Object analysis and design


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Object analysis and design

  1. 1. Object OrientedAnalysis & Design Amandeep S. Patti AP, Comp. Sc., PCTE
  2. 2. Object Oriented Analysis,Modeling and Design• OO is a SW development approach• that is based on modeling objects from the real world• and then using the model to build a Language- independent design. 2
  3. 3. Object-oriented approach is used by:• OO Languages• OO Databases• OO Modeling• OO Methodology 3
  4. 4. Object-oriented approach promotes:• Better Understanding of requirements,• Visualize a problem using graphical notations,• Cleaner designs,• And more maintainable systems. 4
  5. 5. Object oriented approachis divided into:• A set of object-oriented concepts• A language-independent graphical notation which can be used to analyze problem requirements• Design a solution to the problem,• And then implement the solution in a programming language or in database 5
  6. 6. Object-Orientation• A way to organize software as a collection of discrete objects – that incorporate both data structure and behavior.• This contrasts with previous programming approaches in which – data structure and behavior are only loosely connected. 6
  7. 7. Major aspects underobject-orientation:• Identity• Classification• Inheritance• Polymorphism 7
  8. 8. Identity• Quantized data into – discrete, distinguishable entities called objects.• Objects can be – concrete or conceptual• Objects do have their own distinct identity – even if their attributes are same.• Objects do have unique handle. – In comparison to real world where objects simply exists, in programming languages each object has a unique handle by which it is referenced. 8
  9. 9. Classification• Objects with the same data structure (attributes) and behavior (operations) are grouped into a class.• Class is an abstraction – that describes important properties to an application – and ignores the rest.• Each object is an instance of its class. 9
  10. 10. Inheritance• Sharing or attributes and operations – among classes based on hierarchical relationship.• A superclass is general information – that subclasses refine and elaborate. 10
  11. 11. Polymorphism• Same operation may behave differently for different classes.• An operation is a procedure or transformation – that an object performs or is subject to.• An implementation of operation by a specific class – is called a method. 11
  12. 12. OO Development• A way of thinking about SW based on abstractions – that exist in the real world as well as in the program.• Development refers to the SW Life Cycle – analysis, design, and implementation. – Integration, maintenance, and enhancement • is automatically facilitated by a clean design in a precise notation. 12
  13. 13. OO Development• Modeling concepts, not implementation• OO Methodology• Three Models 13
  14. 14. Modeling concepts,not implementation• Front-end conceptual issues, rather than back- end implementation details.• OO Modeling as a conceptual process – Independent of a programming language• Serves as a medium – for specifications, analysis, documentation, interfacing and programming 14
  15. 15. OO Methodology• OO methodology consists of – Building a model of an application – Then adding details to it during design.• Stages – System conception – Analysis – System design – Class design – Implementation 15
  16. 16. OO Themes• Abstraction• Encapsulation• Combining Data and behavior• Sharing• Emphasis on the Essence of an Object• Synergy 16
  17. 17. Modeling Concepts• A Model is an abstraction of something for the purpose of understanding it before building it.• Modeling serves several purposes: – Testing a physical entity before building it. – Communication with customers. – Visualization. – Reduction of complexity by omitting nonessential details. 17
  18. 18. Object Modeling Technique – OMT• Different models are used to describe a system from different viewpoints: – Object Model / Class Model – Dynamic Model / State Model – Functional Model / Interaction Model• Three models are separate parts to describe system but are cross-linked. 18
  19. 19. Object Model / Class Model• To describe static structure of the objects• To describe relationship among various objects• Contains object/class diagrams – Object/Class diagram is a graph diagram where nodes are objects/classes and arcs are relationships among objects/classes. 19
  20. 20. Dynamic Model / State Model• To describes the aspects of an object that change over time.• Specifies and implements control.• Contains state diagrams – State diagram is a graph diagram where nodes are states and arcs are transitions between states caused by events. 20
  21. 21. Functional Model / Interaction Model• Describes the data value transformations within a system.• Contains Data Flow diagrams – Data flow diagram is a graph whose nodes are processes/datastores and whose arcs are data flows. 21
  22. 22. Object Modeling:• Describes a model which capture the static structure of a system – by specifying the objects in the system and relationship between them.• Most important model – as it emphasize building a system around objects rather than around functionality. 22
  23. 23. Objects & Classes:• Objects – Corresponds to real world entities• Classes – Collection of the similar objects or entities.• Each object is associated with the data of a class which they are created. 23
  24. 24. Object Diagrams:• Provide a format for graphical notation for modeling the objects, classes and relationships to on another.• Types of object diagrams: – Class Diagram – Instance Diagram 24
  25. 25. Class Diagrams:• Is a schema, pattern, or template for describing many possible instances of data.• describe the general case in modeling a system. 25
  26. 26. Instance Diagrams:• Describes object instances and show how a particular set of objects relate to each other.• Used mainly to show examples to help to clarify a complex class diagram. 26
