0
Collaboration in the
Enterprise: What’s new?
        (2 of 2)
    Anand Deshpande, Ph.D.
    Founder, Chairman and
       ...
2
&
Social Networking
                    3
Social networking
sites have become
the digital
equivalent of
“hanging out a
mall”

Per Google's Joe
Kraus “social
network...
“People have been
endlessly fascinated
by one another for a
very long time.
Social networking is
not new; we just
have new...
History of Social Networking Sites




                                                         6
http://jcmc.indiana.edu/...
Social Networking Timeline – 2003
□ March 2003:
   – With $400,000 in seed money former Netscape engineer
     Jonathan Ab...
Social Networking Timeline – 2004

□ January 2004:
   – Google rolls out Beta version of Orkut designed by Google
     eng...
Social Networking Timeline – 2005

□ January 2005:
   – Husband and wife team Michael and Xochi Birch launch Bebo.
□ April...
Social Networking Timeline – 2006
□ February 2006:
   – Facebook now with millions of users raises $27.5M in another
     ...
Social Networking Timeline – 2007
□ July 2007:
   – Twitter raises $5.4M in a round of funding led by Union Square
     Ve...
Social Networking Timeline – 2007

□ November 2007
  – Mark Zukekrberg heralds the launch of “Facebook’s Social
    Ads” p...
Social Networking Timeline – 2008

□ January 2008:
  – As Google’s advertising deal with MySpace produces lower-
    than-...
How big is Social Networking?




                                14
Top Social Media Sites
(ranked by unique worldwide visitors November, 2008; comScore)


1. Blogger (222 million)          ...
100 billion rows of data

       The community pushes 85 gigs of bandwidth



             More than 50 million messages s...
Orkut Stats
              17
Social networking is
truly a world-wide
phenomenon




                       18
Membership life cycle for online communities
Amy Jo Kim proposed member’s life cycle in an
online community (2000).
The cy...
20
On the Internet, Everyone
  knows you are a dog!
                            21
Flickr Case study

□ Flickr was developed by Ludicorp a Vancouver, B.C., Canada-
  based company that launched Flickr in F...
23
24
http://www.flickr.com/photos/walkaboutwolf/63452603/
                                                       25
26
27
28
Facebook Case Study

□ February 2004:
   – Harvard Sophomore Mark Zukerberg
     launches thefacebook.com the original ver...
30
Facebook Apps




                31
Barack
Obama
extensively
leveraged
Social
Networking
in his 2008
Presidential
Election
Campaign
               32
http://www.barackobama.com/




                              33
34
35
Why do individuals
participate in communities?




                              36
Why do users participate in virtual communities?
 According to Peter Kollock in The Economies of Online Cooperation: Gifts...
Other factors that motivate community
participation
1. Connections within the community - the more friends a
   user has w...
Fundamental Building Blocks of the Web

□ URL – universal means of identifying
  and addressing content.

□ HTTP – A proto...
The Web is better when it is social!


The web is more
interesting when
you can build apps
that easily interact
with your ...
First steps towards a Social
Networking platform …

□ establish a single identity to log on to
  many sites;

□ share priv...
OpenSocial – Many Sites, One API

OpenSocial defines a common API for social
applications across multiple websites.

With ...
Open Social API -- supporters

    Engage.com,       Oracle,
•                 •
    Friendster,       orkut
•            ...
Lots of open social web “building blocks”…




                                             44
Evolution of open platforms
                                               Ubiquitous
Walled
                             ...
46
Plaxo – unified address book and more!




                                         47
http://www.linkedin.com/in/ananddeshpande




                                            48
Integration of other applications on LinkedIn




                                                49
LinkedIn




           50
Social networking has evolved in the
“consumer” Internet and its deployment
      in the Enterprise is still new.




    ...
Setting up the infrastructure for
    Enterprise Collaboration




                                52
Fostering collaboration to propel business
results continues to be the elusive goal of
many organizations.

□ Could Web 2....
Fast Company December 2008/January 2009
Cisco’s Chambers on Cover

□ Ron Ricci – Vice President of Corporate
  Positioning...
Changing Corporate Demographics is helping the
adoption of Web 2.0 in the Enterprise
□ Boomers take their knowledge with t...
Your employees are perhaps
   already on board and are very
   eager to
         connect with their peers
   □
         be...
A wealth of information
creates a poverty of
attention.


-- Herbert Simon, Nobel
Laureate Economist



  Using Tags and T...
What are tags?

