1. INTRODUCTION1.1   ORGANISATION PROFILE      “DAFFODILLS INDIA”, established in the year 2006.They arelocated near Edaya...
goal is to clearly understand their Client’s need and provide them with realand lasting Solutions that meet and exceed the...
1.2 ABOUT THE PROJECTCollege Management software is a complete solution for managing aadministration, in other words an en...
report card, performance, comments from teachers and everything related totheir                                           ...
Module Description:The modules of the project are,                  STUDENTS DETAILS                  STAFFS DETAILS    ...
2. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION2.1 HARDWARE CONFIGURATION           Processor          - PENTIUM IV (450 MHZ)           Memory  ...
3. SYSTEM STUDY AND ANALYSIS       The system analysis is conducted with the following objectives inmind. They are to sati...
While concerning the cost of resources for the server side, amount isinvested for the high capacity of storage media, high...
The resource availability states whether skilled staffs are available todevelop the system elements and the availability o...
4. SYSTEM DESIGNSystem design consist of a following,             1. Database Design             2. Input Design          ...
relations between them. All the tables designed for the system conform tothe first, second ad third normal forms.      Sto...
The main input stages can be listed as below:       • Data recording       • Data transcription       • Data conversion   ...
• Security       • Easy to use       • Portabilility      Keeping in view the above description of the input types and inp...
Procedures are designed to detect errors in data at a lower level ofdetail. Data validations have been included in the sys...
USER_INITIATED INTERGFACES      User initiated interfaces fall into tow approximate classes:            1. Command driven ...
ERROR MESSAGE DESIGN:      The design of error messages is an important part of the user interfacedesign. As user is bound...
• The system should be able to interface with the existing system• The system should be accurate• The system should be bet...
4.2 OUTPUT DESIGN     Designing computer should proceed in well thought out manner. Theterm output means any information p...
5. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENTThe .NET Framework is a new computing platform that simplifiesapplication development in the highly d...
ADO.NET OverviewADO.NET is an evolution of the ADO data access model that directlyaddresses user requirements for developi...
by means of requests to the appropriate SQL commands made against thedata store.The XML-based DataSet object provides a co...
•   DataReaders. For reading a forward-only stream of data records          from a SQL Server data source.      •   DataSe...
DataSets and DataAdaptersDataSetsThe DataSet object is similar to the ADO Recordset object, but morepowerful, and with one...
performance when working with a Microsoft SQL Server databases. Forother OLE DB-supported databases, you would use the Ole...
6. Also, you can use a DataSet to bind to the data, move through the         data, and navigate data relationshipsSQL SERV...
SQL Server Tables      SQL Server stores records relating to each other in a table. Differenttables are created for the va...
Referential Integrity        Not only does SQL Server allow you to link multiple tables, it alsomaintains consistency betw...
Advantages of RDBMS   • Redundancy can be avoided   • Inconsistency can be eliminated   • Data can be Shared   • Standards...
transaction processing (OLTP) application, even application that requiresimultaneous DSS and OLTP access to the same criti...
freedom to choose the database sever platform that meets the systemrequirements.Open Systems      SQL SERVER offers a lead...
From this Departments, subdepartments the Department hierarchyshall be created.c) Process detailsThis following process wi...
6. TESTING AND IMPLEMENTATION6.1 SYSTEM TESTINGTesting Methodologies         Testing is generally done at two levels - Tes...
Through testing of programs do not guarantee the reliability of systems. It isassure that the system runs error free.Unit ...
System Testing     When unit tests are satisfactorily concluded, the system, as a completeentity must be tested. At this s...
displayed by the system under consideration are tested by asking the usersabout the format required by them. Hence the out...
6.2 IMPLEMENTATIONImplementation Procedures      After proper testing and validation, the question arises whether thesyste...
Education involves right atmosphere & motivating the user. Adocumentation providing the whole operations of the system is ...
•   This program was successfully loaded and executed. Because of      good programming there was no execution error.3) OU...
7. CONCLUSION• The project has been appreciated by all the users in the organization.• It is easy to use, since it uses th...
8. BIBLIOGRAPHY     SOFTWARE ENGINEERING By Roger.S. Pressman     SQL FOR PROFESSIONALS By Jain     VISUAL BASIC.NET Black...
Objectives of the CollegeThe liability of the members is limitedThe income and properly of the College whencesover derived...
more than one-hundredth part of the capital, and such member shall not bebound to account for any share of profits he may ...
