Bio.. mcq..


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Bio.. mcq..

  1. 1. KPOK-1 M-1? As a result of mutation the sense of the triplet changed, and it began to code another amino acid.Identify the +mutation.+ Mix sense;- Inversion;- Translocation;- Transversion;- Transition.?1.On an electron micrograph a scientist has identified a structure formed by eight histoneproteins and a part of DNA molecule which makes about 1,75 revolutions around the molecules.Which structure has been identified:+ Chromosome;- Elemetary fibril;- Chromatid;- Nucleosoma;- Half-chromatid;?It was found out that some compounds, for instance fungi toxins and some antibiotics can inhibitactivity of RNA-polymerase. What process will be disturbed in a cell in case of inhibition of thisenzyme:+ Transcription;- Reparation;- Replication;- Translation;- Processing;?While studying maximally spiralized chromosomes of human karyotype the process of celldivision was stopped in the following phase:+ Prophase;- Interphase;- Metaphase;- Telophase;?The student analyses an idiogram of female karyotype. He noticed that centromere in Х-chromosome is slightly shifted from middle. Such chromosome has the following name:+ Submetacentric;- Acrocentric;- Telocentric;- Subacrocentric;- Metacentric;?Golgi complex exports substances from a cell due to the fusion of the membrane saccule with thecell membrane. The saccule contents flows out. What process is it:+ Exocytosis;- Facilitated diffusion;- Endocytosis;- Active transport;- All answers are false;?Moving of the daughter chromatids to the poles of the cell is observed in the mitotically dividing
  2. 2. cell. On what phase of the mitotic cycle is this cell:+ Anaphase;- Telophase;- Interfase;- Metaphase;- Prophase;?Which of the following propositions concerning a genetic code is incorrect:+ Each codon determines one amino acid;- Codon contains three nucleotides;- There is only one codon for each amino acid;- Codons are in the template ribonucleic acid;- Nucleotide of one codon cannot be a part of another codon;?What answer is the most qualified one. A transcription it is:+ A synthesis of the template RNA on DNA-molecule with the sequence of nucleotidescomplementary to DNA-molecule;- A transcription of the genetic information from DNA-molecule to the template ribonucleicacid;- Copying of template ribonucleic acid of DNA-molecule;- Synthesis of the proteins;- Synthesis of the polypeptide;?The coiled double helix structure of DNA was suggested as aresult of X-ray diffraction datacollected by:+ Watson and Crick;- Franklin and Wilkens;- Griffith;- Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty;- Hershey and Chase;?Which of the following is/are true of linkages in DNA:+ phosphate to 3 sugar carbon;- The backbone has 3, 2 phosphodiester bonds;- The two strands are joined by covalent bonds;- One strand ends with a 2 phosphate;- Both strands end with a 3 hydroxyl group;?During the kariotyping of human lymphocytes were treated by colchicines. At which stage doesit arrest mitosis and what set of hereditary information will have the cell:+ Metaphase 2n;- Metaphase 4n;- Anaphase 2n;- Anaphase 4n;- Telophase 2n;?Tissue sample of the fetal ovary shows small cells. Some of them undergo mitotic division whatstage of ovogenesis is seen:+ Multiplication;- Growth;- Maturation;- Formation;
  3. 3. - Differentiation;?In electron micrograph are seen oval and round organelles with double wall. Outer membrane issmooth, inner membrane folded into cristae, contain enzyme ATPase synthetase. These are:+ Mitochondria;- Golgi complex;- Lysosomes;- Centrioles;- Ribosomes;?Tissue sample of the patient who benign tumor was studied under the electron microscope. A lotof small (15-20nm) spherical bodies, consisting of 2 unequal subunits were detected. These are+ Ribosomes;- Golgi complex;- Smooth endoplasmic reticulum;- Microtubules;- Mitochondria;?Culture of tumor cells demonstrates rapid cell division by direct splitting of the nucleusFormation of spindle fibers and condensation of chromatin are not seen. This type of celldivision is:+ Amitosis;- Cytokinesis;- Karyokinesis;- Mitosis;- Endomitosis;?Electron photomicrograph shows the cell with separating centrioles and forming mitotic spindle.Chromatin threads are situated in cytoplasm. Nuclear envelop and nucleoli are absent. This istypical for:+ Prophase;- Anaphase;- Interphase;- Metaphase;- Telophase;?While studying human cells culture under the light microscope one saw production of smallvesicles by Golgi complex cistern. Biochemical analysis showed digestive enzymes in itscontents. Which cell organelles were found:+ Lysosome;- Centriole;- Plastid;- Ribosome;- Mitochondrion;?During the studying of karyotype of aborted embryo was identified that one of the firstchromosomes has single arm and terminal position of centromere. Such type of the chromosomeis termed as:+ Telocentric;- Submetacentric;- Acrocentric;- Metacentric;
  4. 4. - Sat-chromosome;?In laboratory experiment leukocyte culture was mixed with staphylococci. Neutrophileleukocytes engulfed and digested bacterial cells. This processes is termed:+ Phagocytosis;- Pinocytosis;- Diffusion;- Facilitated diffusion;- Osmosis;?The cell of the laboratory animal was overdosed with Roentgen rays. As a result albuminousfragments formed in the cytoplasm. What cell organoid will take part at their utilization:+ Endoplasmic reticulum;- Lysosomes;- Cells centre;- Golgi complex;- Ribosome;?Methotrexate (structural analogue of the folic acid which is competitive inhibitor of thedihydrofolatreductase) is prescribed for treatment of the malignant tumour.On which level doesmethotrexate inhibit synthesis of the nucleic acids:+ Mononucleotide synthesis;- Replication;- Transcription;- Processing;- Reparation;?Genetic structure of eukaryote is "exon-intron-exon". This structure-functional organization ofgene caused transcription peculiarities. What will be pro-i-RNA according to the schema:+ Exon-exon-intron;- Exon-exon;- Intron-exon;- Exon-intron-exon;- Exon-intron;?Testosterone and its analogs increase the mass of skeletal muscles that allows to use them fortreatment of dystrophy. Due to interaction of the hormon with what cell substance is this actioncaused:+ Proteins- activators of transcription- Chromatin;- Ribosomes;- Membrane receptors;- Nuclear receptors;?RNA-polymeraseB(II) is blocked due to amanitine poisoning (poison of death-cup). It disturbes:+ Synthesis of m-RNA;- Maturation of m-RNA;- Reverse transcription;- Primers synthesis;- Synthesis of t-RNA;?The study of mitotic cycle phases of onion root revealed the cell, in which the chromo-somes are
  5. 5. situated in the equatorial plane, forming a star. What stage of the cell mitosis is it:+ Prophase;- Metaphase;- Anaphase;- Telophase;- Interphase;?During the postsynthetic period of mitotic cycle the synthesis of proteins - tubulines, which takepart in the mitosis formation, was destroyed. It can cause the impairment of:+ Chromosome separation;- Chromosome despiralization;- Cytokinesis;- Duration of mitosis;- Karyokinesis;?Chromosome spirto use them for treatment of dystrophy. Due to interaction of the hormon withwhat cell substance is this action caused: Ribosomes; Nuclear receptors; Proteins-activators of transcription; Chromatin; Membrane receptors;?A tissue sample of benign tumor was studied under the electron microscope. A lot of small (15-20 nm) spherical bodies, consisting of 2 unequal subunits were detected. These are:+ Ribosomes;- Microtubules ;- Golgi complex;- Mitochondria;- Smooth endoplasmic reticulum;?Oval and round organelles with double wall are seen at the electron micrograph. The outermembrane is smooth, the inner membrane folded into cristae contain enzyme ATPase synthetase.These are:+ Mitochondria;- Ribosomes;- Centrioles;- Golgi complex;- Lysosomes;?Low level of albumins and fibrinogen was detected in the patients blood. Decreased activity ofwhat organelle of the liver hepatocytes can most probably cause it:+ Granular endoplasmatic reticulum;- Golgi complex;- Agranular endoplasmatic reticulum;- Mitochondrions;- Lysosomes;?An experiment proved that UV-radiated cells of patients with xeroderma pigmentosum restorethe native DNA structure slower than cells of healthy individuals as a result of reparationenzyme defection. What enzyme helps this process :+ Endonuclease;
