A PRIMER OF YOGA THEORY

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“A Primer of Yoga Theory”, the book by Yogacharya Dr Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani dealing with literary and philosophical aspects of Yoga was officially released in 2004 and the 4th edition was released by Ammaji on her 71st birthday on September 13th2014.

This is a sample of the contents of the book that is useful for all those interested in learning more about the theoretical and philosophical aspects of Yoga.

It is beneficial for those undergoing University as well as college education in Yoga as it is a useful quick reference guide to innumerable concepts. The neat index is an added bonus to help in quick reference of topics.

As the easiest way to learn is through question and answer models this book is presented in the question and answer pattern. The material given in this book is merely a beginning and the Sadhaka must actualize these concepts in themselves through extensive contemplation and self-analysis.

Model theory papers are also given at the end of the book so that similar papers can be used in theory exams.

The book has 19 chapters that deal with questions and answers on topics such as What is Yoga, Yogic prayers, Ashtanga Yoga, Yama and Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Hatha Yoga: The Physical Science of Balance, Chakras, Nature of Man, Yogic Texts, Yoga Sadhana, Yoga Therapy, Yoga In Modern India, Yoga and Sports, Stress: the Bane of Modern Living, and also has a lot of useful Quiz and Viva Questions as well as Model Theory Papers.

A special attraction is the Mahabharatha Quiz that helps us to understand the epic much better.

To order this book and others from ICYEr at Ananda Ashram, Pondicherry, India please visit www.icyer.in

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A PRIMER OF YOGA THEORY

  1. 1. Dedicated To The Greatest Guru In My Universe THE LION OF PONDICHERRY Yogamaharishi Dr. Swami Gitananda Giri Guru Maharaj (24.07.1907 - 29.12.1993) Who Protected the Purify of Rishiculture Ashtanga Yoga With His Mighty Roar of Truth
  2. 2. ©2014 By Yogacharya Dr. Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani All rights reserved 1st Edition : 2002 2nd Edition : 2004 3rd Edition : 2008 4th Edition : 2014 Published by : 44, Ist Cross, Iyyanar Nagar Puducherry - 605 013. South India. E-mail: yognat@gmail.com Ph: 04132241561 Printed by : SARGURU PRINTOGRAPHS, MOBILE : 94433 97875 www.sarguruprintographs.com Any material reproduced from this book may be done so only with prior permission of the author and with due credit to the source. This is an important aspect of Yogic culture and we request all readers to follow this request in the true spirit of Yama and Niyama.
  3. 3. CONTENTS Preface i About the Compiler and Editor iii Acknowledgments xi About this Book xv Chapter I: What is Yoga? 1 Chapter II: Yogic Prayers 7 Chapter III: What is Ashtanga Yoga? 9 Chapter IV: Yama and Niyama 11 Chapter V: What is Asana? 13 Chapter VI: What is Pranayama? 19 Chapter VII: Hatha Yoga 23 Chapter VIII: What are the Chakras? 33 Chapter IX: Nature of Man 41 Chapter X: Yogic Texts 47 Chapter XI: Yoga Sadhana 55 Chapter XII: Yoga Therapy 65 Chapter XIII: Yoga in Modern India 75 Chapter XIV: Yoga and Sports 79 Chapter XV: Stress: The Bane of Modern Living 81 Chapter XVI: Viva Questions 83 Chapter XVII: Mahabharata Quiz 105 Chapter XVIII:Quiz Questions 113 Chapter XIX: Model Theory Papers 125 Index 151
  4. 4. PREFACE It is only the potent blessings of my beloved Guru- Father, Swamiji, Yogamaharishi Dr. Swami Gitananda Giri Guru Maharaj and Guru- Mother, Ammaji, Yogamani Meenakshi Devi Bhavanani that has enabled this fourth edition of my book, “A PRIMER OF YOGA THEORY” to reach you once again. I am nothing without their blessings and offer my humble salutations and respects to the lotus feet of the Greatest Yoga Team of the past century. One of the most gratifying events for any author is when their publisher gives them the good news that it is time for a new edition of their book. Such a feeling of satisfaction fills my heart as I work on this fourth edition and so many changes and improvements come to mind. However as it is being used for so many Yoga Sport events, I control myself from adding more and more information so as to not tax the young minds who are already so burdened with their scholastic studies. I will keep those additions for an enlarged version that I plan for university students some time in the near future. The basic structure of the book is unchanged as it has been complimented by so many including many of my dear friends and advisors who help me know the reality in a smooth manner without mincing words. I have taken great care to correct the few mistakes that had crept into the last edition despite my best
