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Malaria

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  • 1. Malaria -Anant Dev Asheesh International Institute of Health Management Research
  • 2. Introduction to Malaria Malaria is a vector borne disease It occurs in Humans and other animals It is caused by Plasmodium Currently there are 200 known species of Plasmodium
  • 3. At least 11 species effect human beings Falciparum and Vivax are the major species which cause Malaria 1.5 million confirmed cases of Malaria are reported annually by National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP)
  • 4. Symptoms of Malaria
  • 5. The Other Symptoms Running Nose, Cough and other signs of Respiratory infection Abdominal pain Stomach disorder with inflammation of intestines Skin Rash Ear discharge Abnormal enlargement of Lymph Nodes
  • 6. Diagnosis Microscopy Rapid Diagnosis Test (RDT) Note- NVBDCP provides RDT kits in the areas where microscopy results can’t be obtained in 24 hrs
  • 7. Treatment Malaria is treated with a class of drugs called anti malarial. Antimalarial drugs are designed to attack the parasites that cause malaria  It prevents them from spreading while also killing them off so they can’t continue causing infection.
  • 8. Anti malarial drugs Treatment for P. Vivax malaria Confirmed P. vivax cases should be treated with chloroquine in full therapeutic dose of 25 mg/kg divided over three days. In some patients, P. vivax may cause relapse (A form of P. vivax or P. Ovale parasites called as hypnozoites remain dormant in the liver cells. These hypnozoites can later cause a relapse). For its prevention, primaquine should be given at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg body weight daily for 14 days under supervision.
  • 9. Treatment for P. Falciparum Malaria  Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT)  ACT consists of an artemisinin derivative combined with a long acting antimalarial (amodiaquine, lumefantrine, mefloquine or sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine). It should be given to all confirmed P. falciparum cases found positive by microscopy or RDT. This is to be accompanied by single dose primaquine (0.75 mg/kg body weight).
  • 10. How can MALARIA be prevented Malaria can be treated by: Being aware of the main symptoms Taking anti-malarial medicines as directed Immediately see a doctor and seek treatment if a fever develops after entering a malaria-risk zone or after leaving the area The malaria causing mosquitoes bite in night These mosquitoes hibernate in dirty water
  • 11. Malaria Cases (2012) • Top 10 Malaria States in India- STATE CASES Odisha 187309 Jharkhand 101126 Chattisgarh 72770 Gujrat 55272 Madhya Pradesh 45200 West Bengal 39378 Maharashtra 38003 Uttar Pradesh 31800 Rajasthan 25803 Assam 25304 INDIA 7,36,875
  • 12. References  Chavatte J.M., Chiron F., Chabaud A., Landau I. (March 2007). "Probable speciations by "host-vector 'fidelity'": 14 species of Plasmodium from magpies". Parasite14 (1): 21–37.PMID 17432055.  Perkins S.L., Austin C. (September 2008). "Four New Species of Plasmodium from New Guinea Lizards: Integrating Morphology and Molecules". J. Parasitol. 95 (2): 1. doi:10.1645/GE-1750.1. PMID 18823150  Guidelines for Malaria Diagnosis http://www.mrcindia.org/Guidelines%20for%20Diagnosis2011.pdf  Rapid Diagnosis Test, http://www.wpro.who.int/malaria/sites/rdt/  National drug policy on malaria (2010). Ministry of Health and Family Welfare/Directorate of National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme, Govt. of India. http://www.nvbdcp.gov.in  www.indiastat.com