  6. 6. - Primase;- DNA polymerase II;- DNA polymerase III;- RNA ligase;?Nowadays about 50 minor bases have been found in the t-RNA structure besides the main fournitrogenous bases. Choose the minor nitrogenous base:+ Uracil;- Dihydrouracil;- Cytosine;- Cysteine;- Adenine;?RNA-polymerase B(II) is blocked due to amanitine poisoning (poison of death-cup). It disturbs:+ Reverse transcription;- Synthesis of m-RNA;- Maturation of m-RNA;- Synthesis of t-RNA;- Primers synthesis;?In consequence of the structure and function destruction of cell membranes autolysis took place.Which organelle was destroyed:+ Lysosome;- Nucleus;- Mitochondria;- Endoplasmic reticulum;- Goldy body;?Appearing a lot of metaphase plates after influenced by colchicine on the cell culture shows thatmitosis stopped at metaphase. Which organelle was destroyed and not fulfillment it’s function atmitosis+ Microtubules;- Lysosome;- Mitochondria;- Endoplasmic reticulum;- Golgi body;?During the studying the electronograme of cells biological membrane macromolecules have beenfound, which bound with specific receptors on cell’s surface. By what way macromolecules getinside the cell:+ By endocytosis;- With helping of proteins-carriers;- Thoughtion’s channels;- By passive transport;- With helping of sodium-potassium pump;?During the examination of the cell under the electron microscope 2-layer ultrastructure has beenfound. Outer surface consists from glycolipids and glycoprotein, inner - from labile proteins.What is this structure named:+ Plasmalemma;- Nuclear membrane;- Cytoskeleton;
  7. 7. - Smooth endoplasmic reticulum;- Rough endoplasmic reticulum;?There are a lot of single-membrane organelles in the liver and kidney’s cells of the human whichcontains enzymes. Organelles size is 0,1-1,5 mkm. Their function is dependent from breath andbiosyntesis of bile acids. What are these organelles:+ Peroxisome;- Digestive vacuoles;- Lysosome;- Ribosome ;- Goldy apparatus ;In human mature plasmatic cell loss ability for reproduction and began to produce antigens-immunoglobulines. In what stage of cell cycle is the cell:+ G-1;- Differentiation;- G-2;- S-phase;- Prometaphase;?During the examination of the woman’s oocyte under the microscope binding conjugatingchromosomes and crossing-over between it has been found. What stage of prophase of firstmeiotic division is it:+ Pahynema;- Zygonena;- Leptonema;- Diplonema;- Diakinesis;?In prokaryotes the translation begines from addition the specific aminoacid to protein’s centre ofribosome. Which aminoacid is the initiator of translation:+ Metyonine;- Formilmetyonine;- Arginine;- Lysine;- Oxylysin;?Protein synthesis begines from the transcription. Prednesolone and hydrocortisone whichincrease transcription and protein synthesis were prescribed for patient. What changes will be inthe cell cytoplasm, in case of increasing the amount of functioning euchromatine:+ Decreasing of ribosome and polysome;- Increasing of ribosome and polysome of endoplasmic reticulum;- Increasing of ribosome and polysome;- Decreasing of ribosome;- Decreasing of polysome;?The composition of some triplets in a gene was changed under the influence of mutagen, but thecell continued the synthesis of the same protein. With what characteristic of the genetic code itcan be connected:+ Specificity;- Universality;- Triplet nature;
