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# 8 D – Problem Solving Process

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Using 8 Disciplines - a structured approach (Ford Motor Company) to continuously improve quality, eliminate root causes and prevent their reoccurrence

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### 8 D – Problem Solving Process

1. 1. 8D – Problem Solving Process<br />Using 8 Disciplines - a structured approach (Ford Motor Company) to continuously improve quality, eliminate root causes and prevent their reoccurrence<br />Anand Subramaniam<br />
2. 2. 2<br />“An undefined problem has an infinite number of solutions.” <br />- Robert A. Humphrey<br />
3. 3. Quality Process - Definition<br />Vendor / partner management<br />Corrective & preventative action<br />Continuous improvement<br />Review operations results<br />Customer management / satisfaction<br />Quality Process<br />Process targets linked to business results<br />People performance / training<br />Cross functional teams along with people & process measures<br />Non conforming material<br />3<br />
4. 4. Problem Solving Challenges<br />Lack procedures<br />Poor team participation<br />No priorities, resources, \$, approvals<br />Management Impatient for a quick fix<br />No logical thought process<br />Problem solving steps skipped in order to obtain a quick solution<br />Challenges<br />Potential causes misidentified as root cause<br />No action taken to implement a permanent corrective action<br />Problem defined incorrectly<br />Lack of technical skills / knowledge<br />4<br />
5. 5. Problem Solving – Why 8D is used ?<br />Cause(s) unknown<br />Major non conformances<br />Special Cause<br />Continuously improve quality <br />Reoccurring issues<br />Why 8D?<br />Customer complaints<br />Tackle engineering problems<br />Cross functional team approach needed<br />To prevent recurrence <br />5<br />
6. 6. 8 Discipline – Process<br />D1. Define Team<br />D2. Define Problem / Failure<br />D3. Choose & Verify Interim Containment Action (ICA)<br />D4. Define & Verify Root Cause(s)<br />D5. Choose & Verify Permanent Corrective Action(s) (PCA)<br />D6. Implement & Validate PCA<br />D7. System Prevention Actions to Prevent Recurrence <br />D8. Team Recognition / Celebration<br />
7. 7. D1. Define Team<br />7<br />No<br />Establish team cham-pion<br />Select cross function-al team members who will partici-pate<br />Does each member have product / process know-ledge & work experi-ence?<br />Is the team size correct ?<br />Define role, scope, schedule etc for each team member<br />Establish a team leader<br />Establish advisors who will help the team members with the problem solving<br />Ensure all areas for technical expertise are represen-ted<br />Ensure team members are clear on goals, commu-nication, roles & respon-sibilities <br /><ul><li>Establish a small group of people with the: process / product knowledge, time, authority, technical skills to solve the problem and implement corrective actions
8. 8. The group must have an actively interested designated champion</li></li></ul><li>D2. Define Problem / Failure<br />8<br />No<br />Identify current data to describe the problem / failure<br />Define the high level process flow<br />Collect current & historical data to quantify the problem<br />Describe the problem in terms of an opera-tional definition<br />Discuss with customer to ensure the correct-ness / accuracy of the problem descrip-tion<br />Has the problem scope been defined for all stratifica-tion factors?<br />Ensure that the 5W2H been done<br />Define & verify the problem state-ment<br /><ul><li>Process flow diagram to define the process
9. 9. Pareto analysis to select priority problems
10. 10. Control charts to indicate special causes
11. 11. Check sheets to define 5W2H action plan to coordinate problem definition actions</li></li></ul><li>D3. Interim Containment Action (ICA)<br />9<br />No<br />Establish decision criteria<br />Define & select key metrics & measure-ments<br />Test for freasibi-lity and choose the best ICA<br />Has the not needed effect / problem been isolated from internal / external customer?<br />Will the ICA create other problems?<br />Develop action plan & imple-ment ICA<br />Monitor ICA effective-ness<br />Is the not needed effect / problem been elimi-nated?<br />Continue to monitor ICA effecti-ness<br /><ul><li>Check sheets to evaluate effectiveness of actions
12. 12. Control charts and histograms with intensive sampling for process monitoring</li></li></ul><li>D4. Define & Verify Root Cause(s)<br />10<br />No<br />No<br />Develop a Cause & Effect (CE) diagram with all sources of variation <br />Develop a stratifi-cation CE diagram<br />Has all team member input been obtained for the CE diagram? <br />Develop a compari-tive analysis to highlight critical problem & non problem areas<br />Establish a time line / schedule for analysis<br />Using the process flow & stratifi-cation CE diagram list the potential causes<br />Analyse the potential causes <br />Plan, collect & analyse the data that identifies the potential cause as the root cause<br />Does the data identify the potential cause as the root cause?<br /><ul><li>Brainstorm / use FMEA to identify potential causes & use CE diagrams to organise them
13. 13. Use Check sheet, comparison plots, histograms etc to evaluate stratification factors
14. 14. Use Scatter plots to evaluate relationships between characteristics
15. 15. Use Gage studies to evaluate the measurement system</li></li></ul><li>D5. Permanent Corrective Action(s)<br />11<br />No<br />Establish PCA criteria : re-evaluate team structure for capability & compe-tency<br />Develop and choose the best PCA<br />Select key metrics & record baseline data<br />Plan PCA feasibility with ICA removed and with pre-produc-tion test programs<br />Record verifica-tion data<br />Has the problem been solved & verified with appro-priate statistical tools?<br />Does the customer agree that his / her problem has been resolved?<br />Will the PCA when implemented create new problems for any other customer?<br />Choose the verified PCA<br /><ul><li>Control charts and histograms to evaluate process stability and capability
16. 16. Check sheets to collect product or process evaluation information
17. 17. FMEA</li></li></ul><li>D6. Implement & Validate PCA<br />12<br />Re-evaluate team structure for gover-nance, capability & compe-tency<br />Develop imple-mentation plan to support , and monitor actions<br />Develop monitor & control plans including layered audit programs & frequen-cy<br />Remove ICA (as defined in D3 earlier)<br />Imple-ment PCA plan<br />Establish on-going controls and ensure regular verfica-tion<br />Forma-lise & update the process flows, systems, Eng. Specs, SOP etc with all changes<br />Notify all parties of the PCA including changes<br /><ul><li>Control charts and check sheets to monitor process performance
18. 18. Comparison plots to periodically ensure stratification factors are not influencing process output
19. 19. Dimensional Control Plan</li></li></ul><li>D7. System Prevention / Recurrence<br />13<br />Revise the process flows, systems, & proce-dures <br />Define & imple-ment plan to co-ordinate the required actions<br />Make system changes to prevent recur- rence<br />Standadise the new practices<br />Notify all parties of the resolution (use FMEA)<br />Docu-ment lessons learned & archive docu-ments<br /><ul><li>Process flow diagram to define the management system that did not prevent the problem
20. 20. Action plan to coordinate needed changes
21. 21. FMEA</li></li></ul><li>D8. Team Recognition / Celebration<br />14<br />Deter-mine the appro-priate team recogni-tion process / program (HR policies)<br />Present case / event for team recogni-tion to the top manage-ment<br />Investi-gate patent / trade-mark for the designed solution <br />Celebrate success<br />Team members disengaged and return to their normal duties<br /><ul><li>Recognise the collective efforts of the team</li></li></ul><li>8D - Problem Solving Template<br />15<br />
22. 22. 16<br />“If the only tool you have is a hammer, you tend to see every problem as a nail.” <br />- Abraham Maslow<br />
23. 23. 17<br />Good Luck<br />http://www.linkedin.com/in/anandsubramaniam<br />