Ideas, Inspiring Minds & BreakthroughsA quiz on the world of ideas, exploration, expression and knowledge For the Bombay Quiz Club
The Kekule Six questions - C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6 Six connections – H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, H6 Answers to be written down 5 points for each answer 20 points bonus for getting all 12 answers. C1 C6 H6 H1 C2 H5 H2 C5 H4 H3 C3 C4
C1The idea of crossing Greenlandcame upon this 21 year old whenhe went on a zoological studyexpedition in the Arctic waters onboard the Viking. Six years later,in June 1888, he and five othersset off from the Icelandic port ofIsafjorour on board the Jason.Name this explorer, who onhis return, would found theNorwegian Geographical Society?
C2The commission for this workcame in the „20s but he couldfinish the 105 plates only by 1956.This included visits to the HolyLand, Amsterdam (to studyRembrandt) and of course thebreak because of WW2. Theoriginal publisher had long diedand it was published by EditionTeriade. Name the painterwho was called “one of 20thcentury’s most importantgraphic artists”.
H1 Fridtjof Nansen Marc Chagall Chagall, a Russian Jew, became a stateless refugee, the combined effect of the Tsarist pogroms and the famine following the revolution. He was able to leave Russia for France using a Nansen passport for himself, his wife and daughter.
C3This is one stanza out of 389 in Stanza 2, Book 1 translated by AS Kline, 2009this work. The rhyming structureused in iambic tetrameter form is Such our young dog’s meditation,now generally called the As his horses plough the dust,“_______ sonnet”, named after Inheriting, as sole relation,the poet. Name the poet (who By the will of Zeus the Just. Friends of Ruslan and Ludmila,may well be the narrator here). Here without an ounce of bother, Meet my hero of romance, Before you, let him now advance. ______ ______, born and raised There beside the Neva’s shore, Where you too were nourished or Found your fame, perhaps amazed, There I too strolled to and fro: Though the North affects me so.
H2 Marc Chagall Pushkin Chagall, who also did stage design, worked with Leonid Massine (New York Ballet Theatre) on Aleko, based on Pushkin’s The Gypsies with music by Tchaikovskiy. Opened in Mexico City in September 1942, 19 curtain calls including numerous encores for Chagall (audience included Rivera and Orozco).
C4The four volume History of the Life and Voyages ofChristopher Columbus written and published in 1828 waspossible when the American Consul in Madrid invitedthis noted American story teller to peruse throughmanuscripts and documents released by the Spanishgovernment for public access. One product of this work ofhistory was the myth that Medieval Europeans thoughtthat the world was flat. Name the author whose otherworks of this Spanish period (1828-1831) includeChronicles of the Conquest of Granada and TheAlhambra: Tales and Sketches of the Moors and theSpaniards.
H3 Alexander Pushkin Washington Irving Pushkin’s last work, the fairy tale in verse “The Tale of the Golden Cockerel” is based on two chapters from Irving’s “Tales of the Alhambra” (full name: The Alhambra: a series of Tales and sketches of the Moors and Spaniards)
C5The 2009 book “Fatal Journey: The Final Expedition of_____ ______” by Peter Mancall, director of USC-Huntington Early Modern Studies puts a new twist to the400 year old mystery of _____ ______‟sdisappearance. June, 1611, according to those who cameback (and probably inaccurate given their locus standii inthe matter), the crew of the Discovery mutinied againstthis explorer who wanted to head out looking for theNorth West Passage. They had spent a harsh winter in thebay (named after the explorer) and wanted to go home.They cast him, his teenage son and few people loyal tohim on a boat. No one has heard from him since. Namethe explorer.
H4 Washington Irving Henry Hudson The Ghosts in Rip Van Winkle are the ghosts of Henry Hudson and his crew.
C6The waterbody (masked) isnamed in tribute to this Dutchexplorer who, on his third voyagein 1596, perished in the cold inthe island of Nova Zembla.Besides this waterbody, there isalso a protein (in the molecularstructure of a fruit fly) namedafter him as are couple of Arcticnavigation ships, couple ofwhaling ships and a Dutchmaritime institute. Name theexplorer.