  8. 8. - Degeneracy;- Collinearity;?The electronogram showed the damage of mitochondrions in the cell. What process in the cellwill be destroyed:+ Change of energy;- Diffusion;- Phagocytosis;- Synthesis of carbohydrates;- Photosynthesis;?During mitotic cell division a scientist can see the phase when the nuclear envelope andnucleolus disappear, the centrioles are placed on the opposite poles of the cell and chromosomesare in the form of a thread ball freely placed in the cytoplasm. What stage of mitotic cycle is thecell at:+ Prophase;- Metaphase;- Anaphase;- Telophase;- Interfase?Animal cells can move, for example ameboic movement. What structures of the cell help tomove:+ Actine microfilaments;- Microtubules;- Intermedium microfilaments;- Cell centre and microtubules of spindle;- Lysosomes;?During the G-2 phase(postsynthesis period)of the mitotic cycle the synthesis of tubulin wasdestroyed. What the result of this destroying will be:+ Can’t form the spindle of the division;- Breach of the cytokinesis;- Breach of the spiralization of chromosomes;- Breach of the DNA reparation;- Decrease of the mitosis length;?During some stage of cell cycle chromosomes were at the opposite poles of the cell anddespiralizated, around them nuclear membrane and nucleolus were formed.In what mitotic stagewas the cell:+ Telohase;- Prophase;- Prometaphase;- Metaphase;- Anaphase;?Is known that cell cycle consists from several stages. At one of the stages the processes ofpreparation for DNA synthesis are. In what period of the cell cycle these events occur:+ Presynthesis period (G-1);- Synthesis period (S);- Mitosis;- Premitotic period;
  9. 9. - Postsynthesis period (G-2);?In the cell chromosomes are in the condition of maximum spiralization and placed along theequatorial zone. What period of mitosis is described:+ Metaphase;- Telophase;- Prophase;- Anaphase;- Prometaphase;?In the cells of muscular tissue an intensive aerobic process of energy formation andaccumulation in the form of high energy ATP bonds takes place. In which organelle does thisprocess occur+ Mitochondria.- Smooth endoplasmic reticulum.- Lysosome.- Pough endoplasmic reticulum.- Cell centre.?Protein synthesis includes several stages. One of it includes synthesis of m-RNA on one of theDNA’s chain. What do we name this process+ Trancription.- Elongation.- Translation.- Termination.?During the observation of a baby a pediatrician noticed that the baby’s crying was similar to acat’s cry. Besides, the baby had microcephaly and abnormality in heart development. By meansof the cytogenetic method it was found that the baby’s karyotype was 46,XY,5p-. At what mitoticstage the karyotype of the baby was examined+ Metaphase.- Prometaphase.- Prophase.- Anaphase.-Telophase.?The tooth was removed in 50 years old women. A new tissue was regenerated at this place.Which organelle will be more active during regeneration?+ Ribosome.- Centrosome.- Postlysosome.- Smooth endoplasmic reticulum.- Lysosome.?It is known that the genetic code is degenerated and has triplet nature. What nucleotide can bechanged in the codifyng triplet without loosing it’s nature?+ Third.- Second.- Second or third.- First or second- Fist?
  10. 10. Regular changes of amoumt of genetic material occurs during cell cycle and at process ofmitosis. In what stage the amount of DNA will be double+ Interphase.- Prophase.- Metaphase.-Anaphase.-Telophase.?Polypeptide, which has been sinthesized on the ribosome, consists of 54 aminoacids. How manycodons did mRNA which was as matrix for this synthesis have+ 54.- 27.- 108.- 162.- 44.?It is known that after change of one nucleotide in DNA will be change only one aminoacide inpolypeptide. What do we call this property of the genetic code+ Colinearity.- Degeneracy.- Universality.- Triplet nature.- Specificity.?It is known that old epithelial cells died. What do we call the organelles, which done the processof digestive and exetored the rest?Ribosomes.+ Lysosomes;- Ribosomes;- Mitochondrion.- Cell centre.- Golgi body.?During experiment in animal cell destroyed the despiralization of the DNA molecula. Whichprocess will be in the cell in the first place+ Transcription.- Reparation.- Processing.- Translation.- Termination.?Give the right answer on the question “Why genetic code is universal?”+ The same for majority of organisms.- Has information about the protein’s structure.- Has triplet nature.- Codes the aminoacids.- Colinearity.?During the examination of pancreatic gland cells under the electron microscope there has beenfound the structures which divided cell on a lot of closets, canals and cisterns and is connectedwith plasmalemma. What organelles is it+ Golgi body.- Endoplasmatic reticulum.
