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8 D – Problem Solving Process

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Using 8 Disciplines - a structured approach (Ford Motor Company) to continuously improve quality, eliminate root causes and prevent their reoccurrence

Using 8 Disciplines - a structured approach (Ford Motor Company) to continuously improve quality, eliminate root causes and prevent their reoccurrence

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8 D – Problem Solving Process 8 D – Problem Solving Process Presentation Transcript

  • 8D – Problem Solving Process
    Using 8 Disciplines - a structured approach (Ford Motor Company) to continuously improve quality, eliminate root causes and prevent their reoccurrence
    Anand Subramaniam
  • 2
    “An undefined problem has an infinite number of solutions.”
    - Robert A. Humphrey
  • Quality Process - Definition
    Vendor / partner management
    Corrective & preventative action
    Continuous improvement
    Review operations results
    Customer management / satisfaction
    Quality Process
    Process targets linked to business results
    People performance / training
    Cross functional teams along with people & process measures
    Non conforming material
    3
  • Problem Solving Challenges
    Lack procedures
    Poor team participation
    No priorities, resources, $, approvals
    Management Impatient for a quick fix
    No logical thought process
    Problem solving steps skipped in order to obtain a quick solution
    Challenges
    Potential causes misidentified as root cause
    No action taken to implement a permanent corrective action
    Problem defined incorrectly
    Lack of technical skills / knowledge
    4
  • Problem Solving – Why 8D is used ?
    Cause(s) unknown
    Major non conformances
    Special Cause
    Continuously improve quality
    Reoccurring issues
    Why 8D?
    Customer complaints
    Tackle engineering problems
    Cross functional team approach needed
    To prevent recurrence
    5
  • 8 Discipline – Process
    D1. Define Team
    D2. Define Problem / Failure
    D3. Choose & Verify Interim Containment Action (ICA)
    D4. Define & Verify Root Cause(s)
    D5. Choose & Verify Permanent Corrective Action(s) (PCA)
    D6. Implement & Validate PCA
    D7. System Prevention Actions to Prevent Recurrence
    D8. Team Recognition / Celebration
  • D1. Define Team
    7
    No
    Establish team cham-pion
    Select cross function-al team members who will partici-pate
    Does each member have product / process know-ledge & work experi-ence?
    Is the team size correct ?
    Define role, scope, schedule etc for each team member
    Establish a team leader
    Establish advisors who will help the team members with the problem solving
    Ensure all areas for technical expertise are represen-ted
    Ensure team members are clear on goals, commu-nication, roles & respon-sibilities
    • Establish a small group of people with the: process / product knowledge, time, authority, technical skills to solve the problem and implement corrective actions
    • The group must have an actively interested designated champion
  • D2. Define Problem / Failure
    8
    No
    Identify current data to describe the problem / failure
    Define the high level process flow
    Collect current & historical data to quantify the problem
    Describe the problem in terms of an opera-tional definition
    Discuss with customer to ensure the correct-ness / accuracy of the problem descrip-tion
    Has the problem scope been defined for all stratifica-tion factors?
    Ensure that the 5W2H been done
    Define & verify the problem state-ment
    • Process flow diagram to define the process
    • Pareto analysis to select priority problems
    • Control charts to indicate special causes
    • Check sheets to define 5W2H action plan to coordinate problem definition actions
  • D3. Interim Containment Action (ICA)
    9
    No
    Establish decision criteria
    Define & select key metrics & measure-ments
    Test for freasibi-lity and choose the best ICA
    Has the not needed effect / problem been isolated from internal / external customer?
    Will the ICA create other problems?
    Develop action plan & imple-ment ICA
    Monitor ICA effective-ness
    Is the not needed effect / problem been elimi-nated?
    Continue to monitor ICA effecti-ness
    • Check sheets to evaluate effectiveness of actions
    • Control charts and histograms with intensive sampling for process monitoring
  • D4. Define & Verify Root Cause(s)
    10
    No
    No
    Develop a Cause & Effect (CE) diagram with all sources of variation
    Develop a stratifi-cation CE diagram
    Has all team member input been obtained for the CE diagram?
    Develop a compari-tive analysis to highlight critical problem & non problem areas
    Establish a time line / schedule for analysis
    Using the process flow & stratifi-cation CE diagram list the potential causes
    Analyse the potential causes
    Plan, collect & analyse the data that identifies the potential cause as the root cause
    Does the data identify the potential cause as the root cause?
    • Brainstorm / use FMEA to identify potential causes & use CE diagrams to organise them
    • Use Check sheet, comparison plots, histograms etc to evaluate stratification factors
    • Use Scatter plots to evaluate relationships between characteristics
    • Use Gage studies to evaluate the measurement system
  • D5. Permanent Corrective Action(s)
    11
    No
    Establish PCA criteria : re-evaluate team structure for capability & compe-tency
    Develop and choose the best PCA
    Select key metrics & record baseline data
    Plan PCA feasibility with ICA removed and with pre-produc-tion test programs
    Record verifica-tion data
    Has the problem been solved & verified with appro-priate statistical tools?
    Does the customer agree that his / her problem has been resolved?
    Will the PCA when implemented create new problems for any other customer?
    Choose the verified PCA
    • Control charts and histograms to evaluate process stability and capability
    • Check sheets to collect product or process evaluation information
    • FMEA
  • D6. Implement & Validate PCA
    12
    Re-evaluate team structure for gover-nance, capability & compe-tency
    Develop imple-mentation plan to support , and monitor actions
    Develop monitor & control plans including layered audit programs & frequen-cy
    Remove ICA (as defined in D3 earlier)
    Imple-ment PCA plan
    Establish on-going controls and ensure regular verfica-tion
    Forma-lise & update the process flows, systems, Eng. Specs, SOP etc with all changes
    Notify all parties of the PCA including changes
    • Control charts and check sheets to monitor process performance
    • Comparison plots to periodically ensure stratification factors are not influencing process output
    • Dimensional Control Plan
  • D7. System Prevention / Recurrence
    13
    Revise the process flows, systems, & proce-dures
    Define & imple-ment plan to co-ordinate the required actions
    Make system changes to prevent recur- rence
    Standadise the new practices
    Notify all parties of the resolution (use FMEA)
    Docu-ment lessons learned & archive docu-ments
    • Process flow diagram to define the management system that did not prevent the problem
    • Action plan to coordinate needed changes
    • FMEA
  • D8. Team Recognition / Celebration
    14
    Deter-mine the appro-priate team recogni-tion process / program (HR policies)
    Present case / event for team recogni-tion to the top manage-ment
    Investi-gate patent / trade-mark for the designed solution
    Celebrate success
    Team members disengaged and return to their normal duties
    • Recognise the collective efforts of the team
  • 8D - Problem Solving Template
    15
  • 16
    “If the only tool you have is a hammer, you tend to see every problem as a nail.”
    - Abraham Maslow
  • 17
    Good Luck
    http://www.linkedin.com/in/anandsubramaniam