  5. 5. efforts. My students Yogachemmal Smt. Meena Ramanathan, Yogachemmal G. Dayanidy and Smt. Reena Dayanidy have been of great help in finding out the mistakes present in the previous edition and in giving their valuable suggestions as dedicated students should for their teacher. I thank my Dharmapatni, Yogacharini Devasena Bhavanani for her constant encouragement and support in all my endeavors. She and my children, Dhivya Priya and Anandraj continue to inspire me to “Do My Best and Leave the Rest” as taught by the Srimad Bhagavad Gita. May this new edition serve its purpose of educating us all in the great art and science of Yoga and dispelling any false impressions of Yoga being “just a physical exercise”. Puducherry, South India September 13th 2014 Yogacharya Dr.Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani PRIMER OF YOGA THEORY BY DR. ANANDA BALAYOGI BHAVANANIii
  6. 6. ABOUT THE COMPILER AND EDITOR Yogacharya Dr. Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani was born to the world famous Yoga team of Yogamaharishi Dr. Swami Gitananda Giri Guru Maharaj and Puduvai Kalaimamani, Yogamani, Yogacharini, Smt. Meenakshi Devi Bhavanani on April 16, 1972, at Pondicherry, South India. He was reared in the ‘Gurukula’ atmosphere of Ananda Ashram, first at Lawspet and then at Sri Kambaliswamy Madam in Thattan chavady, Pondicherry where the Yoga Vidya (Knowledge of the Art and Science of Yoga) was imbibed as a 24 hour a day Sadhana and not just a few classes now and then. Nominated as his Guru Father’s successor on his fourth birthday itself as Madathiapathy of Sri Kambaliswamy Madam (an ancient Samadhi site), Ananda took great interest in the Hindu Rites and Rituals, Mantra, Yoga and the Carnatic Fine Arts from a young and tender age. He has been trained in Rishiculture Ashtanga (Gitananda) Yoga from that tender age. He has assisted his parents in the Yoga training imparted at Ananda Ashram, Sri Kambaliswamy Madam and ICYER from that time onwards. He began his studies of classical Carnatic Vocal Music at the age of four years under Puduvai Kalaimamani Sri V. Manikannan performing Vocal Music Arangetram at the age of 12 years at Marie Hall, Podicherry on August 11, 1984. At the age of seven, he began arduous training in Carnatic Music under the tutorage of Kalaimamani Srirengam R. Ranganathan of Pondicherry, one of the most famous Carnatic Vocalists of South India. He continued his training for twenty years until his Guru’s death in 2002. He has studied Mridungam since the age of five, beginning with world-famous Master Sri K.M. Vaidhyanathan in 1977. Later, Thiruvarur Sri R. Krishnamurthy, one of the most respected classical Mridungists of modern times, accepted him as a disciple. He completed his Mridungam Arangetram in 1987. He began the study of Bharatanatyam under his mother Puduvai Kalaimamani Smt. Meenakshi Devi Bhavanani in the Kalakshetra tradition of Rukmani Arundale when he was five years of age. At the age of eight, world-famous Bharatanatyam master Natya Kalanidhi Padmasri Adyar K. Lakshmanan of Chennai accepted him as a disciple and he performed many performances under the guidance of Lakshman Sir. For the past decade he has shared a special Manasika Guru-Sishya relationship with Padma Bhushan Sri T.V.
  7. 7. PRIMER OF YOGA THEORY BY DR. ANANDA BALAYOGI BHAVANANIiv Sankaranarayanan, one of India’s greatest vocalists. He treasures all these blessed relations with his illustrious Gurus that the Divine has bestowed upon him in his artistic evolution. His initial training in scholastic work was in the Ashram itself and only when he was 13 was he sent to Bhavan’s Gandhi Vidyashram, Kodaikanal, to do his formal schooling. At school in addition to his academic proficiency, he was also one of the cricket team’s major stars and the all- round Athletic Champion. He was awarded the “K.S. Jayarama Iyer Award for Best Instrumentalist” for three successive years and in his final year he served as the School Captain. He has written a book on Yoga For Children at the age of 12 years itself and has written and edited 22 other books including Yoga and Modern Man that takes a look at various Yogic concepts with humorous cartoons and line drawings and A Yogic Approach to Stress that deals with the Yogic and medical explanations and management of stress. His A Primer of Yoga Theory that has also been published in Tamil as Yoga Vina Vidai Thoguppu has become a standard textbook for Yoga Sport events and is also prescribed in many academic Yoga courses. It is now in its 4th edition. Yoga: 1 to 10 explains numerous concepts of Yoga and Indian Culture through a numerical codification and has been translated and published in Italian along with four other books of his. He co-authored Tamil books with Yogachemmal Smt. Meena Ramanathan on Basic Hatha Yoga Lessons of Gitananda Yoga as well as Yoga for Weight Loss. In the past few years he authored, Yoga for Health and Healing, Yoga for Weight Reduction, Chakras, Hatha Yoga of the Gitananda Tradition, Meditation the inner Yoga, Yoga and Wellness, Suryanamaskar and Understanding the Yoga