  11. 11. - Mitochondrion.- Centrosomes.- Ribosomes.?Different physical and chemical factors can destroy the structure of DNA. What do we call theability of the cell to regenerate the DNA structure+ Reparation.- Transcription.- Replication.- Transduction.- Transformation.?An influenza virus penetrated into a cell. Translation of virus protein synthesis in cell will be in:+ In the nucleus- On the polyribosome..- In the lysosome.- On the canales of smooth endoplasmic reticulum- In the cell centre.?During the examination of the cell under the electron microscope sphere-shaped structures hasbeen found. It has membrane and contains a lot of different digestive enzymes. Function of it isintracellular digestive and protection of the cell. What is this structure named+ Lysosomes.- Centrosomes.- Endoplasmic reticulum.- Ribosomes.- Mitochondria.?There is an organelle near the nucleus which consists of two cylindersbuilt of microtubules. Thecylinders are situated perpendicularly to each other. The organelle is a component of the mitoticspindle of division in animal cells. What organelle is it+ Centrosomes.- Ribosomes.- Endoplasmic reticulum.- Mitochondria.- Lysosomes.?The deficiency of magnesium ions had been revealed in patient. This ions need for attaching ofribosomes to rough endoplasmic reticulum. It is known that this can destroy the proteinsynthesis. The alterations occur on the stage:+ Translation.- Transcription.- Replication.- Transposition.- Transformation.?One of the main characteristics of aliving being is ability to reproduction. On what level of livingorganisms organization does this process happen on the basis of matrix biosynthesis?+ Molecular.- Tissue.- Organismical.- Populational.
  12. 12. - Biocenotional.?In the nucleus the molecule of immature mRNA transforms to the molecule of the maturemRNA, which shorter than the immature mRNA. What do we call the combination of stages inthis transformation?+ Processing.- Replication.- Recognition.- Translation.- Termination.?Some of mRNA triplets (UAA, UAG. UGA) don’t code aminoacids, but in the process ofreading the information they are terminators, in other words, they are able to stop the translation.What do we call there triplets+ Stop-codons.- Anticodons.- Exons.- Introns.- Exons?The process of enzyme’s biosynthesis is studied in the normal cell of saliva’s gland. The basicdirection of information flowing in this cell will be:+ DNA > mRNA > protein.- mRNA > protein> DNA.- tRNA > mRNA> DNA > protein.- DNA > protein> mRNA.- Protein > mRNA > DNA.?It is known that on one molecule of mRNA takes place translation by several ribosomes. Thiscomplex of ribosomes increased productive result of translation. What do we call this complex ofribosomes?+ Polysomes.- Centrosome.- Dictyosomes.- Lysosomes.- Golgy body?To ribosome came mature mRNA, which has sense codons. In the synthesis of protein thesecodons are signal to:+ Addition of aminoacid.- Junction of exons.- Begining of translation.- Finishing of transcription.- Addition of RNA-synthetase.?The part of the DNA molecule was destroyed, but change of aminoacid in the protein not occur,because alteration was liquidated with helping of specific enzymes. This ability of DNA is:+ Reparation.- Transcription.- Mutation.- Reverse transcription.- Replication.