  27. 27. Attributes:• Data value held by the objects in class.• Each attribute has a value for each object instance.• Different object instances may have the same or different values for a given attribute.• Each attribute name is unique within a class.• Should describe values not objects.• Attributes are listed in the second part of the class box. 27
  28. 28. Operations and Methods:• An operation is a function or transformation – That may be applied to or by objects in class.• All objects in a class share same operations.• Same operation may apply to many different classes and is called polymorphic.• A method is the implementation of an operation for a class.• Operations listed in the lower part of the class box. 28
  29. 29. Links & Associations:• A Link is a physical or conceptual connection between object instances.• An association describes a group of links – with common structure and common semantics.• Association and links often appear as verbs in the problem statements.• An association describes a set of potential links in the same way that a class describes a set of potential objects. 29
  30. 30. Degree of association:• Describes the number of classes connected by association: – Unary association or reflexive association – Binary association – Ternary association – Quaternary association – Higher order association 30
  31. 31. Multiplicity:• Denotes the cardinality of the association.• It shows how many instances of one class may relate to a single instance of an associated class. – One-to-one – One-to-many – Many-to-many 31
  32. 32. Role Names:• Uniquely identify one end of an association.• Roles often appear as nouns in the problem statement. 32
  33. 33. Ordering:• Objects on the “many” side of an association have no explicit order, and is regarded as a set. 33
  34. 34. Qualification:• Special attribute that reduces the effective multiplicity of an association.• A qualified association relates two object classes and a qualifier. 34
  35. 35. Aggregation:• Is an extension of association• Is the “part-whole” or “a-part-of” relationship – In which objects representing the components of something are associated with an object representing the entire assembly. 35
  36. 36. Generalization:• Is the relationship between a class and one or more refined versions of it.• Class being refined is called the superclass and each refined version is called a subclass.• Is a bottom-up process.• Attributes and operations common to a group of subclasses – are attached to the superclass – and shared by each subclass 36
  37. 37. Notation for Generalization:• The notation for generalization is a triangle – Connecting a superclass to its subclasses. – The superclass is connected by a line to the apex or the triangle. – The subclasses are connected by lines to a horizontal bar attached to the base of the triangle• The dangling subclass ellipsis is used to indicate that there are additional subclasses that are not shown. 37
  38. 38. Use of Generalization:• Useful for conceptual modeling as well as for implementation• Facilitates modeling – by structuring classes – capturing what is similar and what is different about classes. 38
  39. 39. Specialization:• Is a mechanism for refining the definition or members of class.• Is a top-down process. 39
  40. 40. Inheritance:• Is a mechanism of sharing attributes and operations among classes.• May be of type: – Single Inheritance – Multiple Inheritance 40
  41. 41. Overriding Features:• A Subclass may override a superclass feature by defining a feature with the same name.• The overriding feature refines and replaces the overridden feature. 41
  42. 42. Association and AggregationComparison :• Both concepts provide the relationship among the classes.• Aggregation is not an independent concept – but a special form of association. – exists after the existing of association.• Associations are bidirectional but aggregations are antisymmetric. 42
  43. 43. Aggregation and GeneralizationComparison :• Aggregation provides the relationship between classes, while generalization is a process to combine the common behavior and attributers in a single or more classes. 43
  44. 44. Generalization and SpecializationComparison :• Two different viewpoints of the same relationship – Viewed from subclasses to superclass is called generalization – Viewed from superclass to subclasses is called specialization• Both are opposite to each other – Generalization uses bottom-up approach – Specialization uses top-down approach. 44
  45. 45. Dynamic Modeling:• Describes changes to the objects and their relationships over time.• Represents the temporal, behavioral, control aspects of a system.• Major concepts are – Events • represent external stimuli and point of time – States • represent values of objects and interval of time 45
  46. 46. Event:• Happens at a point in time• One event may be casually related – logically precede or follow another• or the two events may be casually unrelated – Concurrent• Every event is a unique occurrence – but can be grouped into event classes – where event class indicate common structure and behavior. 46
  47. 47. Event:• An event is a one-way transmission of information from one object to another. – An object sending an event may expect reply – but that reply is a separate event under the control of the second object.• Some classes of events may be simply signals – that something has occurred• Some classes of events may convey data values called attributes of that event. 47
  48. 48. Scenario:• Is a sequence of events – that occurs during one particular execution of a system• Scope of a scenario can vary – May include all events in the system – Or may include only those events impinging on or generated by certain objects in the system• Next step after writing a scenario is to identify the sender and receiver objects of each event. 48