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College management

  1. 1. 1. INTRODUCTION1.1 ORGANISATION PROFILE “DAFFODILLS INDIA”, established in the year 2006.They arelocated near Edayarpalayam, Coimbatore. DAFFODILLS INDIA is the organization and the development frombased on the customer satisfaction and service towards the nation and theclients in abroad. Solutions are committed in providing innovative Software Solutionsto its Clients and recognize the importance of technology. DAFFODILLSINDIA seasoned software Professional has Expertise in a wide range oftechnologies including, but limited to,  Web Technology  Client Server Technology  Database Design, Development and Administration  Customized Package Software implementation like Accounts  Development of System Software Low Level Programming  Server Side Programming DAFFODILLS INDIA undertake Short Team and Long Term Projectson a contract and regular basis with reputed Clients. DAFFODILLS INDIA
  2. 2. goal is to clearly understand their Client’s need and provide them with realand lasting Solutions that meet and exceed their Expectations. The data generated has to be processed speedily and accurately toproduce useful formation that will help the organization in managing itsbusiness more efficiently and effectively. This results in an increased needfor the introduction of modern technology to the transaction and events atsource of origin and to make information available to the user.
  3. 3. 1.2 ABOUT THE PROJECTCollege Management software is a complete solution for managing aadministration, in other words an enhanced tool that assists in organizing theday-to-day activities of a college. College management software centralizes college by providingfeatures to its Administration, Students, Staffs, Attendance. AdministratorAttendance Review Shows all students, staffs absent today and studentsabsent for the current marking period, select students and parents for emailcommunications, click on students name to see demographic information tocall parents, detail level absenteeism, comments entered by teachers/officestaff .Administrator panel can keep eye on the regular money transactionsand schools fees collection program can be customized according to schoolsrules. Data in the systems can be analyzed, graphed and reported in theformat of users choice. Administrators are provided with a full control overthis software. Administration can send announcements to all users in theschool. Announcements can be send to an individual using the Search optionor to a group using the Advanced Search option Groups are Staff types,parents and student. Staffs payroll management software helps you toprocess the allowance, deduction as your management rules.Students, parents are provided with user ids and password. Students canaccess their full details regarding marks, fees and even submit assignmentsonline. Students and parents can search for assignments based on Class, DueDate and Assignment Type. Parents can access the details of their wards
  4. 4. report card, performance, comments from teachers and everything related totheir ward.
  5. 5. Module Description:The modules of the project are,  STUDENTS DETAILS  STAFFS DETAILS  SALARY DETAILS  ATTENDANCE DETAILSSTUDENT DETAILS: This module is used to store information about the students admissiondetails, registration details.STAFF DETAILS Staff module contains information about the staffs name, address, city,state, contact no. designation, dob,date of joining.SALARY DETAILS Salary module consists of information about staff name, amount, da,net salary.ATTENDANCE DETAILS Attendance details are used to store details about attendance likenumber of days present, absent details
  6. 6. 2. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION2.1 HARDWARE CONFIGURATION  Processor - PENTIUM IV (450 MHZ)  Memory - 512 MB RAM  Cpu Clock Speed - 400 MHZ  Hard disk - 160 GB  Mouse - Optical Mouse  Key board - 108 Windows keyboard  Monitor - At & T 19” INCH2.2 SOFTWARE CONFIGURATION  Operating System - WINDOWS XP  Front end - VB.NET  Back end - MS SQL 7.0
  7. 7. 3. SYSTEM STUDY AND ANALYSIS The system analysis is conducted with the following objectives inmind. They are to satisfy the customers according to their needs, to evaluatethe system concept for feasibility, to allocate functions to hardware,software, people, database and other system elements to create a systemdefinition that forms the foundation for all subsequent engineering works.3.1 FACT FINDING Fact finding is the stage in which data about the system are collectedin terms of technical and functional requirements. In this project the datacollection is completed using the data carriers which are existing in thetables.3.2 FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS When developing a system, it is necessary to evaluate the feasibilityof project at the earliest possible time. Unexpected technical problems andtiming problems can occur when poor problem definition is obtained. It isadvisable to conduct discussions regarding the analysis and design of theproject before starting it.Economic Feasibility The proposed system developed includes the following related issues. • Cost of resources needed for development. • Cost – benefit analysis. • Potential market growth.
  8. 8. While concerning the cost of resources for the server side, amount isinvested for the high capacity of storage media, high speed processor andlarge amount of memory needed for the system. While concerning the clientside a minimal amount of cost is needed. Overall the cost of setting up theserver and configuring it will be costly at the time of installation. Whileconsidering the cost benefit analysis, huge amount will be invested only atthe time of first installation.Technical Feasibility The technical feasibility involves the analysis of all possible conditionfor obtaining the system. It actually involves a study of functionPerformance and constraints that may affect the ability to achieve anacceptable system, the considerations that are normally associated with thetechnical feasibility include the following: • Development risk • Resource availability • Technology The development risk concerns the probability the function of allelements and its performance should be same in all platforms and in thesystem that is being developed. This system is developed according to theweb standards and the development software tools are selected in such a wayto avoid the problems sited above.
