BRIF OVERVIEW OF MODAL IN PAST MODAL + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE2: Using modal verbs to talk about the past:must / might / could / may / should + have +past participlemust have + past participlemight / might not have + past participlecould / couldnt have + past participlemay / may not have + past participleShould have + past participle
EXAMPLES OF MODAL VERBS1.She must have forgotten about ourdate.2.She might have worked late.3.She could have taken the wrongbus.4.She may have felt ill.
TO FORM THE PASSIVE OF THE PASTMODAL .MODAL +HAVE + BEEN + PAST PARTICIPALMight /should/could+ have +been+ past participleExamples for passive modals1. Snehal could have been surprised by guest2. The train could have been delayed.3. She should have been elected chair of the committee.
PAST POSSIBILITY AND PROBABILITY USE MAY / MIGHT /COULD + PAST PARTICIPLE FOR NEGATIVE POSSIBILITY MIGHT NOT HAVE + MAY NOT HAVE DON’T USE COULD NOT HAVE EXAMPLE :- 1.She could have been killed in the car crash. 2.He may have spoken to Jenny yesterday. 3.He might have forgotten. Example of negative: She might have not worked late.
PAST DIRECTION NOT TAKENCOULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE TO SHOWSOMETHING DID NOT HAPPEN/ AN EXAGGERATIONOF A RESULT / THAT SOMETHING ALMOST HAPPENED/TO SHOW MISSED OPPORTUNITIES.FOR EXAMPLES:1.I COULD HAVE GONE TO US , BUT I DECIDED TO COMETO US.2. I COULD HAVE HELPED YOU.3. I COULD HAVE DIED4. WE COULD HAVE JUMPED FOR JOY.5. YOU COULD HAVE BROKEN MY HEAD
BE SUPPOSED TO in the PastWas / Were supposed to is used for rulesand promises that have been broken orexpectations that have not been met.FOR EXAMPLES:1.I was supposed to do my homework2.You were supposed to fill out yourapplication
MUST HAVE vs. HAD TOTO SHOW THE NECESSITY IN THE PAST, WEUSE HAD TO + BASE FORM . WE CANNOT USEMUST IN THE PAST WITH THIS MEANING.USE MUST HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE WHENSHOWS A CONCLUSION OR DEDUCTION.FOR EXAMPLE:1. Jack had to travel by train to meet people.2. Harry must have been surprised when he bought a house .
Continuous Forms of Past ModalsMODALS+ HAVE BEEN + PRESENT PARTICIPLEFOR EXAMPLE:1. I SHOULD HAVE BEEN DRIVING SO FAST2. I MUST HAVE BEEN TAKING A SHOWER WHEN YOU CALLEDBE ABLE TOWAS / WERE ABLE TO CAN ALSO BE USED FOR ABILITYOVER A PAST PERIOD OF TIME.USE WAS/ WERE ABLE TO FOR SUCCESS IN DOING A SINGLE ACTION . DONOT USE COULD FOR A SINGLE ACTION.FOR EXAMPLE:1. SHE WAS ABLE TO PLAY CHESS WHEN SHE WAS A CHILD .