Simple data/metadata externally applied to an object
□ Used for sorting
□ A hook for aggregating
□ Provide...
Tag Cloud




Tag Cloud based on populations of countries.

                                               59
Social Bookmarking

                     Del.cio.us
                •
                     Digg.com
                •
    ...
Social Bookmarks

□ Social bookmarks enable people to mark Web
  pages of interest and to share those Web
  locations with...
62
63
Social Bookmarking in the Enterprise

□ In the workplace, social bookmarks are used to
  provide a common set of links for...
A pioneer and
leader in social
bookmarking and
                            HELPING BUSINESSES WORK SMARTER



tagging for ...
66
67
68
Taxonomy: Organizing Tags
                                 Source: Forrester Research

Subject Driven or top-down   Conten...
Source: Forrester Research
  Taxonomy Classification (1 of 2)
           Subject Driven        Content Driven       User D...
Taxonomy Classification (2 of 2)
           Subject Driven        Content Driven       User Driven        System Driven
Ap...
Taxonomy Combinations
           Tag
 TagTag Tag                                     Faster Incorporation of new topics
  ...
Tagging Content

             Manual tagging –
             By Professionals

               Pros                 Cons    ...
Taxonomies can be beneficial
□ Enhanced search. Effective information retrieval matches users’
  often vague needs with me...
Why do Taxonomies Fail?

  Jim Wessely, a prominent taxonomy consultant,
  agrees, explaining, “incorrect categorization i...
Misunderstanding “taxonomy” is often the root
cause of the problem
□ In the business world, the word “taxonomy”
  covers a...
Taxonomy Recommendations

Align taxonomies with business objectives and
  technology investments

□ Taxonomies range in co...
How to implement Taxonomies
□ Plan before you start construction.
   – Decide on an enterprise versus tactical approach an...
Critical success factors for enterprise
       social networking
                  Critical Success           Seekers     ...
It is hard to find things.

Enterprise Findability -- AIIM Market IQ Study (528 End-Users)


□ 49% agree that finding the ...
Enterprise Findability = IA + KM + Search

□ In portal space, IA is top-down (e.g., controlled
  vocabulary). Traditional ...
Integrating Structured and
  Unstructured Data

Large amounts of unstructured data is




                                ...
Integrating Web 2.0 Content -- Mashups

□ Mashup Web applications combine multiple, disparate
  data sources into somethin...
iGoogle




          85
http://www.search-cube.com/



□ http://www.search-cube.com/




                                86
87
88
89
Challenges of Building Mashups

□ Data Access
   – data sources must expose their data such that it can be accessed
     s...
Connecting Commerce to Web 2.0


□Where’s the money?




                                 91
□ 3C = Content, Commerce, Community |
  4th C = Context |
  P = Personalization |
  VS = Vertical Search

□ Definition:
We...
Ten Key Aspects of Web 2.0 in the Enterprise

      1. It's not about technology, it's about the changes
         it enabl...
Ten Key Aspects of Web 2.0 in the Enterprise

      6. Incubators and pilots projects can help create
         initial env...
Anand Deshpande
Persistent Systems Limited


THANK YOU


                             95
REFERENCES


             96
References




             97
Want to know more?
□ Want to see all 13 surveys fielded
  in North America, Europe, and
  Asia Pacific?
    http://www.for...
Useful Links


□ http://www.aiim.org/ResourceCenter/Research/MarketIQ/Article.asp
  x?ID=34464 - Enterprise 2.0 report.
□ ...
http://collaborationblog.typepad.com/collaboration/
                                               100
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Transcript of "Enterprise Collaboration Two (Deshpande India 2020)"

