WEEK 5:  INTRODUCTION TO BUDDHISM <ul><li>DR. DORIS R. JAKOBSH </li></ul>
IS BUDDHISM A RELIGION? <ul><li>NO ‘GOD-NOTION’ </li></ul><ul><li>NO CREATOR </li></ul><ul><li>NO ULTIMATE REALITY TO WORS...
BUT: <ul><li>ALLOWING FOR A DIFFERENT VOCABULARY </li></ul><ul><li>NON-THEISTIC </li></ul><ul><li>THEN BUDDHISM IS A RELIG...
ESSENCE: <ul><li>Buddhism is a way of life </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological  </li></ul><ul><li>Ph...
BUDDHIST ALTARS <ul><li>Do not focus on an archetypal hero </li></ul><ul><li>Mother, father image </li></ul><ul><li>Rather...
<ul><li>Buddha  </li></ul><ul><li>under  </li></ul><ul><li>Bodhi </li></ul><ul><li>Tree, </li></ul><ul><li>Sri  </li></ul>...
Gal Vihara, Polannaruwa. The Buddha is dying
THAI WALKING BUDDHA
1993 CHICAGO PARLIAMENT OF THE WORLD RELIGIONS <ul><li>“ The Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was not God or a god.  He wa...
BUDDHA AND ‘ULTIMATE QUESTIONS’  <ul><li>Nature of the soul </li></ul><ul><li>Life after death </li></ul><ul><li>Origin of...
“ BEING RELIGIOUS AND FOLLOWING DHARMA HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH DOGMA THAT THE WORLD IS ETERNAL.  FOR WHETHER THE WORLD IS E...
ANALOGY: <ul><li>BUDDHA TEACHINGS = RAFT </li></ul><ul><li>SHORE = NIRVANA </li></ul><ul><li>BUT:  THE SHORE IS NOT DESCRI...
DEER PARK SERMON <ul><li>Four  </li></ul><ul><li>Noble </li></ul><ul><li>Truths </li></ul><ul><li>‘Middle  </li></ul><ul><...
“ THERE ARE 2 EXTREMES, MONKS, WHICH ARE TO BE AVOIDED.  WHAT ARE THESE 2 EXTREMES?  A LIFE GIVEN TO PLEASURES, DEDICATED ...
FIRST NOBLE TRUTH: <ul><li>LIFE INEVITABLY INVOLVES SUFFERING: </li></ul><ul><li>Imperfect </li></ul><ul><li>Illness </li>...
SECOND NOBLE TRUTH: <ul><li>THE ORIGIN OF SUFFERING IS OUR DESIRES: </li></ul><ul><li>Grasping for pleasure </li></ul><ul>...
THIRD NOBLE TRUTH: <ul><li>SUFFERING WILL STOP WHEN DESIRES ARE STOPPED: </li></ul><ul><li>When the ‘grasping’ stops </li>...
FOURTH NOBLE TRUTH: <ul><li>THERE IS A WAY TO GET TO THIS POINT:  THE EIGHTFOLD PATH </li></ul>
1) RIGHT UNDERSTANDING <ul><li>Understanding reality through the Four Noble Truths </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing through illusi...
2) RIGHT THOUGHT/MOTIVES <ul><li>Uncover ‘unwholesome’ emotional roots that guide our thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Discover ...
3) RIGHT SPEECH <ul><li>VS. - Vain talk, gossip, harsh words, lying </li></ul><ul><li>Communication must further truth and...
4) RIGHT ACTION <ul><li>FIVE RULES OF MORAL CONDUCT: </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT DESTROY LIFE </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT STEAL ...
MONKEYS TAKE CARE OF THE TREES, STORY
5) RIGHT LIVELIHOOD <ul><li>How one makes their living </li></ul><ul><li>One’s work should not harm others </li></ul>
6) RIGHT EFFORT <ul><li>Refers to the constant effort that must be put into achieving these goals </li></ul><ul><li>IT TAK...
7) RIGHT MINDFULNESS <ul><li>The way to liberation is through the mind </li></ul><ul><li>“ CHECK YOUR MIND </li></ul><ul><...
8) RIGHT MEDITATION <ul><li>Applying mental discipline to quiet the mind </li></ul><ul><li>THE MIND IS SUBTLE, INVISIBLE, ...
