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1. basics of experimental pharmacology

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    1. basics of experimental pharmacology 1. basics of experimental pharmacology Presentation Transcript

    • BASICS OF EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY
    • PHARMACOLOGY is the science which deals with study of drugs
      EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY: deals with effect of various pharmacological agents studied on different animal species
      AIMS :
      • Find out the therapeutic agent suitable for human use
      • Study the toxicity of the drugs
      • Study the mechanism and site of action of drugs
      • Pharmacology
      Discovery of new drugs or to study the actions of existing drugs
      Preclinical
      Clinical
      Two ways
      Intact animal study – invivo
      isolated organ study – invitro
      Phase -1,2,3,4
    • Experimental pharmacology – great imp
      Experimenter should take outmost care
      Sacrificing - humane
      Euthanasia – painless killing
      Laboratory animals – breaded and handled in laboratory
      • Mice
      • Rat
      • Guinea pig
      • Rabbits
      RAT
      species Rattusnorvegicus
      Wister starin is commonly used
      Other strains –
      • Wistar rat
      • Sprague Dawley rat
      • Biobreeding rat
      • Long-Evans rat
      • Zucker rat
      • Hairless rats
      • RCS rats
      • Shaking rat Kawasaki
      Wistar rat
      Genetically modified rats
      Hairless rats
      Zucker rat
      Sprague Dawley rat
    • ADVANTAGES AND CHARACTERISTICS
      • small in size
      • drug to be tested required in small quantity
      • vomiting center is absent – oral administration can be done
      • gall bladder and tonsils are absent
      Continuous flow of bile into intestine
      This facilitates the study of the drugs acting on bile, cholesterol reabsorbing ect
      • pancreas are diffused therefore difficult to produce panereactomy
      • stomach, fundus and pyloric parts are clear lining between them
      • Gastric acid secretion is continuous
    • EXPERIMENTAL USE
      • psychopharmacological studies
      • study of analgesics and anticonvulsants
      • bioassay of various hormones, such as insulin, oxytocin, vasopressin
      • Study of estrus cycle, mating behavior and lactation
      • isolated tissue pre’s
      • chronic study
      • Gastric acid secretion
      • hepatotoxicity studies
      • study on mast cells
    • MICE ( Musmusculus)
      ADVANTAGES
      • Smallest
      • Easy to handle
      • Cheap
      • Less drug required
      EXPERIMENTAL USES
      • toxicological studies
      • teratogenicitystudies
      • bioassay of insulin’ screening of analgesic and anticonvulsant
      • Screening of chemotherapeutic agents
      • studies related to genetics and cancer research
      • drugs action on CNS
      Swiss albino mice are commonly used species
      Other strains are – Balb/C and C-57
    • GUINEA PIGS ( CAVIA PORCELLUS )
      • docile animals
      • highly susceptible to TB and anaphylaxis
      • Highly sensitive to histamine, penicillin
      • Required exogenous vit c in diet
      EXPERIMENTAL USES
      • evaluation of bronchodilators
      • anaphylactic and immunological studies
      • study of histamine and antihistamines
      • bioassay of digitalis
      • evaluation of local anesthetics
      • hearing experiments because of sensitive cochlea
      • isolated tissues especially ileum, heart
      • study on TB and ascorbic acid metabolism
    • RABBITS (Lupascuniculus)
      • Docile animal
      • New Zealand white strains are widely used
      • it has huge caceum and long appendix
      • enzyme atropine esterase is present in rabbit liver and plasma so it can tolerate large doses of belladona (atropine)
      EXPERIMENTAL USES
      • pyrogen testing
      • bioassay of anti-diabetic, curareform drugs and sex hormones
      • screening of agents affecting capillary permeability
      • drugs used in glaucoma
      • pharmacokinetic studies
      • studies related to antifertility agents
      • isolated preparations like heart, duodenum, ileum, pre’s
      • study on local anaestetics
      • Study on miotic and mydratics
    • FROGS (RANA TIGRINA)
      • Most commonly used in physiology, pharmacology and toxicoloty
      • used before 200 years
      • amphibian animal safe to handle
      • Cannot breed in lab
      EXPERIMENTAL USES
      • isolated preparations, heart, rectus abdominis muscle
      • drugs acting on CNS
      • Drugs acting on NMJ