  1. 1. Collaboration in the Enterprise: What’s new? (2 of 2) Anand Deshpande, Ph.D. Founder, Chairman and Managing Director Persistent Systems, Pune anand@persistent.co.in January 2009 1
  2. 2. 2
  3. 3. & Social Networking 3
  4. 4. Social networking sites have become the digital equivalent of “hanging out a mall” Per Google's Joe Kraus “social networking is the latest fashion – the new black,” as he called it. 4
  5. 5. “People have been endlessly fascinated by one another for a very long time. Social networking is not new; we just have new ways to do it.” 5
  6. 6. History of Social Networking Sites 6 http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol13/issue1/boyd.ellison.html
  7. 7. Social Networking Timeline – 2003 □ March 2003: – With $400,000 in seed money former Netscape engineer Jonathan Abrams launches Friendster □ May 2003: – Former PayPal executive VP Reid Hoffman sends out the first invitations to join business networking site LinkedIn. □ August 2003: – Brad Greenspan, Chris DeWolfe and Tom Anderson of community website conglomerate eUniverse (later renamed Intermix Media) create MySpace □ October 2003: – Time declares Friendster the “Coolest Inventions of 2003” as social networking starts to become mainstream. □ December 2003: – Social networking site Hi5 which grew out of matchmaking site for South Asian singles launched in January 2003 goes live. 7
  8. 8. Social Networking Timeline – 2004 □ January 2004: – Google rolls out Beta version of Orkut designed by Google engineer Orkut Buyukkokten. □ February 2004: – Harvard Sophomore Mark Zukerberg launches thefacebook.com the original version of Facebook, to connect students of the university. □ May 2004: – Plaxo cofounded by Napster cofounder Sean Parker □ June 2004: – Having spread to Stanford, Columbia and Yale, Facebook moves operations to Palo Alto, CA. – Former NBC executive Scott Sassa replaces Abrams as the CEO of Friendster in a bid to make the service profitable. The Company goes through 2 more CEOs in 2004. 8
  9. 9. Social Networking Timeline – 2005 □ January 2005: – Husband and wife team Michael and Xochi Birch launch Bebo. □ April 2005: – Facebook secures $12.7 Million in funding from Accel Partners □ July 2005: – Rupert Murdoch’s News Corp buys MySpace parent Company Intermix Media for $580M □ September 2005: – Facebook adds high-school networks □ October 2005: – Marc Andreessen and Gina Bianchini launch Ning a customizable social networking platform. 9
  10. 10. Social Networking Timeline – 2006 □ February 2006: – Facebook now with millions of users raises $27.5M in another round of venture capital. □ May 2006: – Facebook expands beyond schools for the first time, adding workplace networks. □ August 2006: – Google outbids Microsoft in $900 Million deal to acquire rights to MySpace search and search related advertising, two weeks later, Microsoft negotiates rights to serve ads on Facebook. – Microblogging service Twitter developed by engineer Jack Dorsey and Blogger cofounder Evan Williams goes live. □ September 2006: – Facebook opens registration to anyone over 13 and with an email address. □ October 2006: – ComScore announces that majority of MySpace visitors are over 35. 10
  11. 11. Social Networking Timeline – 2007 □ July 2007: – Twitter raises $5.4M in a round of funding led by Union Square Ventures. □ August 2007 – News Corp announces that MySpace parent company Fox Interactive Media turned a profit for the first time. $10M on a revenue of $550M. – Plaxo unveils Pulse a service designed to pull in feeds from MySpace, Twitter and other social networking sites. □ October 2007: – Microsoft acquires a $240M equity in Facebook; the deal values Facebook at $15Billion. 11
  12. 12. Social Networking Timeline – 2007 □ November 2007 – Mark Zukekrberg heralds the launch of “Facebook’s Social Ads” program as a “completely new way of advertising online.” – Myspace rolls out Hypertargeting and Self Service advertising platforms which targets ads on the basis of information that users provide about themsel – Google launches its OpenSocial platform, allowing developers to create applications that will work on a variety of social networking sites including Friendster, LinkedIn, Hi5, Ning but not Facebook. □ December 2007 – User backlash against Facebook’s Beacon, a key component of Company’s social advertising strategy forces Zuerberg to issue a public apology and change from feature from opt-out to opt-in. 12
  13. 13. Social Networking Timeline – 2008 □ January 2008: – As Google’s advertising deal with MySpace produces lower- than-expected revenues. □ March 2008 – Facebook hires Google veteran Sheryl Sandberg was a driver of Google’s successful advertisement programs AdWords and AdSense. – AOL acquires Bebo with more than 40 million users worldwide for $850Million. □ May 2008 – News Corp announce that revenues for MySpace parent company Fox Interactive media will fall $100million short of the $1B forecast by the Company for fiscal 2007. – Comcast acquire Plaxo. Terms are speculative but purchase price between $150Million and $170Million. 13
