zigbee

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  • An example network topology in the area of home (living room) control. A set-top-box is acting as the master with a remote, TV, DVD, lamp and curtains enumerated on the network. This has no functionality since the slaves can only talk to the master. What the consumer actually wants is to be able to control the TV, DVD, lamp and curtains using the remote. In this case there needs to be some virtual peer-to-peer links between the remote and the other devices on the network. The mechanism of creating these links is known as pairing.
  • zigbee

    1. 1. IEEE 802.15.4 and Zigbee Overview
    2. 2. Topics • 802.15.4 • ZigBee • Competing Technologies • Products • Some Motorola Projects Slide 2 Joe Dvorak, Motorola 9/27/05
    3. 3. • Home Networking • Automotive Networks • Industrial Networks • Interactive Toys • Remote Metering IEEE 802.15.4 Applications Space Slide 3 Joe Dvorak, Motorola 9/27/05
    4. 4. Some needs in the sensor networks Thousands of sensors in a small space → Wireless but sensors are frequently stand alone →Low Power and sensors are frequently isolated →Moderate Range. Some of the challenges facing the standards committee Slide 4 Joe Dvorak, Motorola 9/27/05
    5. 5. 802.15.4 General Characteristics Data rates of 250 kb/s, 40 kb/s and 20 kb/s. Star or Peer-to-Peer operation. Support for low latency devices. Fully handshaked protocol for transfer reliability. Low power consumption. Frequency Bands of Operation 16 channels in the 2.4GHz ISM* band 10 channels in the 915MHz ISM band 1 channel in the European 868MHz band. * ISM: Industrial, Scientific, Medical Slide 5 Joe Dvorak, Motorola 9/27/05
    6. 6. IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Applications IEEE 802.15.4 2400 MHz PHY IEEE 802.15.4 868/915 MHz PHY 802.15.4 / ZigBee Architecture ZigBee • Packet generation • Packet reception • Data transparency • Power Management Slide 6 Joe Dvorak, Motorola 9/27/05
    7. 7. IEEE 802.15.4 PHY Overview Operating Frequency Bands 868MHz / 915MHz PHY 2.4 GHz 868.3 MHz Channel 0 Channels 1-10 Channels 11-26 2.4835 GHz 928 MHz902 MHz 5 MHz 2 MHz 2.4 GHz PHY Slide 7 Joe Dvorak, Motorola 9/27/05
    8. 8. IEEE 802.15.4 PHY Overview Packet Structure Preamble Start of Packet Delimiter PHY Header PHY Service Data Unit (PSDU) PHY Packet Fields • Preamble (32 bits) – synchronization • Start of Packet Delimiter (8 bits) • PHY Header (8 bits) – PSDU length • PSDU (0 to 1016 bits) – Data field 6 Octets 0-127 Octets Slide 8 Joe Dvorak, Motorola 9/27/05
    9. 9. 802.15.4 Architecture IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Applications IEEE 802.15.4 2400 MHz PHY IEEE 802.15.4 868/915 MHz PHY • Channel acquisition • Contention mgt • NIC address • Error Correction ZigBee Slide 9 Joe Dvorak, Motorola 9/27/05
    10. 10. • Extremely low cost • Ease of implementation • Reliable data transfer • Short range operation • Very low power consumption Simple but flexible protocol IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Overview Design Drivers Slide 10 Joe Dvorak, Motorola 9/27/05
    11. 11. IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Overview Typical Network Topologies Slide 11 Joe Dvorak, Motorola 9/27/05
    12. 12. • Full function device (FFD) – Any topology – Network coordinator capable – Talks to any other device • Reduced function device (RFD) – Limited to star topology – Cannot become a network coordinator – Talks only to a network coordinator – Very simple implementation IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Overview Device Classes Slide 12 Joe Dvorak, Motorola 9/27/05
    13. 13. Full function device Reduced function device Communications flow Master/slave PAN Coordinator IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Overview Star Topology Slide 13 Joe Dvorak, Motorola 9/27/05
    14. 14. Full function device Communications flow Point to point Cluster tree IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Overview Peer-Peer Topology Slide 14 Joe Dvorak, Motorola 9/27/05
    15. 15. Full function device Reduced function device Communications flow Clustered stars - for example, cluster nodes exist between rooms of a hotel and each room has a star network for control. IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Overview Combined Topology Slide 15 Joe Dvorak, Motorola 9/27/05