Darshan (an exploration of the Yoga Sutra of Maharishi Patanjali). He recently published a text book on Yoga Chikitsa: The Application of Yoga as a Therapy and Saraswati’s Pearls a book on Yoga and Music co- authored with Yogacharini Dr. Sangeeta Laura Biagi of Italy. He has also edited and revised new editions of Dr. Swami Gitananda Giri’s Correction of Breathing Disorders through Rishiculture Ashtanga Yoga and also Pujya Swamiji’s books on Mudras, Surya Namaskar and Pranayama in the Gitananda Tradition. He has had 135 scientific and Yoga papers and 60 scientific abstracts on Yoga and Yoga research published along with 16 notes compilations on Yogic education and therapy. He has also scripted and presented 19 DVDs on Yoga that are being marketed for a worldwide audience in different languages by the famous Super Audio Company in Chennai. He undertook the Diploma and Advanced Diploma courses in Yoga at ICYER under the guidance of his Guru-father Yogamaharishi Dr. Swami
  8. 8. ABOUT THE COMPILER AND EDITOR v Gitananda Giri in 1991 and following this joined medical college in order to combine the best of eastern wisdom with the best of modern medical science. During his Medical Studies at J.N.M.C Wardha (Nagpur University), he was the top student in a class of hundred. He secured Distinction in Surgery and a Gold Medal in Community Medicine in his final year, topping five Medical Colleges affiliated to Nagpur University. He was also the Student Representative at Medical College. Later he completed his internship at JIPMER Hospital, Pondicherry, India. He has completed with distinction Post Graduate Diploma in Family Health (PGDFH) from Sri Ramachandra Medical College, Chennai (2003). He has also completed a Diploma in Psychological Counseling as well as a Diploma in Stress Management from the Institute for Health Care Administration, Chennai in 2001 and a Certificate in Pediatrics from IMA Sinha Institute, New Delhi. He was awarded MD (Alternative Medicine) by the Indian Council of Alternative Medicines, Kolkata, West Bengal in 2013. He was a performer of Bharatanatyam and has performed all over India and notably at the ABHAI National Dance Festival in 1992. Following his father’s Maha Samadhi on 29.12.1993 he stopped his dance performances and instead, focused his attention on Dance Choreography, especially in the rhythmic aspect for Yoganjali Natyalayam. He has helped to choreograph 11 Major Dance Dramas and 12 Mini Dance Dramas for Yoganjali Natyalayam. He has CO-DIRECTED the Ramavathara (2003), Pancha Mahabhuta (2004), Jayadeva’s Dasavathara (2005), Navagraha Vazhipaadu (2006), Karna Charitram (2007), Namashivaya Vazhga (2008), Panchali Sabadam (2009), Muruga Muruga (2010), Shakuntala (2011), Thamizh Moothatti Avvai (2012) and Iyarkaiyai Vanangiduvom–Homage to Mother Nature(2013).He has composed lyrics, music and choreographed four complete Bharatanatyam Margams (the classical performing repertoire) with more than 80 compositions that could be called Ananda Nartana Margam. As a Carnatic Vocalist and instrumentalist he has released many albums of which THE YOGA OF SOUND has the unique blend of English lyrics with Carnatic Raga and Tala in an attempt, to bridge the gap between East and the West. The second Album TAMIL INBAM is a collection of Tamil Compositions in Carnatic Music. He is a regular performer at programmes in and around Pondy and has performed at International Yoga Festival, Government Music Festival, Millennium Sunrise Festival, Thiagaraja Festival, Puduvai Tamil Isai Sangam and Eswaran Koil Kumbabhishekam amongst many others in Pondicherry. He is well known for his spontaneous imagination in the concerts and for his explanations on the Yogic aspects of Carnatic Music. He has performed innumerable
  9. 9. PRIMER OF YOGA THEORY BY DR. ANANDA BALAYOGI BHAVANANIvi vocal and instrumental recitals all over and it is notable that he has performed five times in the Isai Vizha (Music Festival) conducted by the Govt of Pondicherry. He has also performed in Italy, Switzerland, Germany, UK, South Africa, USA, Australia and New Zealand in recent times. He has been a featured speaker at many Yoga conferences and is a regular featured speaker at the International Yoga Festival conducted by the Government of Pondicherry each year in January since 1993. He has also been the Co-ordinator and Jury at the International Yoga Festival, Pondicherry annually. He has also organised Himalaya Yoga Olympiad in Pondicherry (2001) in his capacity as Himalaya State Coordinator. He is responsible for reviving the Pondicherry Yogasana Association (2000) founded by Yogamaharishi Dr. Swami Gitananda Giri in 1975. He is currently the General Secretary of the Pondicherry Yogasana Association and a member of the Executive Committee of Indian Yoga Federation, Kolkata. The PYA has been active in conducting Yoga Sport events such 28 Pondicherry State Level Yoga Sport Championships and 15 Swami Gitananda Best Youth and Child