  14. 14. How big is Social Networking? 14
  15. 15. Top Social Media Sites (ranked by unique worldwide visitors November, 2008; comScore) 1. Blogger (222 million) 11. Baidu Space (40 million) 2. Facebook (200 million) 12. Friendster (31 million) 3. MySpace (126 million) 13. 56.com (29 million) 4. Wordpress (114 million) 14. Webs.com (24 million) 5. Windows Live Spaces (87 15. Bebo (24 million) million) 16. Scribd (23 million) 6. Yahoo Geocities (69 million) 17. Lycos Tripod (23 7. Flickr (64 million) million) 8. hi5 (58 million) 18. Tagged (22 million) 9. Orkut (46 million) 19. imeem (22 million) 10.Six Apart (46 million) 20. Netlog (21 million) 15
  16. 16. 100 billion rows of data The community pushes 85 gigs of bandwidth More than 50 million messages sent per day Infrastructure supports 5 mm concurrent users online at peak 11% of online minutes in the U.S. are spent on MySpace 200,000 – 400,000 new users sign up daily 16
  17. 17. Orkut Stats 17
  18. 18. Social networking is truly a world-wide phenomenon 18
  19. 19. Membership life cycle for online communities Amy Jo Kim proposed member’s life cycle in an online community (2000). The cycle suggests five phases of a user’s lifecycle 1. Peripheral (i.e. Lurker) - within a community: An outsider, unstructured participation 2. Inbound (i.e. Novice) - New user, invested in the community, on his way to Lurker Regular Elder full participation 3. Insider (i.e. Regular) - Novice Leader Committed participator, member of the community 4. Boundary (i.e. Leader) - A member brokering interactions and encouraging/sustaining participation 5. Outbound (i.e. Elder) - On his way to leaving the community, perhaps to another community due to a particular change in the community or personal choice. 19
  20. 20. 20
  21. 21. On the Internet, Everyone knows you are a dog! 21
  22. 22. Flickr Case study □ Flickr was developed by Ludicorp a Vancouver, B.C., Canada- based company that launched Flickr in February 2004. □ The service emerged out of tools originally created for Ludicorp's Game Neverending, a web-based massively multiplayer online game. Flickr proved a more feasible project and ultimately Game Neverending was shelved. □ Some of the key features of Flickr not initially present were tags, marking photos as favorites, group photo pools and interestingness. □ In March 2005, Yahoo! acquired Ludicorp and Flickr. During the week of June 28, 2005, all content was migrated from servers in Canada to servers in the United States, resulting in all data being subject to United States federal law. – Source: Wikipedia 22
  23. 23. 23
  24. 24. 24
  25. 25. http://www.flickr.com/photos/walkaboutwolf/63452603/ 25
  26. 26. 26
  27. 27. 27
  28. 28. 28
  29. 29. Facebook Case Study □ February 2004: – Harvard Sophomore Mark Zukerberg launches thefacebook.com the original version of Facebook, to connect students of the university. □ June 2004 – Having spread to Stanford, Columbia and Yale, Facebook moves operations to Palo Alto, CA. Mark Zukerberg □ April 2005: – Facebook secures $12.7 Million in funding from Accel Partners □ February 2006: – Facebook now with millions of users raises $27.5M in another round of venture capital. □ May 2006: – Facebook expands beyond schools for the first time, adding workplace networks □ October 2007: – Microsoft acquires a $240M equity in Facebook; the deal values Facebook at $15Billion. 29
  30. 30. 30
  31. 31. Facebook Apps 31
  32. 32. Barack Obama extensively leveraged Social Networking in his 2008 Presidential Election Campaign 32
  33. 33. http://www.barackobama.com/ 33
  34. 34. 34
  35. 35. 35
  36. 36. Why do individuals participate in communities? 36
  37. 37. Why do users participate in virtual communities? According to Peter Kollock in The Economies of Online Cooperation: Gifts and Public Goods in Cyberspace, 1. Anticipated Reciprocity – Motivated by the expectation that he will receive useful help and information in return. Indeed we have seen such active users receiving more help than lurkers. 2. Increased recognition - the desire for prestige is a key motivation. Contributions increase if they are visible and credited to the contributor. … the powerful effects of seemingly trivial markers of recognition (e.g. stars, ranking) are overwhelming. 3. Sense of efficacy - Individuals may contribute because the act results in sense of contribution to the community. Wikipedia is a good example of this. 37 http://thenextweb.com/
  38. 38. Other factors that motivate community participation 1. Connections within the community - the more friends a user has within a given community, the more important it becomes for him to participate in. 2. Emotional Safety - a sense of belonging and identifying with the community. The key is to get individuals to become regular users in the community and create a cozy and “feel good” environment for them. 3. Common emotional connection - niche communities that are built around a particular emotional connection/cause between members tend to become more cohesive and experience lower percentages of participation inequality. 4. Altruism - Yossi Vardi coined the term “Dopamine Over IP” - each user transfers dopamine to another user….by contributing content, a user knows that he will cause pleasure to those who view it and those users that forward this content onwards, know the same. 38