  9. 9. The resource availability states whether skilled staffs are available todevelop the system elements and the availability of hardware and software.The hardware is provided by the organization satisfying all the requirements. 3.3 EXISTING SYSTEMExisting system was carried out through manual process. Maintenance of therecords in the existing system is difficult. Lot of time is taken to search for aparticular record. There is a chance of occurrence of errors. Updation andretrieval of information in this existing system takes more time.DISADVANTAGE  Not flexible  Involves large amount of paper work  Time consuming process  Slow Updating and Retrieval of Information.  Cost huge And Unpredictable3.4 PROPOSED SYSTEM
  10. 10. 4. SYSTEM DESIGNSystem design consist of a following, 1. Database Design 2. Input Design 3. Output DesignINTRODUCTION It is where the approach to the creation of the new system. Itprovides understanding of the procedural details necessary forimplementing the system. It involves first logical design and then thephysical construction of the system. Logical design is like the blue print.Physical design produces software, files and working system. Thefundamental objective in the design is that it ensures very attractive anduser friendly.4.1 DATABASE DESIGN The goal of a relational database design is to generate a set ofrelations that allows storing information easily. The database is designed inthe relational model in which the data are organized into entries and
  11. 11. relations between them. All the tables designed for the system conform tothe first, second ad third normal forms. Stored procedures are used to save a significant amount ofprocessing at execution time and client execution requests use the networkmore efficiently. Appropriate integrity constraints such as domain, entity,integrity, and referential integrity and check conditions are used wheneverpossible.4.1 INPUT DESIGN Input design is the link between the information system and the usersand those steps that are necessary to put transaction data in to a usable formfor processing data entry. The activity of putting data into the computer forprocessing can be activated by instructing the computer to read data from awritten printed document or it can occur by keying data directly into thesystem. The designs of input focusing on controlling the amount of inputrequired controlling the errors, avoid delay extra steps, and keeping theprocess simple. This system has individual form for administrator andcustomer.Input design is a part of overall system design. The main objective duringthe input designs is as given below: • To produce a cost-effective method of input. • To achieve the highest possible level of accuracy. • To ensure that the input is acceptable and understood by the user.INPUT STAGES:
  12. 12. The main input stages can be listed as below: • Data recording • Data transcription • Data conversion • Data verification • Data control • Data transmission • Data validation • Data correctionINPUT MEDIA: At this stage choice has to be made about the input media. To concludeabout the input media consideration has to be given to; • Type of input • Flexibility of format • Speed • Accuracy • Verification methods • Rejection rates • Ease of correction • Storage and handling requirements
  13. 13. • Security • Easy to use • Portabilility Keeping in view the above description of the input types and inputmedia, it can be said that most of the inputs are of the form of internal andinteractive. AsInput data is to be the directly keyed in by the user, the keyboard can beconsidered to be the most suitable input device.ERROR AVOIDANCE At this stage care is to be taken to ensure that input data remainsaccurate form the stage at which it is recorded upto the stage in which thedata is accepted by the system. This can be achieved only by means ofcareful control each time the data is handled.ERROR DETECTION Even though every effort is make to avoid the occurrence of errors,still a small proportion of errors is always likely to occur, these types oferrors can be discovered by using validations to check the input data.DATA VALIDATION
  14. 14. Procedures are designed to detect errors in data at a lower level ofdetail. Data validations have been included in the system in almost everyarea where there is a possibility for the user to commit errors. The systemwill not accept invalid data. Whenever an invalid data is keyed in, thesystem immediately propts the user and the user has to again key in the dataand the system will accept the data only if the data is correct. Validationshave been included where necessary. The system is designed to be a user friendly one. In other words thesystem has been designed to communicate effectively with the user. Thesystem has been designed with pop up menus.USERINTERGFACE DESIGN It is essential to consult the system users and discuss their needs whiledesigning the user interface:USER INTERFACE SYSTEMS CAN BE BROADLY CLASIFIED AS: 1. User initiated interface the user is in charge, controlling the progress of the user/computer dialogue. In the computer-initiated interface, the computer selects the next stage in the interaction. 2. Computer initiated interfaces In the computer initiated interfaces the computer guides the progress of the user/computer dialogue. Information is displayed and the user response of the computer takes action or displays further information.