Award Competitions. It is notable that two of his students trained at YOGNAT have won the CHAMPIONSHIP awards in the Pondicherry Government sponsored International Yoga Festival in 1999 (M. NIRAIMATHI) and 2011 (A.S. ANIRUDH). Yoga for him is not just the performance of a few Asanas or Pranayamas but is a means for evolution of the human mind in to further states of consciousness and awareness. He has been instrumental in developing the concept of Yoga Tableaus as a performing art and has trained hundreds of young people in the difficult art of acrobatic Yoga Asanas. The Yoga- Asana Tableau Concept has been developed by Dr. Ananda as a vital tool to inculcate the sense of team spirit and mutual cooperation in youngsters. His pioneering efforts in this field have been widely applauded. Dr. Ananda has also been a pioneer in the revival of the use of the acrobatic Natya Karanas (difficult, athletic and acrobatic postures of Bharatanatyam) into the modern dance repertoire. With his finely developed aesthetic sense, he tastefully weaves these acrobatic poses into his classical dance choreography and productions. Even in his formative years, he attended various Yoga Conferences and seminars at New Delhi, Bombay, Lonavla, Bhopal, Bangalore, Chennai, Kancheepuram, Madurai and other places along with his parents. He also assisted in the conduct of three International Yoga Conferences conducted at Pondicherry by Ananda Ashram by Swamiji and Ammaji and has been ex-officio advisor to the International Yoga Festival of the Pondicherry Government since 1993.
  10. 10. ABOUT THE COMPILER AND EDITOR vii As a Mridungist he has accompanied great artists like Padma Bhushan T.V. Sankaranaarayanan, Kalaimamani Srirengam Ranganathan, Kalaimamani Kulikkarai S.P. Vishvalingam, Vidushi Radha Kalyanaraman, Kalaimamani S. Matangi, Sri B. Govindarajan, Kumbakonam M.R. Gopinath, Kalaimamani S.V. Jagadeesan and others on the Mridungam and is a ‘B’ Grade Mridangist recognized by All India Radio. He regularly plays for Yoganjali Natyalayam dance performances. He has played Mridungam for Sendhen Tamilisai, a Music Album by Kalaimamani Pulavar I. Pattabiraman in 2002 as well as Bhakti Mani Mala, a music album sung by Smt. Jyothirmayi (2003). He has also played Mridungam in the Music Therapy Albums of Dr. Hariharan PhD. He shares a special relationship with Mutthamizmamani Kalaimamani Pulavar I. PATTABHIRAMAN, the illustrious Tamil Scholar and poet of Pondicherry who has composed the lyrics for all dance dramas of YOGNAT in the past 25 years. Dr. Ananda values this relationship that has stimulated an inner growth manifesting as a deep love for the Tamil language and that has motivated his skill in Tamil composition. He is a life member of Indian Medical Association; ABHAI (Association of Bharatanatyam Artists of India); Chennai, IAYT (International Association of Yoga Therapists, based in USA); APPI (Association of Physiologists and Pharmacologists of India), Indian Academy of Yoga, BHU, Varanasi and the Pondicherry Psychology Association. He is Honorary International Advisor to International Association of Yoga Therapists (IAYT) in the USA, the Australian Association of Yoga Therapists and is on Editorial Board for Yoga Mimansa journal of Kaivalyadhama, Lonavla, India. He is Hon Chairman of Sanathana Dharma Sangha, the Hindu Movement in Italy and Europe as well as more than a hundred Rishiculture Ashtanga (Gitananda) Yoga centres worldwide. He is Patron of Gitananda Yoga Associations of Australia, Germany, UK, Czech Republic, North America and Italy. He has traveled abroad 14 times and given workshops, classes, lectures, performances and talks in USA (San Francisco), UK (Cornwall and Wales), Italy (Rome, Milan, Merano, Liverno, Genova and Savona), Switzerland (Locarno), Germany (Berlin), Australia (Sydney, Brisbane, Melbourne, Adelaide, Gold Coast and Victoria), New Zealand (Wellington, Paraparaumu), South Africa (Cape Town). He was a featured Guest at the MILAN YOGA FESITVAL 2007 and 2008 and Merano Yoga Festival 2012 where he gave successful workshops and performed concerts of South Indian Music for an appreciative audience. He was a featured guest presenter at the INTERNATIONAL YOGA THERAPY CONFERENCE in San Rafael, USA where he lectured and taught in October 2008. He has given invited talks at the Tagore centre of the Indian Embassy in Berlin in 2007