H5 Henry Hudson William Barentsz The first two recorded attempts at finding the North-East Passage to Asia, both sponsored by the Dutch – Hudson paid by the Dutch East India Company in 1609, Barentsz by the Town Council of Amsterdam in 1596. Barentsz never returned. Hudson however could proceed only upto Norway and then turned west.
H6 Wiilem Barentsz Fridtjof Nansen Farthest North. Barentsz is the first recorded achievement of the Farthest North, 79o 59’ on 15th June 1596. Nansen and Johannsen reached 86o 14’ in 1895 Conquest of the North Pole has rendered this achievement obsolete. But that is another story.
ClockwiseAny man is a child until he has understood Kant – Schopenhauer
1This idea was first articulated by Aristotle in his seminalphilosophical work “Metaphysics”. John Stuart Mill alsobuilt upon this foundational idea in his 1843 publication“On the Composition of Causes”. It forms the basis for thestudy of Emergence Theory (in Complexity Studies) inwhich a large dynamic system has properties which areborn due to the inherent processes and workings of thesystem and not just due to the properties of the elementsthat make up the system. In 10 words, explain thisidea?
1 “The Whole is Greater than the Sum of its Parts.”
2These three pieces of music are <Audio removed>examples of what 7-letterterm? - Star wars theme - A _______ for the common man (copeland) - Wedding march from A Midsummer’s Night Dream by Mendelssohn
2 Fanfare, a term to describe the music (usually horns) played as a mark of welcome / announcement.
3In June 1988, two sedimentary rock geologists collected sandsamples from a particular location. On examining they came upwith the following composition: 78% detrital quartz, 9%feldspar, 3% heavy minerals, 2% chert and other rockfragments. This is common to most sand samples. However,they found an unusual item making up 4% of the sand – Toquote from their article in the Earth Magazine: A thin section of the sand revealed a large number of angular opaque grains that were magnetic. Shard-like, they were only slightly rounded. Some were well- laminated. These grains were also associated with small spherical beads of iron and glass. At first, we were uncertain of what we were looking at. However, in a few days, we concluded that the metal and glass particles were human-madeWhere was the sand sample taken from?
3 Omaha Beach, Normandy. The iron will remain for thousands of years; the other elements of the shrapnel are likely to be eroded sooner.
4In Hawaiian mythology, Pele, the goddess of fire, ischased by Namaka-o-kahai, the goddess of the sea. Eventhough they are sisters, Namaka fears that Pele‟sambition will smother the homeland. As a result, Peleleaves and after stopping at various islands builds herhome. This story triggered J Tuzo Wilson, a Canadiangeologist, to take up a particular study, the result of whichgave birth to a new science. What was the study andwhat new science was born out of it?
4 Studying the different ages of the volcanoes of Hawaii, Tuzo Wilson hypothesized that there was a tectonic plate under Hawaii which kept moving in a north-westerly direction over a fixed hotspot. Once it was proved, this gave rise to the science of plate tectonics which is now used to explain phenomena like earthquakes as well as volcanoes like Krakatoa.
5In 2007, three former lab colleagues sat down to discuss anew experiment – a set of treatments based on a 1973discovery on the same person who discovered it and wasnow diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. Besidesconventional chemotherapy, 8 different treatments weretried, each one of them approved by FDA on a single-patient compassionate-use protocol. The patient survived4 years. “It was the ultimate experience in personalisedmedicine” said one of the many collaborators who camein to help their friend. Name the patient and thediscovery that was used for the treatments.