  15. 15. USER_INITIATED INTERGFACES User initiated interfaces fall into tow approximate classes: 1. Command driven interfaces: In this type of interface the user inputs commands or queries which are interpreted by the computer. 2. Forms oriented interface: The user calls up an image of the form to his/her screen and fills in the form. The forms oriented interface is chosen because it is the best choice.COMPUTER-INITIATED INTERFACES The following computer – initiated interfaces were used: 1. The menu system for the user is presented with a list of alternatives and the user chooses one; of alternatives. 2. Questions – answer type dialog system where the computer asks question and takes action based on the basis of the users reply.Right from the start the system is going to be menu driven, the openingmenu displays the available options. Choosing one option gives anotherpopup menu with more options. In this way every option leads the users todata entry form where the user can key in the data.
  16. 16. ERROR MESSAGE DESIGN: The design of error messages is an important part of the user interfacedesign. As user is bound to commit some errors or other while designing asystem the system should be designed to be helpful by providing the userwith information regarding the error he/she has committed. This application must be able to produce output at different modulesfor different inputs.Performance Requirements:Performance is measured in terms of the output provided by the application. Requirement specification plays an important part in the analysis of asystem. Only when the requirement specifications are properly given, it ispossible to design a system, which will fit into required environment. Itrests largely in the part of the users of the existing system to give therequirement specifications because they are the people who finally use thesystem. This is because the requirements have to be known during the initialstages so that the system can be designed according to those requirements.It is very difficult to change the system once it has been designed and on theother hand designing a system, which does not cater to the requirements ofthe user, is of no use. The requirement specification for any system can be broadly stated asgiven below:
  17. 17. • The system should be able to interface with the existing system• The system should be accurate• The system should be better than the existing system
  18. 18. 4.2 OUTPUT DESIGN Designing computer should proceed in well thought out manner. Theterm output means any information produced by the information systemwhether printed or displayed. When analyst design computer out put theyidentified the specific output that is needed to meet the requirement.Computer is the most important source of information to the users. Outputdesign is a process that involves designing necessary outputs that have to beused by various users according to requirements. Efficient intelligent outputdesign should improve the system relationship with the user and help indecision making. Since the reports are directly required by the managementfor taking decision and to draw the conclusion must be simple, descriptiveand clear to the user. Options for outputs and forms are given in the systemmenus.When designing the output, system analyst must accomplish thefollowing:  Determine the information to present.  Decide whether to display, print, speak the information and select the output medium  Arrange the information in acceptable format.  Decide how to distribute the output to intended receipt.
  19. 19. 5. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENTThe .NET Framework is a new computing platform that simplifiesapplication development in the highly distributed environment of theInternet. The .NET Framework is designed to fulfill the followingobjectives: • To provide a consistent object-oriented programming environment whether object code is stored and executed locally, executed locally but Internet-distributed, or executed remotely. • To provide a code-execution environment that minimizes software deployment and versioning conflicts. • To provide a code-execution environment that guarantees safe execution of code, including code created by an unknown or semi- trusted third party. • To provide a code-execution environment that eliminates the performance problems of scripted or interpreted environments. • To make the developer experience consistent across widely varying types of applications, such as Windows-based applications and Web- based applications. • To build all communication on industry standards to ensure that code based on the .NET Framework can integrate with any other code.
  20. 20. ADO.NET OverviewADO.NET is an evolution of the ADO data access model that directlyaddresses user requirements for developing scalable applications. It wasdesigned specifically for the web with scalability, statelessness, and XML inmind.ADO.NET uses some ADO objects, such as the Connection and Commandobjects, and also introduces new objects. Key new ADO.NET objectsinclude the Dataset, DataReader, and DataAdapter.The important distinction between this evolved stage of ADO.NET andprevious data architectures is that there exists an object -- the DataSet -- thatis separate and distinct from any data stores. Because of that, the DataSetfunctions as a standalone entity. You can think of the DataSet as an alwaysdisconnected recordset that knows nothing about the source or destination ofthe data it contains. Inside a DataSet, much like in a database, there aretables, columns, relationships, constraints, views, and so forth.A DataAdapter is the object that connects to the database to fill the DataSet.Then, it connects back to the database to update the data there, based onoperations performed while the DataSet held the data. In the past, dataprocessing has been primarily connection-based. Now, in an effort to makemulti-tiered apps more efficient, data processing is turning to a message-based approach that revolves around chunks of information. At the center ofthis approach is the DataAdapter, which provides a bridge to retrieve andsave data between a DataSet and its source data store. It accomplishes this
  21. 21. by means of requests to the appropriate SQL commands made against thedata store.The XML-based DataSet object provides a consistent programming modelthat works with all models of data storage: flat, relational, and hierarchical.It does this by having no knowledge of the source of its data, and byrepresenting the data that it holds as collections and data types. No matterwhat the source of the data within the DataSet is, it is manipulated throughthe same set of standard APIs exposed through the DataSet and itssubordinate objects.While the DataSet has no knowledge of the source of its data, the managedprovider has detailed and specific information. The role of the managedprovider is to connect, fill, and persist the DataSet to and from data stores.The OLE DB and SQL Server .NET Data Providers (System.Data.OleDband System.Data.SqlClient) that are part of the .Net Framework provide fourbasic objects: the Command, Connection, DataReader and DataAdapter. Inthe remaining sections of this document, well walk through each part of theDataSet and the OLE DB/SQL Server .NET Data Providers explaining whatthey are, and how to program against them.The following sections will introduce you to some objects that have evolved,and some that are new. These objects are: • Connections. For connection to and managing transactions against a database. • Commands. For issuing SQL commands against a database.