  39. 39. Fundamental Building Blocks of the Web □ URL – universal means of identifying and addressing content. □ HTTP – A protocol for client-server communication □ HTML – A simple markup language for communicating hyper-text content. 39
  40. 40. The Web is better when it is social! The web is more interesting when you can build apps that easily interact with your friends and colleagues. 40
  41. 41. First steps towards a Social Networking platform … □ establish a single identity to log on to many sites; □ share private resources such as photos or contact lists without handing out private credentials (such as an email account password); and □ distribute information across multiple social applications. 41
  42. 42. OpenSocial – Many Sites, One API OpenSocial defines a common API for social applications across multiple websites. With standard JavaScript and HTML, developers can create apps that access a social network's friends and update feeds. A common API => you have less to learn to build for multiple websites. The ultimate goal is for any social website to be able to implement the API and host 3rd party social applications. 42
  43. 43. Open Social API -- supporters Engage.com, Oracle, • • Friendster, orkut • • hi5, Plaxo, • • Hyves, Salesforce.com, • • imeem, Six Apart, • • LinkedIn, Tianji, • • MySpace, Viadeo, and • • Ning, XING. • • 43
  44. 44. Lots of open social web “building blocks”… 44
  45. 45. Evolution of open platforms Ubiquitous Walled social garden Search networks services freedom 1993 1999 2003 2008-9 2013 Data portability Portal aggregators http://code.google.com/apis/opensocial/ • http://code.google.com/p/opensocial-resources/ • http://code.google.com/apis/orkut/ • http://code.google.com/apis/igoogle/docs/gs.html 45 •
  46. 46. 46
  47. 47. Plaxo – unified address book and more! 47
  48. 48. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ananddeshpande 48
  49. 49. Integration of other applications on LinkedIn 49
  50. 50. LinkedIn 50
  51. 51. Social networking has evolved in the “consumer” Internet and its deployment in the Enterprise is still new. 51
  52. 52. Setting up the infrastructure for Enterprise Collaboration 52
  53. 53. Fostering collaboration to propel business results continues to be the elusive goal of many organizations. □ Could Web 2.0 tools be the silver bullet? □ Pundits assert that – Web 2.0 tools could aggregate business information and digital content – “Crowdsourcing” models may work within the enterprise. – Demographics is playing a role as a more tech-savvy generation is entering the workforce. 53
  54. 54. Fast Company December 2008/January 2009 Cisco’s Chambers on Cover □ Ron Ricci – Vice President of Corporate Positioning “Collaboration won’t work if there is one person in charge” □ Sheila Jordan, Vice President of IT, communications and Collaboration Technologies at Cisco “We are looking for applications that help people really have water-cooler talk” □ Sue Bostrom – Chief Marketing Officer “People come to the web looking for expertise. We are giving that. Cisco.com answers consumers’ questions and encourages interaction with vendors and employees. □ Jim Grubb, Vice president of Corporate Communications Architecture “Collaboration helps a world community solve big problems” 54
  55. 55. Changing Corporate Demographics is helping the adoption of Web 2.0 in the Enterprise □ Boomers take their knowledge with them into retirement. Organizations with an older workforce face a retirement surge and are forecasting a brain-drain crisis. □ Gen Xers gather information. The members of the Gen X demographic are positioning themselves to become the leaders of tomorrow. □ Millennials expect computing environments at work that operate much like the highly connected environments of their social lives 55
  56. 56. Your employees are perhaps already on board and are very eager to connect with their peers □ belong to a network □ share knowledge □ acquire on-line reputation □ collaborate with co-workers □ enhance their own expertise □ network with anyone, anywhere, anytime □ develop a sense of mutual trust and obligation □ 56 From Yves Noble’s presentation about Cap Gemini at KM conference
  57. 57. A wealth of information creates a poverty of attention. -- Herbert Simon, Nobel Laureate Economist Using Tags and Taxonomies to Organize Data 57