5 Ralph Steinman trying out vaccines made out of dendritic cells.
6In 1861, Lincoln offered a particular gentleman “thedistinguished Soldier of Freedom” a commission to leadthe Union Army in the Civil War. Lincoln figured that ifthis person (54 years old and suffering from rheumatoidarthritis) joined, all the European immigrants in the USwould join the Union Army. This gentleman, whileprofessing his appreciation for the gesture, asked aquestion which Lincoln could not answer. The gentlemanturned down the offer because without the answer he waslooking for, the war was just another internal conflict ofno interest to anyone. Who and what was theunanswerable question?
6 Guiseppe Garibaldi who asked “Tell me,” he asked pointedly, “if this agitation is regarding the emancipation of the Negroes or not.” “Could slavery not be abolished?” he asked Sanford. If it was not being fought to emancipate the slaves, he told Sanford, “the war would appear to be like any civil war in which the world at large could have little interest or sympathy.”
7Released in 1970 in his debut <Audio Removed>album, this song is listed as one ofthe 20 most powerful protestsongs of all time by the NewStatesman. The singer, who calledhimself a “bluesologist” wasfamously described as “the blackman’s CNN” for his use ofreferences to contemporaryevents and issues. Name thesinger.
7 Gil Scott-Heron, “The Revolution Will Not Be Televised” released in the album “Small Talk at 125th and Lenox”
82000+ years before Darwin, thisphilosopher of Milesian school(depicted in this Raphaelpainting) hypothesised thathuman beings evolved fromorganisms in water. His basis forthis hypothesis was just observinga few fossils. For modernscientists, this was an illustrationof the “Greek Miracle” –explaining the nature of the worldusing material principles (and notmyth or religion). Name. Larger Picture Next Slide
8 Anaximander of Miletus, considered the second Greek philosopher, student of Thales (who was the first known Greek philosopher)
9One morning, June this year, theresidents of the capital woke up tosee this pop-art vandalism of thismonument. Joe Parkinson of WSJsays: “Defiling statues commemorating the 1944 ______ “_________" of ________ is part of an increasingly bizarre effort to define communisms legacy”What was the monument andwhere is this?
9 Sofia, Bulgaria – Monument to the Soviet Army (Soviet liberation of Bulgaria in 1944)
10An Internet discovery recently said that if you click on thefirst link of an article in Wikipedia and keep following youwill reach Philosophy. Nice but not necessarilypathbreaking. In 1926, writing in the introduction to thisbook, the author said “Science begins with philosophyand ends as art. It arises in hypothesis and flows intoachievement.” This book started out as little pamphletsmeant for workers to understand philosophy and was sopopular that Simon & Schuster brought out a hardcoveredition. Name the author and the book.
11The modern meaning of this word is largely influenced byPlato‟s condemnation of this group of itinerantintellectuals who, through a method of rhetoricquestioning and for a price, would teach virtue orexcellence to the public. Plato dismissed them as greedypeople using rhetorical subterfuge and wordplay todeceive or support fallacious arguments. The wordoriginates from the Greek for a “wise-ist” or “someonewith wisdom”. What word?
12This is the verse 10.121 from the <Audio removed – chants fromRg Veda. It starts with a word Bharat Ek Khoj>referring to the state before theUniverse was created. This wordis usually not translated. What isthe Sanskrit word (features inthe first line but not included inthe clip for obvious reasons)?
Anti-ClockwiseLet no one ignorant of geometry enter here.
13Linear, Colour and Disappearance– these are the threetypes that this person wrote down in his notebooks. Hefirst wrote it in 1490 and about 20 years later revised it:diminution in the size of opaque objects, diminution andloss of outline of opaque objects and third, diminutionand loss of colour at long distances. The first one iscaused by the structure of the eyes, the last two by theatmosphere which intervenes between the eyes and theobjects. Who is the writer and what is the subjectof discussion?