  22. 22. • DataReaders. For reading a forward-only stream of data records from a SQL Server data source. • DataSets. For storing, remoting and programming against flat data, XML data and relational data. • DataAdapters. For pushing data into a DataSet, and reconciling data against a database.CommandsCommands contain the information that is submitted to a database, and arerepresented by provider-specific classes such as SQLCommand. Acommand can be a stored procedure call, an UPDATE statement, or astatement that returns results. You can also use input and output parameters,and return values as part of your command syntax. The example belowshows how to issue an INSERT statement against the Northwind database.DataReadersThe DataReader object is somewhat synonymous with a read-only/forward-only cursor over data. The DataReader API supports flat as well ashierarchical data. A DataReader object is returned after executing acommand against a database. The format of the returned DataReader objectis different from a recordset. For example, you might use the DataReader toshow the results of a search list in a web page.
  23. 23. DataSets and DataAdaptersDataSetsThe DataSet object is similar to the ADO Recordset object, but morepowerful, and with one other important distinction: the DataSet is alwaysdisconnected. The DataSet object represents a cache of data, with database-like structures such as tables, columns, relationships, and constraints.However, though a DataSet can and does behave much like a database, it isimportant to remember that DataSet objects do not interact directly withdatabases, or other source data. This allows the developer to work with aprogramming model that is always consistent, regardless of where the sourcedata resides. Data coming from a database, an XML file, from code, or userinput can all be placed into DataSet objects. Then, as changes are made tothe DataSet they can be tracked and verified before updating the source data.The GetChanges method of the DataSet object actually creates a secondDatSet that contains only the changes to the data. This DataSet is then usedby a DataAdapter (or other objects) to update the original data source.The DataSet has many XML characteristics, including the ability to produceand consume XML data and XML schemas. XML schemas can be used todescribe schemas interchanged via WebServices. In fact, a DataSet with aschema can actually be compiled for type safety and statement completion.DataAdapters (OLEDB/SQL)The DataAdapter object works as a bridge between the DataSet and thesource data. Using the provider-specific SqlDataAdapter (along with itsassociated SqlCommand and SqlConnection) can increase overall
  24. 24. performance when working with a Microsoft SQL Server databases. Forother OLE DB-supported databases, you would use the OleDbDataAdapterobject and its associated OleDbCommand and OleDbConnection objects.The DataAdapter object uses commands to update the data source afterchanges have been made to the DataSet. Using the Fill method of theDataAdapter calls the SELECT command; using the Update method callsthe INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE command for each changed row. Youcan explicitly set these commands in order to control the statements used atruntime to resolve changes, including the use of stored procedures. For ad-hoc scenarios, a CommandBuilder object can generate these at run-timebased upon a select statement. However, this run-time generation requires anextra round-trip to the server in order to gather required metadata, soexplicitly providing the INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE commands atdesign time will result in better run-time performance. 1. ADO.NET is the next evolution of ADO for the .Net Framework. 2. ADO.NET was created with n-Tier, statelessness and XML in the forefront. Two new objects, the DataSet and DataAdapter, are provided for these scenarios. 3. ADO.NET can be used to get data from a stream, or to store data in a cache for updates. 4. There is a lot more information about ADO.NET in the documentation. 5. Remember, you can execute a command directly against the database in order to do inserts, updates, and deletes. You dont need to first put data into a DataSet in order to insert, update, or delete it.