  11. 11. PRIMER OF YOGA THEORY BY DR. ANANDA BALAYOGI BHAVANANIviii and 2008. He was invited guest of the National Institute of Integrative Medicine, Melbourne in April 2009. He has taught and performed at the GITANANDA ASHRAM in Italy on all his visits to the Mini India created near Savona by Svami Yogananda Giri. He was invited to be Major Presenter at the REUNION IN YOGA - IYTA World Yoga Convention held at Sydney, Australia in September 2010. Nearly 200 delegates attended the World Convention that was held after a gap of 13 years. It is to be noted that previous such invitees have been Swami Satyananda Saraswathi, Swami Gitananda Giri, Swami Satchitananda, B.K.S. Iyengar, Andre Van Lysbeth, Lilias Folan, Howard Kent, Mansukh Patel and Swami Maheshwarananda. He has conducted successful Yoga workshops for IYTA in Sydney in 2008, 2012 and 2014. Dr. Ananda is Chairman of the International Centre for Yoga Education and Research (ICYER), the internationally acclaimed Yoga Institute established as Ananda Ashram in 1968. He is Chairman of Yoganjali Natyalayam, a world famous Institute of Yoga, Bharatanatyam, and Carnatic Music established in Pondicherry in 1993. He is also Director of studies for both these institutes. He has received the Marudha Ramalinganar OUTSTANDING YOUNG PERSON AWARD and Rolling Shield for the year 2002 from the Youth Peace Centre, Pondicherry and received the title award of Yoga Vibhushan from Tamil Nadu State Yoga Association and Sports Development Authority of Tamil Nadu (Tuticorin) at the 15th Tamil Nadu State Yogasana Championship held at Kovilpatti, Tuticorin Dist, Tamil Nadu in August 2003.He received the title award of Yoga Bishmacharya from the Tirumoolar Yoga and Natural Diet Trust, Chennai and Tamil Nadu State Yoga Association at the Tamil Nadu State Yogasana Championship held at Chennai in November 2004. He has been honoured with the Yoga Chakravarthy title awarded by Gitanjali Yoga Centre in September 2005. Other titles and awards received by him are Palkalai Chemmal, Sagala Kala Vallavan, Isai Sevagan, Puduvai Mannin Maindhan, Achiever Award 2003, Jnana Vruddha, Muthaizh Suvaignar, Mattala Vittaga Mamani, Sevai Thilagam , Shiva Yoga Chudar, Yoga Kalaimamani, Yoga Thilagam, Saivneri Isai Chemmal, Sri Aurobindo Award, Palkalaisudar Mamani, and Biodiversity Award 2014. He was awarded the School Psychology: Best Performance Award 2013 by Indian School Psychology Association (InSPA), during 3rd National Conference on School Psychology Services to Multiple Disabled Children, held 22-24 November 2013 at NIEPMD, Muttukadu, Tamil Nadu, India. He was honoured for his Yoga Seva by Kumari Selja Union Minister for Tourism during the 18th International Yoga Festival 2011 in the presence of Sri V. Narayanasamy, Union Minister for Culture, Lt Governor of Pondicherry Dr. Iqbal Singh, Chief Minister Sri
  12. 12. ABOUT THE COMPILER AND EDITOR ix Vaithiyalingam, Home Minister Sri Valsaraj, Tourism Minister Sri Malladi Krishna Rao and Social Welfare Minster Sri Kandasamy. He was also awarded the LIFETIME ACHIEVEMENT AWARD IN FIELD OF YOGA on January 7th 2011 by Department of Tourism, Govt. of Pondicherry during the 18th International Yoga Festival. He was nominated by Pondicherry Govt Department of Art and Culture to the Governing Body of the South Zone Cultural Centre, Tanjavur under Ministry of Culture, Govt of India in 2013. He worked from 2000 to 2004 as a Senior Research Fellow in the Yoga Research Project conducted by Department of Physiology, JIPMER under auspices of Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare as well as Ministry of Defense, Govt. of India, New Delhi. He involved in various research studies at JIPMER and published numerous scientific papers on these findings. He worked as Medical Officer in the Village Health Programme and the Child to Child Health Education Programme run by the Auroville Health Centre in the International Township of Auroville, Tamil Nadu from 1999 to 2000 and 2004 to 2008. He worked as Programme Coordinator in the Advanced Centre for Yoga Therapy, Education and Research (ACYTER), JIPMER, Puducherry from March 2009 to July 2013. Many research studies were completed and scientific papers published from this centre established by a MOU between JIPMER and MDNIY in June 2008. The centre focused on the role of Yoga in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disorders and diabetes mellitus and 36,000 patients benefited from Yoga therapy consultations and practical sessions. The centre also popularized the science of Yoga among medical professionals and general public and conducted three national workshops on Yoga in medical education, Yoga and hypertension, Yoga and diabetes as well as workshops on Yoga and HIV etc with excellent response from all over the country. Dr. Ananda is currently Deputy Director of the Centre for Yoga Therapy Education and Research (CYTER), MGMC&RI, Pondicherry under auspices of Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth. He is extremely proud of his illustrious and dear student Yoga Chemmal Smt. Meena Ramanathan who is working as Coordinator and Yoga Therapy Consultant for this centre that is serving thousands of patients, medical professionals and paramedical professionals through Yoga. He is happily married to Yogacharini Devasena Bhavanani who has a Master’s degree in Sanskrit in addition to being an eminent Yoga Expert, Carnatic Vocalist and Bharatanatyam Dancer, teacher and choreographer. They have a talented daughter Dhivya Priya Bhavanani and son Anandraj Bhavanani.