  58. 58. What are tags? Simple data/metadata externally applied to an object □ Used for sorting □ A hook for aggregating □ Provides identifier and/or description □ Personal markers Type Examples Social Bookmarking del.icio.us, RawSugar, Ma.gnolia Media Flickr, Dabble, LastFM, Viddler Shopping Amazon Geo-Location Platial, Socialite Museums Steve.museum, Powerhouse Intranet IBM Dogear, Scuttle, ConnectBeam Dating Consumating OS (files) Mac OSX Tiger & Microsoft Vista 58
  59. 59. Tag Cloud Tag Cloud based on populations of countries. 59
  60. 60. Social Bookmarking Del.cio.us • Digg.com • Reddit • StumbleUpon • Technorati • 60
  61. 61. Social Bookmarks □ Social bookmarks enable people to mark Web pages of interest and to share those Web locations with others. These bookmarks are shared on a Web site for others to see. □ Anyone can score or vote on the page to indicate a measure of relevance to others. □ Over time, the more-popular sites rise to the top of the list as more people bookmark them and comment on them. This results in a list of pages that a group considers important to share among its members. 61
  62. 62. 62
  63. 63. 63
  64. 64. Social Bookmarking in the Enterprise □ In the workplace, social bookmarks are used to provide a common set of links for people to share in a way that builds a community around topics of interest. □ Connectbeam, Cogenz, IBM 64
  65. 65. A pioneer and leader in social bookmarking and HELPING BUSINESSES WORK SMARTER tagging for the enterprise. • Social Tagging. With Spotlight, employees easily share the information they find, both out on the Web and inside the organization. • Social Activity Repository. Connectbeam automatically pulls references to employee generated content in the different social software applications across company Intranets. 65
  66. 66. 66
  67. 67. 67
  68. 68. 68
  69. 69. Taxonomy: Organizing Tags Source: Forrester Research Subject Driven or top-down Content Driven or bottom-up Tag Tag Tag Tag Tag Tag Tag Tag Tag TagTag Tag Tag Tag Tag System Driven User Driven 69
  70. 70. Source: Forrester Research Taxonomy Classification (1 of 2) Subject Driven Content Driven User Driven System Driven Purpose Knowledge ECM Social Search refinement Management, Retrieval oriented bookmarking Content tagging Topical browsing advanced search Tagged Entity extraction filtered results search results Auto classification faceted Collaborative Auto categorization navigation metadata Capture What a document What a document What a What a document s is ABOUT is and its document CONTAINS or is PURPOSE MEANS to a SIMILAR TO user Used to: Categorize or file Describe Allow users Cluster things which things into a fixed attributes/propert to tag things are similar. framework ies of things Extract entities from text Traits Formal domain Practical Unregulated Scalable, specific categories Comprehensive Natural, Fast and terms are Contextual simple to use Objective defined by rules Mutually exclusive Responsive to Repeatable and descriptions. dimensions change Coherently structured even if out of context 70
  71. 71. Taxonomy Classification (2 of 2) Subject Driven Content Driven User Driven System Driven Approach Defined or Built based on Low-cost, easy System looks for modeled without specific content way to get patterns and traits content based on Attributes can people to inherent in content domain be local or global describe knowledge. mandatory or content Can be built or optional bought Risks Nested categories Too many Personal tags Outcome is not only give one elements -- lack shared always intuitive to browsing axis. Users skip them meaning. users. Too unwieldy or Lack of System doesn’t esoteric to deploy control. understand context Reflects bias of No structure or intent designer or relationships System doesn’t build User adoption hierarchy or capture varies variant forms Examples Scientific Dublin Core Flickr Clusty taxonomy, Metadata Delicious Googlenews SIC Code, Element Set Factiva Intelligent Indexing 71 Taxonomy
  72. 72. Taxonomy Combinations Tag TagTag Tag Faster Incorporation of new topics Tag Tag in a subject-driven taxonomy Tag Tag Tag Tag Tag Tag Tag Tag Tag + Subject Driven User Driven Auto categorization at Scale + System Driven Subject Driven Authoritative vocabulary for + metadata fields Subject Driven Content Driven Related Content + System Driven 72 Content Driven Source: Forrester Research
  73. 73. Tagging Content Manual tagging – By Professionals Pros Cons Automated Tagging – By Controlled Costly Machine   vocabularies &  Human standard resource Pros Cons taxonomies intensive  Higher quality  Cannot Learns from Requires training   keep up professional & of models user tagging  Lower quality Example: ?   Lower human than manual Social Tagging – cost tagging By Users Example: Semantic tagging  Popularity High-value content Pros Cons & enterprise data sources User driven Ambiguity    Emergent  Uncontrolled folksonomies vocabulary  Serpendipitous  Synonyms Deep archives, large personal collections browsing Consumer content Examples: Del.icio.us and Flickr  “Long tail” Digital item 73