    16. 16. IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Overview General Frame Structure Payload PHYLayer MAC Layer MAC Header (MHR) MAC Footer (MFR) MAC Protocol Data Unit (MPDU) MAC Service Data Unit (MSDU) PHY Header (PHR) Synch. Header (SHR) PHY Service Data Unit (PSDU) 4 Types of MAC Frames: • Data Frame • Beacon Frame • Acknowledgment Frame • MAC Command Frame Slide 16 Joe Dvorak, Motorola 9/27/05
    17. 17. • Periodic data – Application defined rate (e.g. sensors) • Intermittent data – Application/external stimulus defined rate (e.g. light switch) • Repetitive low latency data – Allocation of time slots (e.g. mouse) IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Overview Traffic Types Slide 17 Joe Dvorak, Motorola 9/27/05
    18. 18. 802.15.4 Architecture IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Applications IEEE 802.15.4 2400 MHz PHY IEEE 802.15.4 868/915 MHz PHY • Network Routing • Address translation • Packet Segmentation • Profiles ZigBee Slide 18 Joe Dvorak, Motorola 9/27/05
    19. 19. ZigBee Stack Architecture Slide 19 Joe Dvorak, Motorola 9/27/05
    20. 20. Typical ZigBee-Enabled Device Design Typical design consist of RF IC and 8-bit microprocessor with peripherals connected to an application sensor or actuators Slide 20 Joe Dvorak, Motorola 9/27/05
    21. 21. Wireless Technology Comparison Chart 356 µA 34KB /14KB Slide 21 Joe Dvorak, Motorola 9/27/05
    22. 22. Competing/Similar Technologies • Bluetooth – http://www.bluetooth.org – http://www.bluetooth.com • X10 – Powerline protocol first introduced in the 1970's. – http://www.x10.com/technology1.htm • Z-wave – Proprietary protocol for wireless home control networking. – http://www.z-wavealliance.com/ • INSTEON – Peer-to-peer mesh networking product that features a hybrid radio/powerline transmission – http://www.insteon.net • nanoNET – Proprietary set of wireless sensor protocols, designed to compete with ZigBee. – http://www.nanotron.com/ Slide 22 Joe Dvorak, Motorola 9/27/05
    23. 23. 802.15.4/ZigBee Products Control4 Home Automation System http://www.control4.com/products/components/complete.htm Eaton Home HeartBeat monitoring system www.homeheartbeat.com Chip Sets • Ember, http://www.ember.com/index.html • ChipCon, http://www.chipcon.com • Freescale, http://www.freescale.com Software, Development Kits • AirBee, http://www.airbeewireless.com/products.php • Software Technologies Group, http://www.stg.com/wireless/ • Slide 23 Joe Dvorak, Motorola 9/27/05
    24. 24. Motorola Activity • Implementation of 802.15.4 & ZigBee • Aimed at enterprises – Asset Tracking – Security – Public Safety • Range: 10m • Transmission interval: ~ 4 minutes • Nodes move, Controller does not • Battery life: 1 week to several years (nodes with 2 AA batteries) • Interfaces: machine-only NeuRFonTM Slide 24 Joe Dvorak, Motorola 9/27/05
    25. 25. Motorola Activity • Implementation of 802.15.4 only • Aimed at consumers – Home device control – Location awareness – Personal reminders • Range: 1 - 5m • Phone is controller • Both nodes and can controller move • Battery life: ~1 week years (nodes with ~320 mAhr rechargeable battery) • Transmission interval: 1 second • Interfaces: machine and human ConformablesTM SmartButton LoBe Janus Digital Paperclip Slide 25 Joe Dvorak, Motorola 9/27/05
    26. 26. More Information • IEEE 2003 version of 802.15.4 MAC & Phy standard – http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.15.4-2003.pdf • ZigBee Specification – http://www.zigbee.org/en/spec_download/download_request.asp • 802.15.4 Tutorial – http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/15/pub/2003/Jan03/03036r0P802- 15_WG-802-15-4-TG4-Tutorial.ppt – Slides 3 – 17 were adapted from this tutorial • ZigBee Technology: Wireless Control that Simply Works – http://www.hometoys.com/htinews/oct03/articles/kinney/zigbee.htm • ZigBee Technology: Wireless Control that Simply Works – http://www.hometoys.com/htinews/oct03/articles/kinney/zigbee.htm • Home networking with Zigbee – http://www.embedded.com//showArticle.jhtml?articleID=18902431 – Slides 19 – 21 were adapted from this article • Can the competition lock ZigBee out of the home? – http://www.techworld.com/mobility/features/index.cfm?FeatureID=1809

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