  49. 49. Event Trace Diagram:• The sequence of events and the objects exchanging events can both be shown in an augmented scenario called an even trace diagram.• Event diagrams shows – Each object as a vertical line – Each event as a horizontal arrow from the sender object to the receiver object 49
  50. 50. Event Trace Diagram:• Time increases from top-to-bottom• Only the sequences of events are shown – Not their exact timing. 50
  51. 51. State:• Is an abstraction of the attribute values and links of an objects.• corresponds to the interval between two events received by an object.• specifies the response of the object to input events. 51
  52. 52. State Diagram:• Is used to relate events and states.• On the occurrence of an event, next state depends – on the current state – as well as on the event• A state diagram is a graph where – nodes are states and are drawn as rounded box – and directed arcs are transitions and are drawn as arrow and labeled by event names 52
  53. 53. Functional Modeling:• Specifies the results of a computation without specifying how or when they are computed.• Shows which values depend on which other values and the functions that relate them. 53
  54. 54. Relation with Objectand Dynamic Models:• The functional modal specifies – the meaning of the operations in the object model – and the actions in the dynamic model, – as well as any constraints in the object model.• The Functional Model specifies what happens• The Dynamic Model shows when it happens• The Object Model specifies what it happens to 54
  55. 55. Data Flow Diagrams:• Shows the functional relationships of the values computed by a system – Including input values, output values, and internal data stores• DFD is a graph showing the flow of data values – from their sources – through processes that transforms them – to their destinations. 55
  56. 56. Data Flow Diagram Contains:• Processes – that transform data• Data Flows – that move data• Actor objects – that produce or consume data• Data store objects – that store data passively 56
  57. 57. Processes:• A process transforms data values.• A process is drawn as an ellipse containing a description of the transformation.• Each process has a fixed number of input and output data arrows.• The lowest-level processes are pure functions.• The high-level processes may be whole DFD.• Processes are implemented as methods. 57
  58. 58. Data Flows:• A data flow connects the output of an object or process to the input of another object or process.• A data flow is drawn as an arrow between the producer and the consumer of the data value. 58
  59. 59. Data Flows:• A fork with several arrows emerging from it may be used to represent – Flow of same value to several places – Splitting an aggregate data value into its components, each of which goes to a different place. 59
  60. 60. Actors:• An actor is an active object that drives the data flow graph by producing or consuming values.• Actors are attached to the inputs and outputs of a data flow graph.• Also known as terminators.• An actor is drawn as a rectangle. 60
  61. 61. Data stores:• A data store is a passive object that stores data for later access.• A data store allows values to be accessed in a different order than they are generated.• It is drawn as a pair of parallel lines containing the name of the store. 61
  62. 62. Actors vs. Data stores:• Both actors and data stores are objects.• They are distinguished because of their behavior and usages.• Data store might be implemented as a file and an actor as an external device. 62
  63. 63. Context Diagram:• It is the first DFD for every system.• It shows the overall system processing as just one process and shows the data flows to and from external entities called actors. 63
  64. 64. Section A:• Abstract Data Types: Model of Real World, Autonomy, Generation of correct Applications, Reusability Classes, Instance Values, Methods and Messages, Creating and destroying Objects, Constraints on object and Instance Variables, Pre and Post conditions of Methods. 64
  65. 65. Model of Real World:• Real world objects are not like variables and functions• They have attributes and behaviour.• All the information is packaged under one name and can be reused as one specification or programming component. 65
  66. 66. Autonomy:• Means independence, freedom from the hold of previous procedural programming approaches. – Redundant code is eliminated and the existing classes can be extended through inheritance. – Bugs in the program by usage of same member’s names can be avoided due to encapsulation. – Multiple instances may exist without interference. 66
  67. 67. Generation of CorrectApplications:• OOAD simplifies the problem as it related the problem with real world.• As abstraction in generated first that facilitates creating classes, thus chances of errors are avoided.• Reusability of existing classes further helps in reducing errors 67
  68. 68. Reusability: 68
  69. 69. Classes: 69
  70. 70. Instance Values:• By instance we mean an object and by instantiating a class, we make the objects of a class.• Every instance got features from the class it is instantiated from but represent a completely different object.• Values that represent an object identity and features form the instance values. 70
  71. 71. Methods and Messages:• An object encapsulates data and algorithms called methods that process that data.• Messages are the means by which the objects interact.• A message stimulates some behaviour to occur in the receiving objet. 71
  72. 72. Creating and Destroying Objects:• Creation of objects is basically making copies of the class members.• Memory allocation is done.• Creation of objects also includes its initialization.• Release the memory. 72
  73. 73. Constraints on Objects andinstance variables 73
  74. 74. Pre and Post Conditions orMethods 74