  25. 25. 6. Also, you can use a DataSet to bind to the data, move through the data, and navigate data relationshipsSQL SERVERDATABASE A database management, or DBMS, gives the user access to their dataand helps them transform the data into information. Such databasemanagement systems include dBase, paradox, IMS, SQL Server and SQLServer. These systems allow users to create, update and extract informationfrom their database. A database is a structured collection of data. Data refers to thecharacteristics of people, things and events. SQL Server stores each dataitem in its own fields. In SQL Server, the fields relating to a particularperson, thing or event are bundled together to form a single complete unit ofdata, called a record (it can also be referred to as raw or an occurrence).Each record is made up of a number of fields. No two fields in a record canhave the same field name. During an SQL Server Database design project, the analysis of yourbusiness needs identifies all the fields or attributes of interest. If yourbusiness needs change over time, you define any additional fields or changethe definition of existing fields.
  26. 26. SQL Server Tables SQL Server stores records relating to each other in a table. Differenttables are created for the various groups of information. Related tables aregrouped together to form a database.Primary Key Every table in SQL Server has a field or a combination of fields thatuniquely identifies each record in the table. The Unique identifier is calledthe Primary Key, or simply the Key. The primary key provides the means todistinguish one record from all other in a table. It allows the user and thedatabase system to identify, locate and refer to one particular record in thedatabase.Relational Database Sometimes all the information of interest to a business operation canbe stored in one table. SQL Server makes it very easy to link the data inmultiple tables. Matching an employee to the department in which they workis one example. This is what makes SQL Server a relational databasemanagement system, or RDBMS. It stores data in two or more tables andenables you to define relationships between the table and enables you todefine relationships between the tables.Foreign Key When a field is one table matches the primary key of another field isreferred to as a foreign key. A foreign key is a field or a group of fields inone table whose values match those of the primary key of another table.
  27. 27. Referential Integrity Not only does SQL Server allow you to link multiple tables, it alsomaintains consistency between them. Ensuring that the data among relatedtables is correctly matched is referred to as maintaining referential integrity.Data Abstraction A major purpose of a database system is to provide users with anabstract view of the data. This system hides certain details of how the datais stored and maintained. Data abstraction is divided into three levels.Physical level: This is the lowest level of abstraction at which one describeshow the data are actually stored.Conceptual Level: At this level of database abstraction all the attributed andwhat data are actually stored is described and entries and relationship amongthem.View level: This is the highest level of abstraction at which one describesonly part of the database.
  28. 28. Advantages of RDBMS • Redundancy can be avoided • Inconsistency can be eliminated • Data can be Shared • Standards can be enforced • Security restrictions ca be applied • Integrity can be maintained • Conflicting requirements can be balanced • Data independence can be achieved.Disadvantages of DBMS A significant disadvantage of the DBMS system is cost. In addition tothe cost of purchasing of developing the software, the hardware has to beupgraded to allow for the extensive programs and the workspace required fortheir execution and storage. While centralization reduces duplication, thelack of duplication requires that the database be adequately backed up sothat in case of failure the data can be recovered.FEATURES OF SQL SERVER (RDBMS) SQL SERVER is one of the leading database management systems(DBMS) because it is the only Database that meets the uncompromisingrequirements of today’s most demanding information systems. Fromcomplex decision support systems (DSS) to the most rigorous online
  29. 29. transaction processing (OLTP) application, even application that requiresimultaneous DSS and OLTP access to the same critical data, SQL Serverleads the industry in both performance and capabilitySQL SERVER is a truly portable, distributed, and open DBMS that deliversunmatched performance, continuous operation and support for everydatabase.SQL SERVER RDBMS is high performance fault tolerant DBMS which isspecially designed for online transactions processing and for handling largedatabase application.SQL SERVER with transactions processing option offers two features whichcontribute to very high level of transaction processing throughput, which are • The row level lock managerEnterprise wide Data Sharing The unrivaled portability and connectivity of the SQL SERVERDBMS enables all the systems in the organization to be linked into asingular, integrated computing resource.Portability SQL SERVER is fully portable to more than 80 distinct hardware andoperating systems platforms, including UNIX, MSDOS, OS/2, Macintoshand dozens of proprietary platforms. This portability gives complete
  30. 30. freedom to choose the database sever platform that meets the systemrequirements.Open Systems SQL SERVER offers a leading implementation of industry –standardSQL. SQL Server’s open architecture integrates SQL SERVER and non –SQL SERVER DBMS with industries most comprehensive collection oftools, application, and third party software products SQL Server’s Openarchitecture provides transparent access to data from other relationaldatabase and even non-relational database.Module Description: A) Employee Creation In the Hierarchical Organization Information System each employee is created with their corresponding department, designation and section details. b)Department entry/department hierarchy In this module, Master Data for the departments can be created employees refer this data .Sub departments Can be identified .Some of The departments will have Different Sections Each Department having Department heads, so department employees should reported to the department head he may be subordinate to his superior Department he shall report to him. Some of departments having sections so section employees shall be reported to the section in charge he shall report to the department head.
