Amity School of BusinessPROBLEM SOLVING & CREATIVE THINKING BS – II By: Parul Goel
Problem - Solving Amity School of Business- Problem solving is a mentalprocess.-Is part of the larger problem processthat includes problem finding andproblem shaping.
Amity School of BusinessConsidered the most complex of all intellectual function.
Amity School of Business Problem solving occurs when wemove from a given state to a desired goal state.
Amity School of Business• There are always problems• There are no big problems; only small ones
Amity School of Business• You can solve them when YOU are bigger than the PROBLEM• But if you don’t solve them then, they become BIGGER than you
Amity School of Business• Every problem has a Solution• Actually every problem has more than one solution
What’s Your Problem-SolvingSchool of Business Amity Style?Directions: Circle the correct letter, then distribute the 10 points among choices a, b and c.1. When I am faced with a complex situation or problem, I tend to:_____ a. Ask friends_____ b. Solve it myself_____ c. Seek professional help2. People who are great problem solvers:_____ a. Have very clear goals and objectives_____ b. Find the best solution_____ c. Ask the right questions3. I am happiest when I am deciding:_____ a. How things should be_____ b. How to make things better_____ c. How things are now4. When I am bothered by something I look at:_____ a. How I would like things to be different_____ b. What I should do to make things better_____ c. The cause of the problem5. When I am under pressure, I_____ a. Spend a lot of time thinking about it_____ b. Solve it quickly_____ c. Sit back and carefully examine the situation
Amity School of Business6. I am most interested in:_____ a. The way things could be_____ b. How to improve things_____ c. The way things r now7. When I am in a group, I tend to help the group:_____ a. Determine goals_____ b. Take action_____ c. Obtain the facts8. When I find out that another person does not like me or is angry with me, I:_____ a. Try to understand what that person wants_____ b. Try to make things better between us_____ c. Get more information9. When another person asks me for help with a problem, I tend to:_____ a. Find out what the person wants to accomplish_____ b. Give suggestions_____ c. Get more information10. People in general are likely to get into trouble when they:_____ a. Lack a vision for the future_____ b. Don’t take risks_____ c. Act on impulse
Amity School of BusinessAdd the numbers you have written.a: 8, b: 2, c: 1Totals:A: _____B: _____C: _____Now add 5 points to A and subtract 5 points from C.A: _____B: _____C: _____A= Idealist interested in valuesB= Activist interested in proposals and ideasC= Realist interested in information and situations
EXERCISE Amity School of Business1. List 10 problems you solved today. What problem-solving skills did you use?2. When you have a major problem, is there somebody you go to for help? What is it about that person that makes you think he or she can handle the problem?3. Describe the biggest problem facing you right now. What skills will you need to solve it?
Rating Scale Amity School of Business• Critical thinking skill• Problem solving skill• Expression of ideas• Thinking creatively• Emotional intelligence
Amity School of Business• Means-ends thinking: – Ability to articulate the step by step means necessary to carry out the solution to a given interpersonal problem. – Ability to recognize obstacles, the social sequences deriving from these solutions. – Recognition that interpersonal problem solving takes time.
Amity School of Business• Consequential thinking: – Being aware of the consequences of social acts as they affect self and others. – Ability to generate alternative consequences to potential problem solutions before acting.
Amity School of Business• Causal thinking: – Reflects the degree of appreciation of social and personal motivation. – Involves the realization that how one felt and acted may have been influenced by and, in turn, may have influenced how others felt and acted.
Amity School of BusinessIn “everyday” language: G IN K IN• Thinking “outside” the box TH• Thinking about thinking• “Unlimited” thinking• Divergent thinking
What Is Critical Thinking? Amity School of Business• It is thinking that is purposeful, reasoned, and goal directed.• It is literally thinking about something from many angles.• Examples of people who use critical thinking in their daily lives:lawyer who found loophole to free his client, computer repairtechnician who found the one tiny circuit problem in your computer,homemaker who discovered a way to reduce the household debteach month, the student who discovered that reading the materialbefore class made listening easier.• Critical thinking is about making informed, enlightened, educated,open-minded decisions in college, in relationships, in finances, andin life in general.
Critical Thinking Amity School of BusinessHuitt’s (1992) classification of problem-solvingtechniques: • Critical thinking--linear and serial, more structured, more rational and analytical, and more goal-oriented • Creative thinking--holistic and parallel, more emotional and intuitive, more creative, more visual, and more tactual/ kinesthetic
Amity School of BusinessSpringer & Deutsch’s (1993) classification ofbrain-lateralization dominance: • Left brain thinking--analytic, serial, logical, objective • Right brain thinking--global, parallel, emotional, subjective
Exercise Amity School of Business• How many addition signs should be put between digits of the number 987654321 and where should we put them to get a total of 99?• Divide the face of the clock into three parts with two lines so that the sum of the numbers in the three parts are equal.• If you begin with a one digit integer, multiply by 3, add 8, divide by 2 and subtract 6, you will get the integer back.• If Jane is older than Kim, Kim is older than Shawn. Shawn is younger than Jane and Rachel is older than Jane List the people from oldest to youngest.
Solutions Amity School of Business1) 9+8+7+65+4+3+2+1 = 99 -> 7 addition signs.2) 2) 9+8+7+6+5+43+21 = 99 -> 6 addition signs. Trial and error [(2 * 3 + 8)/2] - 6 = 1 <- NO [(6 * 3 + 8)/2] - 6 = 7 <- NO [(8 * 3 + 8)/2] - 6 = 10 <- NO [(4 * 3 + 8)/2] - 6 = 4 <- YES!! The number is 4 Algebraically: [(3*x + 8)/2] -6 = 4 Rachel, Jane, Kim, Shawn
Match Problem Amity School of Business• Can you arrange these six matches into four equilateral triangles?
Match Problem Amity School of Business Fixation • The inability to see a problem from a new perspective.
Making It Work For Amity School of Business YouCritical thinking skill development involves:• Restraining emotions• Looking at things differently• Analyzing (breaking down) information• Asking questions• Solving problems• Distinguishing fact from opinion
Restraining Emotions Amity School of Business• It is crucial that you know when your emotionsare clouding an issue. Example: Should drugs be legalized? Should terminallyill patients have the right to state assisted and/orprivately assisted suicide?• If we allow our emotions to run rampant and failto use research, logic, and evidence (expansivethinking), we cannot examine the issues criticallyand have a logical discussion regarding thestatements.
Restraining Emotions Amity School of BusinessIf you feel that your emotions caused you to be less than objective, you might consider the following tips you are faced with an emotional decision:• Listen to all sides of an argument or statement before you make a decision or form an opinion.• Make a conscious effort to identify which emotions are causing you to lose objectivity.• Do not let your emotions withdraw you or turn you off from the situation.• Don’t let yourself become engaged in “I’m right, you’re wrong” situations.
…Restraining Emotions Amity School of Business• Work to understand why others feel their side is valid.• Physiological reactions to emotions, such as increased heart rate and blood pressure, should be recognized as an emotional checklist. If you begin to experience these reactions, relax, take a deep breath, and concentrate on being open-minded.• Control your negative self-talk or inner voice toward the other person(s) or situation.• Determine whether your emotions are irrational.
Activity Amity School of Business• Think of a situation you were in recently where you experienced a negative emotion such as anger, frustration, depression, insecurity, fear, etc. 1) Write out in detail what was going on in the situation and how you felt in the situation. 2) Now try to figure out the thinking you were doing in the circumstance, which led to the negative feeling. Write out the thinking in detail. 3) Then write how your thinking and feeling impacted your behavior.