  13. 13. THE TREE OF ASHTANGA YOGA
  14. 14. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I gratefully acknowledge the great blessing and good fortune I have had to be born the son of the greatest Yoga Team of the last century. I offer this compilation to the lotus feet of my Guru-Father Yogamaharishi Dr. Swami Gitananda Giri Guru Maharaj and my Mother-Guru Kalaimamani Yogacharini Smt. Meenakshi Devi Bhavanani who have inculcated in me the discipline of Yoga as well as sowing the seed of this great art and science in my heart. I have also been privileged to receive the blessings and good will of some of the great masters of Yoga such as Padmabhusan Sri B.K.S. Iyengar, Sri Yogendra Ji, Sri Sant Keshavdas, Swami Chinmayananda, Swami Dayananda, Yogi Amrit Desai, Sri Direndra Brahmachari, Swami Chidananda Saraswathi, Sri Ma Yoga Shakti, Swami Satchitananda, Maharishi Arunachalam, Swami Veda Bharathi, Dr. H.R. Nagendra, Sri T.K.V. Desikachar, Swami Suddananda Bharathi, Sri Kannaya Yogi, Sri S.Sridharan and great Yogic personalities such as Srila Sri Shankara Giri Swamigal, Prof. T.R. Anantaraman, Prof. Dr. B. Ramamurthy, Dr. W. Selvamurthy, Dr. M.V. Bhole, Prof. Dr. Madanmohan, Prof. R.C. Gupta, Sri Yogeshwar, Sri D.R. Karthikeyan, Shri S.K. Jindel, Prof. K.R. Sethuraman, Prof. N.Ananthakrishnan, Dr. B.R. Sharma, Dr. I.V. Basavaraddi, Dr. S.V. Rao, Dr. R.P. Pandey, Dr. S.R. Joharapurkar and Dr. M.D. Khapre. I thank all my elders who have blessed me in the propagation of Yoga in general and Yoga Sport in particular such as Dr. Niren Mujumdhar of the Indian Yoga Federation, Calcutta. I wish to put on record my appreciation of the authors of the following texts from which I have sourced a majority of the questions and answers. May they continue to guide aspirants on this wonderful path towards the Divine. 1. Yoga: Step-By-Step by Dr. Swami Gitananda Giri. 2. Ashtanga Yoga of Patanjali by Dr. Swami Gitananda Giri. 3. Raja Yoga Sutras by Swami Jyothirmayananda.
  15. 15. PRIMER OF YOGA THEORY BY DR. ANANDA BALAYOGI BHAVANANIxii 4. Mudras by Dr. Swami Gitananda Giri. 5. Four Chapters On Freedom by Swami Satyananda Saraswati. 6. Light on Yoga by Padmabhushan B.K.S. Iyengar. 7. The Science of Yoga by I.K. Taimni. 8. Laghu Yoga Vashistha by Narayana Swami Aiyar. 9. Yoga Sutras of Patanjali by Dr. Georg Feuerstein. 10. Bhagavad Gita by Swami Chidananda. 11. Gita Inspirations by Dr. Swami Gitananda Giri. 12. Yoga Kosha. Published by Kaivalyadhama, Lonavla, Maharasthra. 13. Yoga and Sportsby Dr. Swami Gitananda Giri andYogacharini Meenakshi Devi Bhavanani. 14. Yoga. Published by V. K. Prakashan Trust Chennai. 15. Hatha Yoga Pradipika: English Translation by Pancham Sinh. 16. Gheranda Samhita: English Translation by Rai Bahadur S.C. Vasu. 17. Surya Namaskar by Dr. Swami Gitananda Giri. 18. Shiva Samhita: English Translation by Rai Bahadur S C Vasu. 19. Prasnopanishad: Commentary by Paramahansa Niranjananda. 20. The Six Systems of Hindu Philosophy by Swami Harshananda. 21. Shambala Encyclopedia of Yoga by Georg Feuerstein. 22. Asana, Pranayama, Mudra, Bandha by Swami Satyananda Saraswathi. 23. Light on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali by Padmabhushan B.K.S. Iyengar. 24. A Primer of Hinduism by D.S. Sharma, Sri Ramakrishna Math, Chennai. 25. Yoga in Education by Dr. H.R. Nagendra, T. Mohan and A. Shriram. 26. Yoga: Its Basis and Applications by Dr. H.R. Nagendra.
