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8 D – Problem Solving Process



Using 8 Disciplines - a structured approach (Ford Motor Company) to continuously improve quality, eliminate root causes and prevent their reoccurrence

Using 8 Disciplines - a structured approach (Ford Motor Company) to continuously improve quality, eliminate root causes and prevent their reoccurrence



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    8 D – Problem Solving Process 8 D – Problem Solving Process Presentation Transcript

    • 8D – Problem Solving Process
      Using 8 Disciplines - a structured approach (Ford Motor Company) to continuously improve quality, eliminate root causes and prevent their reoccurrence
      Anand Subramaniam
    • 2
      “An undefined problem has an infinite number of solutions.”
      - Robert A. Humphrey
    • Quality Process - Definition
      Vendor / partner management
      Corrective & preventative action
      Continuous improvement
      Review operations results
      Customer management / satisfaction
      Quality Process
      Process targets linked to business results
      People performance / training
      Cross functional teams along with people & process measures
      Non conforming material
    • Problem Solving Challenges
      Lack procedures
      Poor team participation
      No priorities, resources, $, approvals
      Management Impatient for a quick fix
      No logical thought process
      Problem solving steps skipped in order to obtain a quick solution
      Potential causes misidentified as root cause
      No action taken to implement a permanent corrective action
      Problem defined incorrectly
      Lack of technical skills / knowledge
    • Problem Solving – Why 8D is used ?
      Cause(s) unknown
      Major non conformances
      Special Cause
      Continuously improve quality
      Reoccurring issues
      Why 8D?
      Customer complaints
      Tackle engineering problems
      Cross functional team approach needed
      To prevent recurrence
    • 8 Discipline – Process
      D1. Define Team
      D2. Define Problem / Failure
      D3. Choose & Verify Interim Containment Action (ICA)
      D4. Define & Verify Root Cause(s)
      D5. Choose & Verify Permanent Corrective Action(s) (PCA)
      D6. Implement & Validate PCA
      D7. System Prevention Actions to Prevent Recurrence
      D8. Team Recognition / Celebration
    • D1. Define Team
      Establish team cham-pion
      Select cross function-al team members who will partici-pate
      Does each member have product / process know-ledge & work experi-ence?
      Is the team size correct ?
      Define role, scope, schedule etc for each team member
      Establish a team leader
      Establish advisors who will help the team members with the problem solving
      Ensure all areas for technical expertise are represen-ted
      Ensure team members are clear on goals, commu-nication, roles & respon-sibilities
      • Establish a small group of people with the: process / product knowledge, time, authority, technical skills to solve the problem and implement corrective actions
      • The group must have an actively interested designated champion
    • D2. Define Problem / Failure
      Identify current data to describe the problem / failure
      Define the high level process flow
      Collect current & historical data to quantify the problem
      Describe the problem in terms of an opera-tional definition
      Discuss with customer to ensure the correct-ness / accuracy of the problem descrip-tion
      Has the problem scope been defined for all stratifica-tion factors?
      Ensure that the 5W2H been done
      Define & verify the problem state-ment
      • Process flow diagram to define the process
      • Pareto analysis to select priority problems
      • Control charts to indicate special causes
      • Check sheets to define 5W2H action plan to coordinate problem definition actions
    • D3. Interim Containment Action (ICA)
      Establish decision criteria
      Define & select key metrics & measure-ments
      Test for freasibi-lity and choose the best ICA
      Has the not needed effect / problem been isolated from internal / external customer?
      Will the ICA create other problems?
      Develop action plan & imple-ment ICA
      Monitor ICA effective-ness
      Is the not needed effect / problem been elimi-nated?
      Continue to monitor ICA effecti-ness
      • Check sheets to evaluate effectiveness of actions
      • Control charts and histograms with intensive sampling for process monitoring
    • D4. Define & Verify Root Cause(s)
      Develop a Cause & Effect (CE) diagram with all sources of variation
      Develop a stratifi-cation CE diagram
      Has all team member input been obtained for the CE diagram?
      Develop a compari-tive analysis to highlight critical problem & non problem areas
      Establish a time line / schedule for analysis
      Using the process flow & stratifi-cation CE diagram list the potential causes
      Analyse the potential causes
      Plan, collect & analyse the data that identifies the potential cause as the root cause
      Does the data identify the potential cause as the root cause?
      • Brainstorm / use FMEA to identify potential causes & use CE diagrams to organise them
      • Use Check sheet, comparison plots, histograms etc to evaluate stratification factors
      • Use Scatter plots to evaluate relationships between characteristics
      • Use Gage studies to evaluate the measurement system
    • D5. Permanent Corrective Action(s)
      Establish PCA criteria : re-evaluate team structure for capability & compe-tency
      Develop and choose the best PCA
      Select key metrics & record baseline data
      Plan PCA feasibility with ICA removed and with pre-produc-tion test programs
      Record verifica-tion data
      Has the problem been solved & verified with appro-priate statistical tools?
      Does the customer agree that his / her problem has been resolved?
      Will the PCA when implemented create new problems for any other customer?
      Choose the verified PCA
      • Control charts and histograms to evaluate process stability and capability
      • Check sheets to collect product or process evaluation information
      • FMEA
    • D6. Implement & Validate PCA
      Re-evaluate team structure for gover-nance, capability & compe-tency
      Develop imple-mentation plan to support , and monitor actions
      Develop monitor & control plans including layered audit programs & frequen-cy
      Remove ICA (as defined in D3 earlier)
      Imple-ment PCA plan
      Establish on-going controls and ensure regular verfica-tion
      Forma-lise & update the process flows, systems, Eng. Specs, SOP etc with all changes
      Notify all parties of the PCA including changes
      • Control charts and check sheets to monitor process performance
      • Comparison plots to periodically ensure stratification factors are not influencing process output
      • Dimensional Control Plan
    • D7. System Prevention / Recurrence
      Revise the process flows, systems, & proce-dures
      Define & imple-ment plan to co-ordinate the required actions
      Make system changes to prevent recur- rence
      Standadise the new practices
      Notify all parties of the resolution (use FMEA)
      Docu-ment lessons learned & archive docu-ments
      • Process flow diagram to define the management system that did not prevent the problem
      • Action plan to coordinate needed changes
      • FMEA
    • D8. Team Recognition / Celebration
      Deter-mine the appro-priate team recogni-tion process / program (HR policies)
      Present case / event for team recogni-tion to the top manage-ment
      Investi-gate patent / trade-mark for the designed solution
      Celebrate success
      Team members disengaged and return to their normal duties
      • Recognise the collective efforts of the team
    • 8D - Problem Solving Template
    • 16
      “If the only tool you have is a hammer, you tend to see every problem as a nail.”
      - Abraham Maslow
    • 17
      Good Luck