  13. 13. ?According to the rule of the permanent chromosomes number, each animal species can becharacterized by a specific and permanent number of chromosomes. What mechanism providesthis feature during sexual reproduction+ Meiosis.- Reparation.- Amitosis.- Regeneration.- Cytokinesis.?For studying of protein’s synthesis localization in the mice’s cell the mark aminoacids werebrought in. Near which organelles will be concentrates these mark aminoacids:+ Ribosomes.- Smooth endoplasmic reticulum.- Cell center.- Lysosomes.- Golgy body.?It is known that colchicine destroys the synthesis of tubuline proteins. What stage of cell cyclewill be alliterated+ Prophase of mitosis.- G2-period of interphase.- S-period of interphase.- Metaphase of mitosis.- G1-period of interphase.?During the mitosis the diploid somatic cell was influenced by colchicine. The polyploidy cellwith single nuclei was formed. What stage of mitotic cycle destroyed+ Anaphase.- Prophase.- Metaphase.- Telophase.- Cytokinesis.?A cell was affected by a substance which broke the integrity of lysosome membranes. What canhappen to the cell as a result+ Autolysis.- Differentiation.- Degeneration.- Transformation.- Specialization.?The nucleus of the cell was affected by a substance which broke the structure of histones. Whichcomponents of the cell will be change at first time+ Chromosomes.- Nuclear membrane.- Ribosomes.- Mitochondria.- Plasmalemma.?During the G2-period of mitosis the synthesis of tubuline proteins was destroyed. These proteinstake part in the building of spindle of division. It can lead to:
  14. 14. + Divergence of chromosomes.- Chromosomes spiralization.- Cytokinesis.- Chromosomes despiralization.- Formation of nucleolus.?A patient has an acute pancreatitis which can develop into pancreas autolysis. The dysfunction ofwhat organelles can cause this pathology?+ Lysosomes.- Mitochondria.- Ribosomes.- Centrioles.- Microtubules.?Protein-repressor has been found in a cell. What gene codifies the aminoacid sequence of thisprotein+ Regulator.- Terminator.- Promotor.- Modificator.- Operator.?The gene which codifies the polypeptide chain consists of 4 exons and 3 introns. Whenprocessing is over, the mature mRNA consists of nucleotides, which are complementary to:+ 4 exons.- 2 exons and 1 intron.- 1 exon and 1 intron.- 3 introns.- 4 exons and 3 introns.?There is transcription in the human cell. The enzyme RNA-polymerase moves along DNAmolecule and achieved certain sequences of nucleotides. Transcription was finished after that.This part of DNA is:+ Terminator- Promotor- Repressor- Operator;- Regulator?Retrovirus AIDS altered lymphocyte. Direction of information flow in this case in the cell willbe:+ RNA > DNA> m-RNA > polypeptide.- DNA > m-RNA> polypeptide > DNA.- DNA > polypeptide > m-RNA.- m-RNA > polypeptide > DNA.- Polypeptide > RNA > DNA > m-RNA.?Human karyotype is studying on the metaphase stage. The process of cell division was stoppedby:+ Colchicine.- Iodine.- Methanol.
  15. 15. - Potassium chloride.- Ethanol.?The work of bacterium operon been studied. A gene operator has released from the proteinrepressor. What do we call the process which begins right after that:+ Transcription.- Translation.- Replication.- Processing.- Repression.?The maximum condensed chromosomes are studied during a human karyotyping. The process ofcell division was stopped on the stage: Metaphase. Prophase. Interphase Anaphase. Telophase.?It is known that promoter gene is the part of DNA where RNA-polymerase enzyme joins andtranscription is initiated. In this part deletion of two nucleotide pairs has taken place. What willbe in result of this+ Complete absence of protein synthesis.- Formation of abnormal protein.- Protein synthesis in unlimited quantities.- Formation of normal protein.- Shortening of protein synthesis.?The mutation of structural gene did not lead to substitution of aminoacids in the protein. In thiscase the characteristic of genetic code was shown:+ Degeneracy.- Universality.- No punctuation.- Colinearity.- No overlapping.?The consequence of aminoacids in polypeptide molecule was studied. This consequence will becorresponding to certain situation of nucleotides in such gene:+Structural.- Promoter.- Operator.- Terminator.- Regulator.?The maturation of m-RNA took place in the process of gene expression in the nucleus of cell.During this process introns were removed, exons were sewed together by ligase. What do we callthis process;+ Splicing.- Replication.- Modification.- Translation.- Transcription.