  31. 31. From this Departments, subdepartments the Department hierarchyshall be created.c) Process detailsThis following process will be done to get the desired results.• Employee hierarchy can be created using Employers and their superior’s information.• Department Hierarchy can be created using the departmental interdependencies.• Employees can be transferred from one department to another based on different criteria provided by the HR manager.• Employee retention can be processed depending their performance.
  32. 32. 6. TESTING AND IMPLEMENTATION6.1 SYSTEM TESTINGTesting Methodologies Testing is generally done at two levels - Testing of individualmodules and testing of the entire system (System testing). During systemstesting, the system is used experimentally to ensure that the software doesnot fail, i.e., that it will run according to its specifications and in the wayusers expect. Special test data are input for processing, and the resultsexamined. A limited number of uses may be allowed to use the system soanalysis can see whether they use it in unforeseen ways. It is preferable todiscover any surprise before the organization implements the system anddepends on it. Testing is done throughout systems development at various stages (notjust at the end). It is always a good practice to test the system at manydifferent levels at various intervals, that is, sub systems, program modules aswork progresses and finally the system as a whole. If this is not done, thenthe poorly tested system can fail after installation. As you may already havegathered, testing is very tedious and time-consuming job. For a test to besuccessful the tester, should try and make the program fail. The tester maybean analyst, programmer, or specialist trained in software testing. One shouldtry and find areas in which the program can fail. Each test case is designedwith the intent of finding errors in the way the system will process it.
  33. 33. Through testing of programs do not guarantee the reliability of systems. It isassure that the system runs error free.Unit Testing This involves the tests carried out on modules programs, which makeup a system. This is also called as a Program Testing. The units in a systemare the modules and routines that are assembled and integrated to perform aspecific function. In a large system, many modules at different levels areneeded. Unit testing focuses on the modules, independently of one another,to locate errors. The programs should be tested for correctness of logicapplied and should detect errors in coding. For example in the OBSE system, feeding the system with allcombinations of data should test all the calculations. Valid and invalid datashould be created and the programs should be made to process the data tocatch errors. In the OBSE system, the Employee no: consists of three digits,so during testing one should ensure that the programs do not accept anythingother than a three-digit code for the employee no. Another e.g. for valid andinvalid data check is that, in case three digit no is entered during the entry oftransaction, and that number does not exit in the master file, or if thenumber entered is an exit case, then the programs should not allow the entryof such cases. All dates that are entered should be validated. No programshould accept invalidates. The checks that are needed to be incorporated are:in the month of Feb the date cannot be more than 29. For the months havingdays one should not be allowed to enter 31. All conditions present in theprogram should be tested. Before proceeding one must make sure that all theprograms are working independently.
  34. 34. System Testing When unit tests are satisfactorily concluded, the system, as a completeentity must be tested. At this stage, end users and operators become activelyinvolved in testing. While testing one should also test to find discrepanciesbetween the system and its original objective, current specifications andsystems documentation. For example, one module may expect the data item for employeenumber to be numeric field, while other modules expect it to be a characterdata item. The system itself may not report this error, but the output mayshow unexpected results. A record maybe created and stored in one module,using the employee number as a numeric field. If this is later sought onretrieval with the expectation that it will be a character field, the field willnot be recognized and the message requested record not found would not bedisplayed. System testing must also verify that file sizes are adequate and theirindexes have been built properly. Sorting and rendering procedures assumedto be present in lower level modules must be tested at the systems level tosee that they in fact exist and achieve the results modules expect.Output Testing After performing the validation testing, the next step is output testingof the proposed system, since no system could be useful if it does notproduce the required output in the specified format. The outputs generated or
  35. 35. displayed by the system under consideration are tested by asking the usersabout the format required by them. Hence the output format is considered in2 ways – one is on screen and another in printed format.Validation Checking Validation checks are performed on the following fields.Text Field The text field can contain only the number of characters lesser than orequal to its size. The text fields are alphanumeric in some tables andalphabetic in other tables. Incorrect entry always flashes and error message.Numeric Field The numeric field can contain only numbers from 0 to 9. An entry ofany character flashes an error messages. The individual modules are checkedfor accuracy and what it has to perform. Each module is subjected to testrun along with sample data. The individually tested modules are integratedinto a single system. Testing involves executing the real data information isused in the program the existence of any program defect is inferred from theoutput. The testing should be planned so that all the requirements areindividually tested. A successful test is one that gives out the defects for the inappropriatedata and produces and output revealing the errors in the system.