KARMA: <ul><li>CAUSE OF NEXT LIFE = KARMA </li></ul>
ANATMAN, SKANDHAS <ul><li>ANATMAN -  No soul to be reborn; no permanent reality </li></ul><ul><li>SKANDHAS  – aggregates <...
KARMA:  ANALOGY <ul><li>Candle analogy </li></ul><ul><li>Domino analogy </li></ul>
SAMSARA <ul><li>Worldly phenomena </li></ul><ul><li>Life, suffering, decay, death, painful rebirth </li></ul>
NIRVANA <ul><li>“ No suffering for him </li></ul><ul><li>Who is free from sorrow </li></ul><ul><li>Free from the fetters o...
Anuradhapura, Sri Lankan Stupa
TIBETAN CHORTEN/STUPA
MAITREYA BUDDHA/FUTURE, UNIVERSAL BUDDHA
SAMGHA:  ORIGINS <ul><li>(samgha = community/followers) </li></ul><ul><li>Initially samgha = 5 ascetics </li></ul><ul><li>...
10 PRECEPTS <ul><li>Refrain from taking life (ahimsa) </li></ul><ul><li>Do not take what is not given </li></ul><ul><li>Ch...
MONASTICS VS LAY PEOPLE <ul><li>ONLY FIRST FIVE PRECEPTS FOR LAY FOLLOWERS </li></ul><ul><li>ALL TEN FOR MONKS AND NUNS </...
THE ‘ORDER’ AND WOMEN <ul><li>Women included since time of Buddha </li></ul><ul><li>YET, some hesitation </li></ul><ul><li...
THREE JEWELS/THREE REFUGES <ul><li>I TAKE REFUGE IN THE BUDDHA </li></ul><ul><li>I TAKE REFUGE IN THE DHARMA </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>“ Come,  bhiksu/bhikhuni  (monk, nun)” </li></ul>
WHAT CONSTITUTES THE SAMGHA?  WHO IS ‘WORTHY’? <ul><li>Order of monks and nuns came to be viewed as ‘ideal’ </li></ul><ul>...
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Week7

  1. 1. WEEK 5: INTRODUCTION TO BUDDHISM <ul><li>DR. DORIS R. JAKOBSH </li></ul>
  2. 2. IS BUDDHISM A RELIGION? <ul><li>NO ‘GOD-NOTION’ </li></ul><ul><li>NO CREATOR </li></ul><ul><li>NO ULTIMATE REALITY TO WORSHIP </li></ul>
  3. 3. BUT: <ul><li>ALLOWING FOR A DIFFERENT VOCABULARY </li></ul><ul><li>NON-THEISTIC </li></ul><ul><li>THEN BUDDHISM IS A RELIGION </li></ul>
  4. 4. ESSENCE: <ul><li>Buddhism is a way of life </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy of BECOMING/AWAKENING </li></ul>
  5. 5. BUDDHIST ALTARS <ul><li>Do not focus on an archetypal hero </li></ul><ul><li>Mother, father image </li></ul><ul><li>Rather, a psychological state </li></ul><ul><li>Profound meditation </li></ul><ul><li>Warm compassion </li></ul><ul><li>Fury against illusion </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Buddha </li></ul><ul><li>under </li></ul><ul><li>Bodhi </li></ul><ul><li>Tree, </li></ul><ul><li>Sri </li></ul><ul><li>Lanka </li></ul>
  7. 7. Gal Vihara, Polannaruwa. The Buddha is dying
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
  10. 10. THAI WALKING BUDDHA
  11. 11.
  12. 12. 1993 CHICAGO PARLIAMENT OF THE WORLD RELIGIONS <ul><li>“ The Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was not God or a god. He was a human being who attained full enlightenment through meditation and showed us the path of spiritual awakening and freedom. Therefore, Buddhism is not a religion of God. Buddhism is a religion of wisdom, enlightenment and compassion. Like the worshippers of God who believe that salvation is available to all through confession of sin and a life a prayer, we Buddhists believe that salvation and enlightenment are available to all through the removal of delusion and a life of meditation/ However, unlike those who believe in God who is separate from us, Buddhists believe that Buddha, which means ‘one who is awake and enlightened’ is inherent in us all as Buddhanature or Buddhamind.” </li></ul>
  13. 13. BUDDHA AND ‘ULTIMATE QUESTIONS’ <ul><li>Nature of the soul </li></ul><ul><li>Life after death </li></ul><ul><li>Origin of the universe </li></ul><ul><li>NOT ADDRESSED </li></ul>
  14. 14. “ BEING RELIGIOUS AND FOLLOWING DHARMA HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH DOGMA THAT THE WORLD IS ETERNAL. FOR WHETHER THE WORLD IS ETERNAL OR OTHERWISE, BIRHT, OLD AGE, DEATH, SORROW, PAIN, MISERY, GRIEF AND DESPAIR EXIST. I AM CONCERNED WITH THE EXTINCTION OF THESE.”