  16. 16. ?Most structural genes of eukaryote (part of DNA) are not functionally same. They content exons(expressed sequences) and introns (intervening sequences). Which RNA molecule will besynthesized on this DNA at the beginning+ Pre m-RNA.- m-RNA.- t – RNA.- r- RNA.- mature RNA?Human and all eukaryotes DNA molecules include introns (intervening sequences) and exons(expressed sequences). During RNA is processed the removing of introns and sewing together ofexons are happen. This process is named:+ Processing.- Reparation.- Transcription.- Termination.- Replication.?It is known that the information about the amino acids sequence in the protein molecule iswritten in the form of nucleotide sequence. There are 4 types of nucleotides in the DNAmolecule. Different amino acids are codified by a different number of triplets – from one to six.Such characteristic of genetic code is named:+ Degeneracy.- Universality.- No overlapping.- Triplet nature.- Specificity.?It is known that sequences of nucleotides triplets correspond to sequences of amino acids inpolypeptide. This characteristic of genetic code is named:+ Collinearity.- Triplet nature.- No overlapping.- Degeneracy.- Universality.?. Recognition is one of the steps of protein synthesis. The first triplet of m-RNA is beginningfrom UAU. What complementary triplet situate in the t-RNA:?+ AUA.- GUG.- UGU.- CUC. GAC?Formation of the ribosome subunits in the cell during experiment (by influence of mutagensfactors) is damaged. What metabolic process will be damaged+ Protein synthesis.- Synthesis of carbohydrates.- Synthesis of ATP.- Photosynthesis.
  17. 17. - Synthesis of lipids.?The DNA molecule was damaged by influence of ultraviolet radiation. Nevertheless, by meansof specific enzymes the DNA structure was renewed. This phenomenon is named:+ Reparation.- Duplication.- Replication.- Initiation.- Termination.?Alteration of function of cartilages cell is observed at rheumatic patients. In this process one ofcell organelles takes part, it is:+ Lysosome.- Cell center.- Microtubules.- Golgi body.- Ribosome.?During the analysis of the mitotic stage in the onion root cells a cell, in which spiralizedchromosomes were placed in the equatorial zone, was revealed. What mitotic stage is the cell at+ Metaphase.- Prophase.- Anaphase.- Telophase.- Interphase.?According to the hypothesis of lactose operon (Jacob, Mono, 1961), in Escherichia coli thelactose, which gets into a cell from the environment, acts as an inducer. In what does the lactoseinduce the synthesis of enzymes that decompose it, that is turn on the operon+ It combines with the repressor protein.- It combines with the operator gene.- It combines with the regulator gene.- It combines with the promoter.- It combines with the structural gene.?The elementary unit of hereditary at all forms of reproduction (sex and unsex) is:+ One gene.- One pair of nucleotides.- One chain of DNA molecule.- One nucleotide.- Two chains of DNA molecule.?After influence by colchicine in human metaphase plate was revealed on the 46 chromosomesbigger than in normal. This mutation is:+ Polyploidy.- Aneuploidy.- Polytenia.- Inversion.- Translocation.?It is supposed that immature m-RNA and mature m-RNA were picked out from the nucleus.Which of them is mature
  18. 18. + Lack of introns.- Lack of exons.- Complete copy of two DNA chains.- Complete copy of DNA template.- Lack of some triplets.? Exons parts were picked out from DNA molecule. What is this part+ Expressed sequences which are parts of the protein-coding sequence.- Intervening sequences.- Transcript.- t-RNA.- r-RNA.?On the cell is influenced by colchicines – a substance which destroys the spindle of division.What stage of the mitotic cycle will be altered:+ Anaphase.- Prophase.- Cytokineses.- Presynthesis period of intephase.- Postsynthesis period of intephase.?The presence of own protein syntheses system was revealed in the organelle. This organelle is+ Endoplasmic reticulum- Mitochondria.- Golgi apparatus.- Lysosomes.- Vacuoles.?The amount of DNA is doubled during synthesis period of the mitotic cycle. This process occursas a result of:+ Reduplication.- Dissociation.- Denaturation.- Reparation.- Coagulation.?With purpose of karyotype studying for diagnosis of chromosomal disorders is influenced bycolchicines on the cell culture during mitosis. Colchicines – is substance which stoppedshortening of the spindle fiber. At what phase will mitosis be stopped:+ Metaphase.- Interphase.- Prophase.- Telophase.- Anaphase.?RNA which contents the AIDS virus penetrates inside of leukocyte and with helping of revertaseenzyme forced the cell to synthesize viral DNA. In the base of this process is:+ Reverse transcription.- Repression of operon.- Reverse translation.- Feedback repression.- Semiconservative replication.