13 Leonardo Da Vinci on Perspective (The Notebooks of Leonardo Da Vinci)
14On to my favourite historian. This person, in the Introductionto a set of essays called “Myth & Reality: studies in theFormation of Indian Culture” (1962) writes: These essays have one feature in common, namely that they are based upon the collation of field-work with literary evidence. Indian critics whose patriotism outstrips their grasp of reality are sure to express annoyance or derision at the misplaced emphasis. Why should anyone ignore the beautiful lily of Indian philosophy in order to concentrate upon the dismal swamp of popular superstition ? That is precisely the point. Anyone with aesthetic sense can enjoy the beauty of the lily; it takes a considerable scientific effort to discover the physiological process whereby the lily grew out of the mud and filth.Who?
15Originally written in 1871 in <Audio removed – something byFrench, this song you hear (a Pete Seegermodern version) was the nationalanthem of this country between1922-1944. There is also a Bengaliand Malayalam version. Namethe song and the countrywhose national anthem itwas.
15 The Internationale; Soviet Union Written by Eugene Pottier for the Paris Commune of 1871 and put to music by Pierre de Geyter, 1888
16In the 1878 publication “Lectures on the Origin andGrowth of Religion: As Illustrated by the Religions ofIndia”, the author, after studying the hymns of Rig Vedato different gods, coined this term which means “one Godat a time”. Differing from monetheism and polytheism,this word or concept refers to “a belief in single gods ,each in turn standing out as the highest”. What it meansis that given the circumstances, one god becomessupreme over the others. Name the author and theword / concept he coined?
17The poem “And did those feet in ancient time” wasessentially a preface to a larger work by the same poet.The most common interpretation is a heaven created inEngland in contrast to the “dark Satanic mills” of theearly Industrial Revolution. In World War 1, it was set tomusic and used as a morale booster for England. Howdoes one know this poem/song?
17 Jerusalem (William Blake); put to music by Sir Hubert Parry for a demonstration in London in 1916 and later for the Suffragate movement in 1917.
18This scene underlines a key <Video removed – scene fromphilosophical concept that was The Matrix>also used by HP Lovecraft in his1918 short story Polaris and wasillustrated by a Chinese guy c 4thcentury BC. What concept?
18 Zhuangxi’s Butterfly Dream “Am I a man who dreamt of being a butterfly or a butterfly who is now dreaming of being a man” This concept is the basis of HP Lovecraft’s story Polaris.
19The question is obvious, connect. To answer, you may needto provide some socio-cultural history as well as a two-word key phrase <Video removed – young men <audio removed – a paul simon dancing on the streets of cape song> town>
19 Gumboot Dance; started as a form of communication amongst black miners who were stripped of their traditional clothing and not allowed to speak with each other (to avoid any chances of forming any hostile communities – hostile for the white mine owners that is) Paul Simon named his song “Gumboots” as it uses the same rhythm (though the lyrics have nothing to do with SA)
20In Lectures on the Philosophy of World History (1821 –1831), this German philosopher presents world history asa progression through reason and coined a word to referto the spirit of the people in the form of culture which isconstantly reworking to keep up with social change.A French sociologist in his publications between 1893 –1912 referred to the beliefs of all the members of a societyaggregate together into a whole which has its own life andexpression.Give both the terms, quite commonly used in moderninternet pop sociology / philosophy.
21 “Zeitgeist” (Hegel) and “Collective Consciousness” (Emile Durkheim)
22There is phenomenon or experiences that are physicallymanifested and observed. There is noumenon, experienceswhich are thought of or felt. In philosophy, the latter hasgenerally been considered as not possible. However, in 1781,through this seminal book, this philosopher plays on the inter-relation of the two terms to explain human understanding –how human beings make sense of raw unstructuredexperiences. There are limitations to the human mind which isunable to fathom that which cannot be observed. So knowledgetherefore is a representation of unknown somethings manifestin the noumenon. He calls this unknown something the “thingin itself”. Who and which publication which effectively hasdivided philosophical inquiry into pre-X and post-X?
23Identify and connect.<Audio Removed – a Paul Simonsong>
23 Norman Rockwell’s Southern Justice (Murders in Mississippi) and Simon & Garfunkel’s He Was My Brother are based on the triple murder of civil rights activists by the KKK in Mississippi in 1964. One of them, Andrew Goodman was with Paul Simon in college in New York.