  36. 36. 6.2 IMPLEMENTATIONImplementation Procedures After proper testing and validation, the question arises whether thesystem can be implemented or not. Implementation includes all thoseactivities that take place to convert from old system to new. The new systemmay be totally new replacing an existing manual or automated system, or itmay be a major modification to an existing system. In other case, properimplementation is essential to provide a reliable system to meet organizationrequirements.User Training A well-designed system, if not operated and used properly could fail.Training the users is important, as if not done well enough could prevent thesuccessful implementation of an information system. Through the systemsdevelopment life cycle the user has been involved. By this stage the analystshould possess an accurate idea of the users they need to be trained. Theymust know what their roles will be, how they can use the system and whatthe system will do and will not do. Both system operators and users needtraining. During their training, they need to be given a trouble-shooting listthat identifies possible problems and identifies remedies for the problem.They should be advised of the common mal functions that may arise andhow to solve them.Operational Documentation Once the implementation plan is decided, it is essential that the user ofthe system is made familiar and comfortable with the environment.
  37. 37. Education involves right atmosphere & motivating the user. Adocumentation providing the whole operations of the system is beingdeveloped. The system is developed in such a way that the user can workwith it in a well consistent way. The system is developed user friendly sothat the user can work the system from the tips given in the applicationitself. Useful tips and guidance is given inside the application itself to helpthe user. Users have to be made aware that what can be achieved with thenew system and how it increases the performance of the system. The user ofthe system should be given a general idea of the system before he uses thesystem.System Maintenance A system should be created whose design is comprehensive andfarsighted enough to serve current and projected user for several years tocome. Part of the analyst’s expertise should be in projecting what thoseneeds might be in building flexibility and adaptability into the system.PROJECT TESTING 1) COMPILATION TEST: • It was a good idea to do our stress testing early on, because it gave us time to fix some of the unexpected deadlocks and stability problems that only occurred when components were exposed to very high transaction volumes. 2) EXECUTION TEST:
  38. 38. • This program was successfully loaded and executed. Because of good programming there was no execution error.3) OUTPUT TEST: • The successful output screens are placed in the output screens section.
  39. 39. 7. CONCLUSION• The project has been appreciated by all the users in the organization.• It is easy to use, since it uses the GUI provided in the user dialog.• User friendly screens are provided.• The usage of software increases the efficiency, decreases the effort.• It has been efficiently employed as a Site management mechanism.• It has been thoroughly tested and implemented.
  40. 40. 8. BIBLIOGRAPHY SOFTWARE ENGINEERING By Roger.S. Pressman SQL FOR PROFESSIONALS By Jain VISUAL BASIC.NET Black Book By Evangeleous Petereous ASP.Net Professional By Wrox Publications MSDN 2002 By MicrosoftWebsites:www.a1vbcode.comwww.google.com
  41. 41. Objectives of the CollegeThe liability of the members is limitedThe income and properly of the College whencesover derived, shall beapplied solely towards the promotion of the objectives of the College as setforth in the Third Clause of this Memorandum of Association, and noportion thereof shall be paid or transferred directly or indirectly, by way ofdividend, bonus or otherwise howsoever by way of profit in money or inkind to persons who at any time are or have been members of the College, orto any of them or to any person claiming through any of them: PROVIDEDthat nothing herein shall prevent the payment, in good faith, or reasonableand proper remuneration to any officer or servant of the College or to anymember of the College, in return for any services actually rendered to theCollege, nor prevent the payment of interest at a rate not exceeding the ratefor the time being charged by bankers in Hong Kong for overdrawnaccounts, or reasonable and proper rent for premises demised or let by anymember to the College; but so that no member of the council of managementor governing body of the College shall be appointed to any salaried office ofthe College, or any office of the College paid by fees, and that noremuneration or other benefit in money or moneys worth shall be given bythe College to any member of such council or governing body exceptrepayment of out-of pocket expenses and interest at the rate aforesaid onmoney lent or reasonable anti proper rent for premises demised or let to theCollege; provided that the provision last aforesaid shall not apply to anypayment to any company of which a member of the council of managementor governing body may be a member in which such member shall not hold
  42. 42. more than one-hundredth part of the capital, and such member shall not bebound to account for any share of profits he may receive in respect of suchpayment.Every member of the College undertakes to contribute to the assets of theCollege, in the event of it being wound up while he is a member, or withinone year after he ceased to be a member for the payment of the debts andliabilities of the College contracted before he ceases to be a member, and ofthe costs, charges and expenses of winding up the College, and for theadjustment of the rights of the contributors amongst themselves, suchamongst as may bc required not exceeding ten dollars.

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