  75. 75. Section A:• Inheritance: Subsets as Subtypes, Sub typing of Structured Types Contrasting in inheritance with subtyping, Implicit Subtyping verses Explicit inheritance, Subtyping and dynamic binding class inheritance. Redefining Instance variables, Hiding Instance Variables inheriting methods, Method Overriding, Invoking Superclass method, Constrained Overriding, Inheriting the Interface, Excluding Super class Methods metaclasses, Explicit Support, Implicit of hidden Metaclasses, Object Oriented Languages without Metaclasses, Prototype Systems and Delegation, Multiple inheritance. 75
  76. 76. Inheritance:• Deriving something more specific from a generalized existing thing.• Common characteristics are collected into one specific class and other classes inherit that class.• Core idea for reuse• Avoid redundancy• Leading to smaller models 76
  77. 77. Inheritance with subtyping:• Class is regarded as an implementation of a type – which defines certain behaviour.• A subclass represents a subtype to a class.• Ancestor represents a subset of the behaviour common to all the descendants.• Subtyping normally occurs if the inheritance performs only an extension rather than overriding. 77
  78. 78. Instance variables:• A variable associated with a specific instance is called an instance variable.• Instance variable store instance’s state.• Encapsulation ensures that only one way to affect an object’s state, and that is though its operations. 78
  79. 79. Hiding instance variables:• Local variable having the same name as instance variable can hide the instance variable. 79
  80. 80. Overriding:• Redefine some behaviour while inheriting from ancestor.• With overriding, inheritance would not remain transitive. 80
  81. 81. Invoking super class method:• To use characteristics from more than one class.• Controversial in the object-oriented community.• Reduces understanding of a class hierarchy.• Having same name in more than one super class creates problem 81
  82. 82. System Design:• It is the first design stage – in which the basic approach for solving the problem is selected.• System architecture is the overall organization of the system into components called subsystems. 82
  83. 83. Key issues in System Design:• Organize the system into subsystems.• Identify concurrency inherent in the problem.• Allocate subsystems to processors and tasks.• Choose an approach for management of data stores.• Handle access to global resources.• Choose the implementation of control in software.• Handle Boundary Conditions.• Set trade-off Priorities. 83
  84. 84. Organize the system intosubsystems:• A subsystem is usually identified by the service it provides.• It is a package of – interrelated classes, associations, operations, events and constraints. – Are reasonably well-defined. – Interfaced with other subsystems.• The lowest level subsystems are called modules. 84
  85. 85. Organize the system intosubsystems:• Relationship between two subsystems can be – Client-supplier relationship – Peer-to-peer relationship 85
  86. 86. Organize the system intosubsystems:• Client-supplier relationship – Client calls on the supplier, which perform some service and replies with a result. – Client must know the interface of the supplier, but the supplier does not have to know the interface 86
  87. 87. Organize the system intosubsystems:• Peer-to-Peer relationship – Each of the subsystems may call on the others. – Subsystems must know each others interface • Which makes it more complicated. – Peer-to-Peer Relationship • Each of the subsystems may call on the others. • Subsystems must know each others interface. 87
  88. 88. Organize the system intosubsystems:• Decomposition of system into subsystems: – Layered Architecture • Subsystem knows about the layers below it, but has no knowledge of the upper layers • Client supplier relationship exists between lower and upper layers • Each layer is implemented in terms of classes and operations of lower layers. • It may be Closed Architecture or Open Architecture – Partitions • Vertically divide a system into several independent or weakly coupled sybsystems. 88
  89. 89. Identifying concurrency:• The objects are said to be concurrent – if they can receive events at the same time – without interaction.• Identify which objects must be active con-currently Identify which objects have activity that is mutually exclusive. 89
  90. 90. Allocate subsystems toprocessors and tasks:• Each concurrent subsystem must be allocated to a hardware unit – either a general purpose processor – or a specialized functional unit• System designer must consider following aspects: – Estimate performance needs and the resources needed to satisfy them. – Choose h/w or s/w implementation for subsystem. 90
  91. 91. Choose an approach formanagement of data stores:• Data store may combine – Data structure – Databases – Data files 91
  92. 92. Handle access toglobal resources.:• System designer must Identify global resources and determine mechanism for controlling access to them• Physical object – Can control itself by establishing a protocol for obtaining access within a concurrent system.• Logical object (such as object ID) – There is danger of conflicting access in a shared environment.• Global resource must be owned and locking mechanism should be implemented. 92
  93. 93. Choose the implementation ofcontrol in software:• External Control• Internal Control 93
  94. 94. Handle Boundary Conditions:• Initialization – System must initial with all required things.• Termination – System must contain the termination statements – Abnormal terminations must be avoided.• Failure – Abnormal termination is called failure – May arise due to user errors, exhaustion of system resources, external breakdown. 94
  95. 95. Set trade-off Priorities:• Based on relative importance of the various criteria 95
  96. 96. Common ArchitecturalFrameworks:• Functional Transformation System – Batch Computation system – Continuous Transformation system• Time dependent system – Interactive Interface – Dynamic simulation• Database system – Transaction manager 96