  19. 19. ?Peptide fragments are formed in cell cytoplasm in result of a big X-ray radiation. What organelleof the cell does take part in this+ Ribosomes.- Lysosomes.- Golgi apparatus.- Nucleus centre.- Endoplasmic reticulum.?A ball-shaped organelles, which size is 0.2- 1 micrometers take past in metabolic processes.Their formation is connected with Golgi apparatus. Their are divided on the groups in dependsfrom contents and function. The alterations of these organelles are very dangerous for cells.What oganelles are there+ Lysosomes.- Ribosomes.- Endoplasmic reticulum.- Mitochondria.- Centrosomes.?In the cells which are able to divide the process of growing, formation of organelles and theirstorage thanks to active synthesis of protein, RNA, lipids, carbohydrates have taken. What do wecall the period of mitotic cycle in which listed process are, but synthesis of DNA is absent:+ Presinthesis.- Synthesis.- Premitosis.- Telophase.- Anaphase.?In the nucleus there are nonconstant structures that dissapiar at the beginning of cell division andappear again at the end of it. They include protein and RNA, their formation is connected withchromosomes. They take part in the formation of ribosome subunits. What are these structurescalled:+ Nucleoli.- Nucleosomes.- Euchromatin.- Microfibriles.- Heterochromatin.?During the mitotic division in a cell we can observe the separation of chromatids towards theopposite poles. What stage of the cell cycle does take place in the cell+ Anaphase.- Metaphase.- Telophase.- Prophase.- Interphase.?There are four phase in mitosis. In what phase does the human cell have 92 monochromatidchromosomes:+ Anaphase.- Telophase.- Metaphase.- Prophase.
  20. 20. - Interphase.?Somatic human cells are diploid (2n chromosomes). But polyploid cells – megalokartocytes mayhave up 64 chromosomes. What does mechanism of their formation is:+ Endomitosis.- Polytenia.- Mitosis.- Amitosis.- Meiosis.?During biochemical examination of cell organelles digestive enzymes has been found in it. Whatorganelle is it+ Lysosomes.- Golgy body.- Endoplasmic reticulum.- Mitochondria.- Ribosomes.?The changes in the cells which are accompanied the alteration of lysosome’s membranes occur atsome diseases. What will changes be in the cell+ Autolysis.- Alteration of mitosis.- Alteration of translation.- Alteration of transcription.- Storage of substances.?Glycogen and proteins are synthesized in the cells of healthy liver. What types of organelles aredeveloped in the cell+ Rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum.- Cell centre.- Lysosomes.- Mitochondria.- Peroxisomes.?There is an organelle in human cells. The functions of this organelle are the formation oflysosomes, the secretion of glycoprotein, carbohydrates, lipids and formation of yolk granulesduring the oocytes maturation. What is this organelle called+ Golgy body- Endoplasmic reticulum.- Ribosome.- Lysosomes.- Microtubules.?