  16. 16. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xiii 27. New Perspectives in Stress Management by Dr. H.R. Nagendra and Dr. H. Nagarathna. 28. Integrated Approach of Yoga therapy for Positive Health by Dr. H.R. Nagendra and Dr. H. Nagarathna. 29. Pranayama: The Art and Science by Dr. H.R. Nagendra. 30. Health Benefits of Yoga (c) 2001, 2004 Trisha Lamb. www.iayt.org. 31. Forty Types of Yoga by Georg Feuerstein. www.yrec.org. 32. Ancient Yoga and Modern Science by Prof. T.R. Anantaraman. 33. 84 Asanas by Georg Feuerstein. www.yrec.org. 34. 200 Key Sanskrit Terms of Yoga by Georg Feuerstein. www.yrec.org. 35. Nathamuni’s Yoga Rahasya translated by Sri T.K.V. Desikachar. 36. Yoga Sutra of Patanjali with the commentary of Vyasa by Bangali Baba. 37. Yoga Life (International Journal of Yoga Jivana Satsangha) edited by Yogacharini Meenakshi Devi Bhavanani. www.icyer.com.
  17. 17. PRIMER OF YOGA THEORY BY DR. ANANDA BALAYOGI BHAVANANIxiv “I died as a mineral to become a plant; I died as a plant to become an animal; I died as an animal to become a man; I died as a man to become an angel; I died as an angel, to become God. When was I ever the less by dying?” - Rumi
  18. 18. ABOUT THIS BOOK Yoga is an art and science that developed from the core of Sanathana Dharma. The Yogic life is the living of a unified holistic concept assuring health, happiness, longevity and spiritual evolution. Yoga in its wholistic sense can never be competitive, and there exists no objective measurement by which one person can be declared more yogic than another. Therefore the term “competitive Yoga” is a paradox and has no real meaning. However the proficiency of the Sadhaka can be compared with that of another in the performance of the Asanas, Kriyas, Mudras, Pranayamas and the Shat Karmas. Yogasana competitions are a ‘fact’ in today’s Yoga world and are mushrooming up in all directions. When conducted efficiently and when the competitors approach them with the right Yogic attitude of ‘Nishkama Karma’, i.e., selfless action, then the Yogasana competitions have a lot to offer. They stimulate the young minds and give them an outlet for the competitive spirit, drive and energy. The youngsters learn to take the ‘win’ with the same equanimity (Samabhava) as the ‘loss’. They learn to accept that on any given day someone else may be better than them. They learn to accept the ‘highs’ with the ‘lows’ and realize that proper planning dedicated and disciplined practice and enthusiastic participation is more important than the result. The youngsters are stimulated to intense practice and thus develop amazing body skills, which they may not develop otherwise. The competitions provide a meeting point for the youngsters to meet and interact positively with others having similar interests. Formation of a group of similar minded Yoga Sadhaks can reinforce the individual’s practice whenever it slackens due to any reason. Positive ‘Peer Pressure’ creates a back up to counter any inertia that may hinder the practitioner in their Sadhana. Due to competition, the Sadhaka is shaken out of the complacency that tends to creep in when the practice of Yoga becomes a habit as monotonous as the brushing of teeth in the morning. They make sure that they don’t miss their practice and put in extra energy and time to keep in shape. The competitive edge sharpens and focuses the body awareness, thus fostering greater accuracy and perfection that in turn stimulates the real Yogic growth. Spectators and the lay
  19. 19. PRIMER OF YOGA THEORY BY DR. ANANDA BALAYOGI BHAVANANIxvi observers of these competitions get stimulated to take up the practice of Yoga and this in turn also draws these persons and the participants into a deeper Sadhana. The basic idea of Yoga receives wide general publicity and this can ‘open doors’ for many who are ignorant of this ancient art and science for the mind and body. Thus we can see how Yogasana competitions, when put in the framework of competitive sport can restore the competitions to their original purpose, which was to produce a ‘healthy mind in a healthy body’. However when discussing the benefits of Yogasana competitions, we must not ignore the pitfalls that are present in ‘competitive Yoga’. Yoga provides relief from the ‘rat race’ that pervades every area of modern life. Thus by putting stress and a competitive element into the practice of Yoga, we may be acting against its positive role and create more stress and tension than relief. Unless the competitions are well structured, they can lead to confusion, partiality, and improper judgment thus finally creating a totally a-yogic situation as seen in many competitions. There is then friction amongst the participants, judges and organizers, which is as bad as that seen in other sporting competitions with everyone beating up each another. As in other competitions, the ego of the victor is ‘patted and fed’ often becoming so bloated that it destroys all spiritual sensitivity and perceptions. This ego boosting leads to very unpleasant situations and finally the whole idea of Yoga gets lost. The person starts to think that the success is all due their work alone and that there is no need to be thankful to the parents, Guru or even the Divine. Asmita (ego) is one of the Kleshas (mental quirks) that are the root cause of human misery, and the aim of Yoga is to destroy the Kleshas and not to pamper them. Competitors may make the effort for the sake of the rewards and not for the sake of the practice itself. This is the antithesis of the philosophy of wholistic Yoga. Too much emphasis on competition can lead to the practitioners getting ‘hung up’ in their bodies. There is even the real danger of competitive Yoga breaking away from mainstream Yoga and becoming a subject onto itself, with its exponents living gross, crude and a-yogic lives thus falling in the same pitfalls as their sporting compatriots from other sports. This is why those in-charge of such competitions must stand firm on moral and ethical issues. Competitors must sign a statement that they are vegetarian, non-smoking, non-drinking
