tiny camera called an arthroscope to examine or repair the tissues inside or around shoulder joint. The arthroscope is inserted through a small incision (cut) in your skin)<br />