24This concept, proposed in the1930‟s, has been used in legalcases to differentiate betweengenuine science and non-sciences.The person responsible for thisconcept was commenting on thescientific method and the use ofhypothesis, theories andpropositions. In terms of applyingit in real life, it means makingassertions in such a way thatfeasible experiments can be madeto prove or disprove them.Who was this person andwhy do we have a picture ofthese water birds?
24 Falsifiability Criterion (The Black Swan Problem) as proposed by Karl Popper
25One, there is an anachronism inthis panel. What is thatanachronism?
24 The Latin phrase “Vanitas Vanitatum et omnia vanitas” is from the Vulgate, the Latin Bible, Ecclesiastes 1:2 (published after Christ). It means, vanity of vanities, all is vanity / Utterly meaningless! Everything is meaningless.
25Who and where? The concept of natural selection (inevolution) came to him as he was lying in bed strickenwith fever on an island. The _____ ___________, the land of the orangutan, and the bird of paradise – A narrative of travel with sketches of man and nature To Charles Darwin, Author of “The Origin of Species” I dedicate this book, not only as a token of personal esteem and friendship but also to express my deep admiration for his genius and his works.
25 Alfred Russel Wallace, The Malay Archipelago (two volumes where he also drew the Wallace Line) Wallace would correspond with Darwin and through him get his papers and essays published. This gave the impression that Wallace was simply an input for Darwin. Though in reality, much of Darwin’s stuff was originally proposed (and proved through field observations) by Wallace.
26 A time will come in later years when the Ocean will unloose the bands of things, when the immeasurable earth will lie open, when seafarers will discover new countries, and Thule will no longer be the extreme point among the lands.This quotation appears as the opener for two books –Farthest North, Nansen‟s chronicles of his expedition tothe North Pole and The Tales and Voyages ofChristopher Columbus by Washington Irving. The authorof this quote, a Stoic Roman, was one of Nero‟s teachersand his writings are collected under the titleConsolations. Who?
26 Seneca the Younger from his tragedy Medea (based on Euripides’ Medea)
27In a set of three lectures made in 1963 at the University ofWashington, this Nobel laureate spoke on the broad theme ofscience and society. He made a reference to the USConstitution. The Government of the United States was developed under the idea that nobody knew how to make a government, or how to govern. The result is to invent a system to govern when you dont know how.He said science requires total freedom and said that USSR,where freedom of ideas was restricted, was doing nothing. In1999, these lectures were published with a fairly profound title.NYT called it “a call for the philosophy of ignorance”. Namethe Nobel laureate and the title of the book?
27 Richard Feynman, The Meaning of it All, Thoughts of a Citizen Scientist.
28These three pieces from popular <Video Removed – Theculture have one theme in Darjeeling Limited>common. What? (clue: it hasbeen mentioned in this quiz <Audio Removed – Anjan Datta’salready) Mala>
28 Vanitas or Emptiness / meaninglessnes (spiritual emptiness)
29This work is written in the style of a geometric treatise.An avid reader of Descartes and seeing the resurgence ofthe geometric method in popular usage, it is believed thatthe author may have decided to use this form. In anycase, it is an enormous effort – each part of the workcontaining definitions, axioms, propositions, scholia, etc.(similar to Euclid‟s Elements). It is also an enormouseffort to read. It was never published in the author‟slifetime as the object of the book – achieving happinessthrough the intellectual love of God – was considered toosensitive . Who and what work?
29 Spinoza’s Ethics (Ethica Ordine Geometrico Demonstrata)
30Last question. This is a line that I have used as my mailsign many times before “The Universe is Change and Life Mere Opinion”It represents the Stoic school and is written by one of themost famous members of the school . His writings,collected together under the title “Meditations” arereferenced in Steinebeck‟s East of Eden. Who is thisperson whom you will also find if you research thehistory of the Roman Empire?
30 Marcus Aurelius, one of the five Good Emperors