  15. 15. ANALOGY: <ul><li>BUDDHA TEACHINGS = RAFT </li></ul><ul><li>SHORE = NIRVANA </li></ul><ul><li>BUT: THE SHORE IS NOT DESCRIBED </li></ul><ul><li>MAKE-UP OF RAFT IS THE BUDDHA’S TEACHINGS </li></ul>
  16. 16. DEER PARK SERMON <ul><li>Four </li></ul><ul><li>Noble </li></ul><ul><li>Truths </li></ul><ul><li>‘Middle </li></ul><ul><li>Way’ </li></ul>
  17. 17. “ THERE ARE 2 EXTREMES, MONKS, WHICH ARE TO BE AVOIDED. WHAT ARE THESE 2 EXTREMES? A LIFE GIVEN TO PLEASURES, DEDICATED TO PLEASURES AND LUSTS – THIS IS DEGRADING, SENSUAL, VULGAR, UNWORTHY AND USELESS. AND A LIFE GIVEN TO SELF-TORTURE – THIS IS PAINFUL, UNWORTHY, AND USELESS. BY AVOIDING THESE 2 EXTREMES, MONKS, I HAVE GAINED THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE MIDDLE PATH, WHICH LEADS TO INSIGHT, WHICH LEADS TO WISDOM, WHICH PRODUCES CALM, KNOWLEDGE, ENLIGHTENMENT AND NIRVANA.”
  18. 18. FIRST NOBLE TRUTH: <ul><li>LIFE INEVITABLY INVOLVES SUFFERING: </li></ul><ul><li>Imperfect </li></ul><ul><li>Illness </li></ul><ul><li>Hateful </li></ul><ul><li>Separation </li></ul>
  19. 19. SECOND NOBLE TRUTH: <ul><li>THE ORIGIN OF SUFFERING IS OUR DESIRES: </li></ul><ul><li>Grasping for pleasure </li></ul><ul><li>Grasping for becoming </li></ul><ul><li>Grasping for sensual delight </li></ul><ul><li>Grasping for what we don’t have </li></ul>
  20. 20. THIRD NOBLE TRUTH: <ul><li>SUFFERING WILL STOP WHEN DESIRES ARE STOPPED: </li></ul><ul><li>When the ‘grasping’ stops </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination of passions </li></ul>
  21. 21. FOURTH NOBLE TRUTH: <ul><li>THERE IS A WAY TO GET TO THIS POINT: THE EIGHTFOLD PATH </li></ul>
  22. 22. 1) RIGHT UNDERSTANDING <ul><li>Understanding reality through the Four Noble Truths </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing through illusions </li></ul>
  23. 23. 2) RIGHT THOUGHT/MOTIVES <ul><li>Uncover ‘unwholesome’ emotional roots that guide our thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Discover and weed out </li></ul><ul><li>Only then do we become free from self-centredness </li></ul>
  24. 24. 3) RIGHT SPEECH <ul><li>VS. - Vain talk, gossip, harsh words, lying </li></ul><ul><li>Communication must further truth and harmony </li></ul><ul><li>Including ‘self-talk’: “May you be well and happy today…” </li></ul>
  25. 25. 4) RIGHT ACTION <ul><li>FIVE RULES OF MORAL CONDUCT: </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT DESTROY LIFE </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT STEAL </li></ul><ul><li>AVOID SEXUAL MISCONDUCT </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT LIE </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT USE INTOXICANTS </li></ul><ul><li>ABOVE ALL: ALL ACTIONS SHOULD BE BASED ON CLEAR UNDERSTANDING </li></ul>
  26. 26. MONKEYS TAKE CARE OF THE TREES, STORY
  27. 27. 5) RIGHT LIVELIHOOD <ul><li>How one makes their living </li></ul><ul><li>One’s work should not harm others </li></ul>
  28. 28. 6) RIGHT EFFORT <ul><li>Refers to the constant effort that must be put into achieving these goals </li></ul><ul><li>IT TAKES EFFORT! </li></ul>
