Foundation engineering lecture 1

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Introduction, Foundation Engineering

Introduction, Foundation Engineering

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  • 1. FOUNDATION ENGINEERING BCE III/I Anand Panta BE(Civil), MS (Geomechanics) Lecturer and Deputy Head Department of Civil Engineering Kantipur Engineering College
  • 2. FOUNDATION ENGINEERING OBJECTIVES:  To be familiar with the basic concepts and tools used to determine structure/ foundation/ soil interactions Analyze the behavior of geotechnical structures under static loads, this includes:          2/27/2014  Soil Exploration Shallow Foundation Deep Foundation Retaining structures <<Gravity walls>> Retaining structures <<Flexible walls>> Soil arching Soil improvements Determine the behavior involved in these structures Present the design methods 2
  • 3. WHAT ARE THE GEOTECHNICAL STRUCTURES? o Foundations 2/27/2014 3
  • 4. RETAINING STRUCTURES o Gravity walls 2/27/2014 Gabion wall Reinforced concrete walls Concrete wall 4
  • 5. RETAINING STRUCTURES o Flexible Walls 2/27/2014 Sheet pile walls Coffer dam 5
  • 6. 2/27/2014 6
  • 7. GENERAL OUTLINE 2/27/2014  Marks distribution Final (80) Theory (100) Full Marks (125) Internal (20) Practical (25) Final (80) Final examination by IOE Internal (20) Attendance & Tutorials(20%)+Class Test (30%)+ Assessment II(50%) Practical (25) Report (Observation Tour of a site investigation project)+Objective test 7
  • 8. GENERAL OUTLINE: SYLLABUS Chapter Title Marks 1 2 2 Soil Exploration 6 12 3 Lateral Earth Pressure Theories and Retaining Walls 10 16 4 Arching in Soils and Braced Cuts 3 4 5 Flexible Retaining Structures and Coffer Dams 3 4 6 Bearing Capacity and Settlement of Shallow Foundation 6 12 7 Mat Foundations 3 6 8 Pile Foundations 6 12 9 Well Foundations 4 8 10 Foundation Soil Improvements 3 4 2/27/2014 1 Introduction  Syllabus Lecture Hours 8
  • 9. GENERAL OUTLINE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2/27/2014  Reference Books “Foundation Analysis and Design” Joseph E.Bowels. McGraw-Hill International Editions, Fifth Edition, 1997 “Principles of Foundation Engineering” Braja M. Das, Fifth Edition, 2003. “Basic and Applied Soil Mechanics” Gopal Ranjan and ASR Rao, Second Edition New Age International Publishers, 2000 “Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering” K.R. Arora Standard Publisher Distribution 1997 “A Text Book of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering in SI units” VNS Murthy UBS Publishers Distributors Ltd. Fourth Edition 1993 6. “Pile Foundation Analysis and Design”, H.G. Poulos and E.H. Davis, John and sons 1980 7. “A Text Book of Foundation Engineering” Dr. R.K. Poudel and R. Neupane. 9
  • 10. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION  Substructure elements, used to transfer the load of a structure(self weight +other actions) to the soil  Correspond to either limited loads or good quality soil (strength and stiffness)  Different geometries  Reinforced concrete  2/27/2014 1.1 Foundation Engineering, Importance and purpose  Foundation Two main aspect of the behavior:   Ultimate limit failure: bearing capacity Serviceability limit: settlement 10
  • 11. WHY FOUNDATION ENGINEERING IS IMPORTANT? 2/27/2014 11
  • 12. Pile failure due to earthquake 2/27/2014 12
  • 13. DIFFERENTIAL SETTLEMENT 2/27/2014 13 The Leaning Tower of Pisa leans due to a faulty foundation.
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  • 18. 1.2 CLASSIFICATION AND GENERAL REQUIREMENT 2/27/2014  Classification Foundation Shallow Spread or Isolated Footing Strip or wall Footing Deep Combined Footing Strap Footing Mat foundation 18
  • 19. CLASSIFICATION o Shallow Foundation 2/27/2014 •Terzaghi(1943) If D/B<1, shallow •If D/B>1 & <15, moderately deep •If D/B>15, deep Foundation W Isolated footing Strip Footing (L>>B) 19 Strap Strap footing Raft foundation
  • 20. DEEP FOUNDATION 2/27/2014 End bearing pile Pile Foundation Friction pile 20
  • 21. GENERAL REQUIREMENT Location and depth criteria 2/27/2014  21
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  • 26. SETTLEMENT CRITERIA 2/27/2014 Differential settlement Example: Leaning Tower Of Pisa  non-uniform, sponge-like saturated clay soil  26 The Leaning Tower of Pisaleans due to a faulty foundation.
  • 27. SETTLEMENT CRITERIA 2/27/2014 27
  • 28. SETTLEMENT CRITERIA 2/27/2014 28
  • 29. Shear failure criteria or bearing capacity criteria 2/27/2014 29
  • 30. 1.3 FACTORS INFLUENCING THE CHOICE OF FOUNDATION 2/27/2014 Principal Factors: •Function of structure •Load on foundation •Subsurface condition •Cost Other factors: •Need of client or owner •Type of super structure •Environmental considerations •Margin of safety •Risk Level •Service life 30
  • 31. 1.4 SELECTION OF FOUNDATION TYPE 2/27/2014 Steps to select a foundation 1. Obtain information concerning the nature of the superstructure and loads to be transmitted 2. Determine the subsurface condition 3. Engineering judgment for suitable type of foundation 4. Detailed study and tentative design of most promising types of foundation 5. Prepare cost estimate of each promising type and choose best with respect to performance and cost 31
  • 32. SAMPLE QUESTIONS 2/27/2014 Describe with sketches the various types of shallow foundations. Explain under what circumstances they are used.  Describe various factors that affect foundation selection. Explain the step by step procedure for the selection of a suitable in a given situation.  What are the fundamental requirements of foundation selection?  32
  • 33. 2/27/2014 Thank you for your attention! 33