  74. 74. Taxonomies can be beneficial □ Enhanced search. Effective information retrieval matches users’ often vague needs with meaningful search results. □ Intuitive navigation. Reorganizing a Web site or intranet to match users’ needs, wants □ Enriched content. Taxonomies add descriptive contextual structure to information (i.e., who wrote it for what purpose). □ Interoperable and reusable content. Diverse content structured with global and local metadata is easier to merge and treat holistically. □ Amplified social connections among people. People who share the same awareness and interest in content may connect through a common taxonomy. □ Smooth technology implementation. Computers are able to carry out advanced semantic capabilities more intelligently when the content is well structured. □ Improved oversight and information management. Enriched content is easier to isolate, identify, and collect according to shared characteristics, such as recipient, purpose, or topic. 75
  75. 75. Why do Taxonomies Fail? Jim Wessely, a prominent taxonomy consultant, agrees, explaining, “incorrect categorization is more dangerous than no categorization at all.” Watch out for ineffective taxonomies that: □ Fail to align with business objectives. □ Overlook how systems process content. □ Ignore how users work or think. 76
  76. 76. Misunderstanding “taxonomy” is often the root cause of the problem □ In the business world, the word “taxonomy” covers a lot of ground; its stretched definition is prone to misunderstanding. Any schema that controls language and structures content is called taxonomy. □ Forrester shares Vivian Bliss’ broad definition of taxonomy: A group of things organized and related according to a set of principles for a specific purpose. 77
  77. 77. Taxonomy Recommendations Align taxonomies with business objectives and technology investments □ Taxonomies range in complexity, formality, and purpose; they can be deconstructed and reconstructed to support knowledge work and solve a variety of business problems. □ Taxonomy initiatives should be defined carefully in order to represent what customers want so they get the results they expect. 78
  78. 78. How to implement Taxonomies □ Plan before you start construction. – Decide on an enterprise versus tactical approach and what kind of taxonomy to build. Begin with a taxonomy audit. □ Set a multidisciplinary governance model. – Content producers, IT, and senior management must contribute to the process. □ Communicate the goal and use of taxonomy. – Demonstrate how taxonomies are real and important to the work of the organization to promote their reuse in different projects and systems. □ Hide the complexity from the end user. – Systems should support dense, linked, and multifaceted taxonomies in the back-end, but display the structure simply to end users, if at all. □ Understand good practices, principles, and heuristics. – It takes discipline to build a sound, scalable taxonomy. Start small and simple. □ Test and validate the taxonomy. – Don’t assume the taxonomy works without asking real people to test it, early and often. Monitor the usage and effectiveness of the taxonomy. 79
  79. 79. Critical success factors for enterprise social networking Critical Success Seekers Contributors I need someone I am someone Factors Awareness How do I know who is How can I become more known? out there? Networking Competence Is this person How can I advertise my Social (Trust) competent? expertise? Benevolence Will this person help How can I develop my (Trust) me? reputation as a trusted partner? Motivation Am I motivated to Why will I cooperate with this work with this person? person? Culture Access How do I approach Do I want to be approached? this person? Skills Does the team have the skills necessary to collaborate effectively? Collaborative (e.g. technical, communication, people, business, etc) Tools Mechanism Do we have a method to collaborate? 80
  80. 80. It is hard to find things. Enterprise Findability -- AIIM Market IQ Study (528 End-Users) □ 49% agree that finding the information needed to do my job is difficult and time consuming. □ 69% believe that less than half of their organization's information is searchable online. □ 49% have no formal goal for enterprise findability. □ 50% believe that findability in their organization is worse than their consumer-facing web site. 81
  81. 81. Enterprise Findability = IA + KM + Search □ In portal space, IA is top-down (e.g., controlled vocabulary). Traditional methods of structure, organization, and evaluation are needed. □ In collaboration space, IA is emergent. Our job is to observe, shepherd and harness the learning to make things navigable, searchable, etc. (e.g., Technorati). □ Enterprise search needs to serve as bridge across portal, intranet, collaboration space, web sites, and library databases and services. □ Success requires supportive culture and incentives. 82