  29. 29. 7) RIGHT MINDFULNESS <ul><li>The way to liberation is through the mind </li></ul><ul><li>“ CHECK YOUR MIND </li></ul><ul><li>BE ON GUARD </li></ul><ul><li>PULL YOURSELF OUT </li></ul><ul><li>LIKE AN ELEPHANT FROM THE MUD.” </li></ul>
  30. 30. 8) RIGHT MEDITATION <ul><li>Applying mental discipline to quiet the mind </li></ul><ul><li>THE MIND IS SUBTLE, INVISIBLE, AND TREACHEROUS </li></ul><ul><li>USE SKILFUL MEANS TO SEE AND UNDERSTAND ITS NATURE </li></ul>
  31. 31. KARMA: <ul><li>CAUSE OF NEXT LIFE = KARMA </li></ul>
  32. 32. ANATMAN, SKANDHAS <ul><li>ANATMAN - No soul to be reborn; no permanent reality </li></ul><ul><li>SKANDHAS – aggregates </li></ul>
  33. 33. KARMA: ANALOGY <ul><li>Candle analogy </li></ul><ul><li>Domino analogy </li></ul>
  34. 34. SAMSARA <ul><li>Worldly phenomena </li></ul><ul><li>Life, suffering, decay, death, painful rebirth </li></ul>
  35. 35. NIRVANA <ul><li>“ No suffering for him </li></ul><ul><li>Who is free from sorrow </li></ul><ul><li>Free from the fetters of life </li></ul><ul><li>Free in everything he does </li></ul><ul><li>He has reached the end of his road… </li></ul><ul><li>Like a bird invisibly flying in the sky </li></ul><ul><li>He lives without possessions </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge his food, freedom his world </li></ul><ul><li>While others wonder… </li></ul><ul><li>He has found freedom – </li></ul><ul><li>Peaceful his thinking, peaceful his speech </li></ul><ul><li>Peaceful his deed, tranquil his mind.” </li></ul>
  36. 36. Anuradhapura, Sri Lankan Stupa
  37. 37. TIBETAN CHORTEN/STUPA
  38. 38. MAITREYA BUDDHA/FUTURE, UNIVERSAL BUDDHA
  39. 39. SAMGHA: ORIGINS <ul><li>(samgha = community/followers) </li></ul><ul><li>Initially samgha = 5 ascetics </li></ul><ul><li>Set in motion the ‘wheel of dharma/dhamma’ </li></ul><ul><li>ANYONE could be part of the Buddha’s group </li></ul>
  40. 40. 10 PRECEPTS <ul><li>Refrain from taking life (ahimsa) </li></ul><ul><li>Do not take what is not given </li></ul><ul><li>Chastity </li></ul><ul><li>Do not lie or deceive </li></ul><ul><li>Do not take intoxicants </li></ul><ul><li>Consume food in moderation; never after noon </li></ul><ul><li>Do not partake in public spectacles (dancing, singing) </li></ul><ul><li>Do not ornament your body </li></ul><ul><li>Do not recline on wide or high beds </li></ul><ul><li>Do not accept gold or silver </li></ul>
  41. 41. MONASTICS VS LAY PEOPLE <ul><li>ONLY FIRST FIVE PRECEPTS FOR LAY FOLLOWERS </li></ul><ul><li>ALL TEN FOR MONKS AND NUNS </li></ul>
  42. 42. THE ‘ORDER’ AND WOMEN <ul><li>Women included since time of Buddha </li></ul><ul><li>YET, some hesitation </li></ul><ul><li>Lesser order </li></ul><ul><li>Different, subordinate rules guiding them </li></ul>
  43. 43. THREE JEWELS/THREE REFUGES <ul><li>I TAKE REFUGE IN THE BUDDHA </li></ul><ul><li>I TAKE REFUGE IN THE DHARMA </li></ul><ul><li>I TAKE REFUGE IN THE SAMGHA </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>“ Come, bhiksu/bhikhuni (monk, nun)” </li></ul>
  45. 45. WHAT CONSTITUTES THE SAMGHA? WHO IS ‘WORTHY’? <ul><li>Order of monks and nuns came to be viewed as ‘ideal’ </li></ul><ul><li>Laypeople came to be viewed as the inferior way </li></ul><ul><li>LED TO MAHAYANA AND THERAVADA DIVISION </li></ul>
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