  82. 82. Integrating Structured and Unstructured Data Large amounts of unstructured data is unstructured Query and Integration scattered across the organization. This data is in different products and applications such as knowledge structured management systems, email etc. Analytics SQL Next-generation products are expected to integrate both structured and unstructured unstructured structured data. Data 1. SQL provides structured queries against structured data. 2. Users want structured analytics against both structured and unstructured data. Persistent has 3. Extracting semantics from structured data is a hard expertise and IP problem. to address these 4. Search semantics are acceptable for unstructured issues! data. What does it mean for structured data? 83
  83. 83. Integrating Web 2.0 Content -- Mashups □ Mashup Web applications combine multiple, disparate data sources into something new and unique. □ Mashup platforms allow nontechnical users to create and consume their own mashups with visual tools. □ Enterprises can use mashup platforms to allow individual business users to create highly customized process- and context-specific applications, dashboards, and portals. □ IBM, JackBe Corporation, Kapow Technologies, Serena Software, StrikeIron, Xignite 84
  84. 84. iGoogle 85
  85. 85. http://www.search-cube.com/ □ http://www.search-cube.com/ 86
  86. 86. 87
  87. 87. 88
  88. 88. 89
  89. 89. Challenges of Building Mashups □ Data Access – data sources must expose their data such that it can be accessed seamlessly. Case for implementing SOA. □ Consistent Schema and Granularity of Data. – Exposing schema and metadata information crisply so that data can be consumed easily. – Providing the right granularity of data as desired by the application. □ Keeping Data Synchronized – How does one keep data synchronized from diverse data sources? □ Non-Programmer level Orchestration – Need easy ways for business users to put together their own applications. 90
  90. 90. Connecting Commerce to Web 2.0 □Where’s the money? 91
  91. 91. □ 3C = Content, Commerce, Community | 4th C = Context | P = Personalization | VS = Vertical Search □ Definition: Web 3.0 = (4C + P + VS) Web 3.0 and the Semantic Web Web 3.0 = (4C + P + VS) + Place 92
  92. 92. Ten Key Aspects of Web 2.0 in the Enterprise 1. It's not about technology, it's about the changes it enables. 2. The implications of 2.0 stands many traditional views on their head. 3. Get the ideas, concepts, and vocabulary out into the organization and circulating. 4. Existing management methods and conventional wisdom are a hard barrier to 2.0 strategy and transformation. 5. Avoiding external disruption is hard but managing self-imposed risk caused by 2.0 is easier. 93 http://blogs.zdnet.com/Hinchcliffe/?p=135
  93. 93. Ten Key Aspects of Web 2.0 in the Enterprise 6. Incubators and pilots projects can help create initial environments for success with 2.0 efforts. 7. Irreversible decisions around 2.0 around topics such as brand, reputation, and corporate strategy can be delayed quite a while, and sometime forever. 8. The technology competence organizations have today are inadequate for moving to 2.0. 9. The business side requires 2.0 competence as well. 10.Start small, think big. 94 http://blogs.zdnet.com/Hinchcliffe/?p=135
  94. 94. Anand Deshpande Persistent Systems Limited THANK YOU 95
  95. 95. REFERENCES 96
  96. 96. References 97
  97. 97. Want to know more? □ Want to see all 13 surveys fielded in North America, Europe, and Asia Pacific? http://www.forrester.com/Products/MarketR esearch/Business □ Want full access to data from more than 200,000 global consumers and a personal data specialist to help you? http://www.forrester.com/Products/MarketR esearch/Consumer/TechAdoption □ Please give us feedback on this Data Chart. http://www.forrester.com/forr/reg/contact.js p?id=38 Related research □ “IBM Or Microsoft For Collaboration – Or Both?” http://www.forrester.com/Research/Documen t/0,7211,42745,00.html □ “How To Create A Knockout Collaboration Strategy Document” http://www.forrester.com/Research/Documen t/0,7211,41374,00.html 98
  98. 98. Useful Links □ http://www.aiim.org/ResourceCenter/Research/MarketIQ/Article.asp x?ID=34464 - Enterprise 2.0 report. □ http://www.forrester.com/Research/Document/Excerpt/0,7211,427 96,00.html Forrester report on information workplace trends 2007. □ http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/businesses_cant_hide_from_2 0.php - overview of enterprise 2.0 products. □ http://www.marketingcharts.com/interactive/myspace-owns-68-of- socnet-traffic-facebook-visits-up-50-6190/hitwise-social-network- sites-traffic-market-share-august-2008jpg/ - Social networking sites data □ http://social-networking-websites-review.toptenreviews.com - review of social networking sites, shows the set of tools that social networking sites offer. □ http://blogs.zdnet.com/BTL/?p=7929 – Web2.0 adoption in enterprise. □ http://blogs.zdnet.com/collaboration/ Oliver Marks, on Collaboration 2.0 □ http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article.cfm?articleid=2009 99
  99. 99. http://collaborationblog.typepad.com/collaboration/ 100
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