  20. 20. ABOUT THIS BOOK xvii and non-drug users. They must have a basic knowledge of Yoga theory and marks should be allotted for Yoga deportment and character. They must be regular practitioners who are attached to either Yogashrams or accredited Yoga groups. When all these considerations are taken into account, then ‘Yoga Sports’ can be a beacon light for other sports in terms of living the Yogic and sporting ideals. Thus Yoga Sports can add as well as benefit from the association with the sporting world and be a proper link between the two worlds of Yoga and sports. Thus we can see that though the world of sports and that of Yoga lie nearly on opposite poles, they have a lot to offer to each another. They can stimulate, strengthen and benefit the practitioners of either science to a great extent when approached properly and with an understanding of their respective merits and limitations. We can also see that though Yogasana competitions have both positive and negative aspects, they can be an effective link between Yoga and sports. It is now necessary for the practitioners of Yoga and sports to understand the benefits of their close association with one another and create the needed framework in which both can complement each another more effectively. This association between these two sciences can then provide humankind with a disciplined, strong, efficient and healthy body and mind for further evolution towards the Divine. Nowadays organizers of Yogasana competitions are taking into consideration the theoretical Yoga knowledge of the competitor as well as their proficiency in Yogasanas. In this situation it is necessary to have a systematic approach to the theory papers in the competitions. This book is an attempt to systematize the theory questions in Yogasana Competitions and provide the competitors as well as organizers a foundation on which to base the theory papers. I have found that the easiest way to learn is through question and answer models and so have presented this book in the question and answer pattern. The material given in this book is merely a beginning and the Sadhaka must actualize these concepts in themselves through extensive contemplation and self-analysis. I also give at the end of the book some model papers that can be used in theory exams.
  21. 21. PRIMER OF YOGA THEORY BY DR. ANANDA BALAYOGI BHAVANANIxviii Any material reproduced from this book may be done so only with prior permission of the author and with due credit to the source. This is an important aspect of Yogic culture and I request all the readers to follow this request in the true spirit of Yama and Niyama. I wish that all those who go through this book would find that it enriches their knowledge of Yoga theory as much as it did for me in its compilation. - Yogacharya Dr. Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani Pondicherry. Dated: 13-9-2014
  22. 22. WHAT IS YOGA? Q.1. What is Yoga? Ans:  Yoga is that which joins (Yujate anena iti yogaha)  Union (Yuj) of o Body-Emotions-Mind o Jiva-Atman  A state of mastery over the senses and mind (Kathopanishad)  Stilling the whirlpools (modifications) of the mind stuff (Yogah chitta vritti nirodhah)-Yogamaharishi Patanjali in the Yoga Sutras  Skill in action (Yogah karmasu koushalam) - Yogeshwar Sri Krishna in Srimad Bhagavad Gita  Equanimity of mind (Samatvam yogah uchyate) - Yogeshwar Sri Krishna in Srimad Bhagavad Gita  A skillful and subtle process to calm down the mind (Yoga Vashistha)  Dis-association from the union with pain (Duhkha samyoga viyogam yoga sangnitam) - Yogeshwar Sri Krishna in Srimad Bhagavad Gita  “Yoga is said to be the oneness of breath, mind, and senses, and the abandonment of all states of existence.”—Maitri Upanishad  “Yoga is the union of the individual psyche (Jivatman) with the transcendental Self (Paramatman). “—Yoga Yajnavalkya  “Yoga is said to be the unification of the web of dualities (Dvandva Jaala).”—Yoga Bija  “Yoga is said to be control.”—Brahmaanda Purana  “Yoga is the separation (Viyoga) of the Self from the World-Ground (Prakrithi).”—Raja Maartanda  “Yoga is said to be the unity of exhalation and inhalation and of blood and semen, as well as the union of sun and moon and of the individual psyche with the transcendental Self.” — Yoga Shikha Upanishad.
  23. 23. YOGIC PRAYERS Q.1. Render a few important Yogic prayers with their meaning? Ans: Aum. Sahanavavatu Sahanau Bhunaktu Sahaviryankaravavahai Tejasvinavadhitamastu Ma Vidvisavahai Aum. Shanti Shanti Shanti. Aum. “May he protect us both, May he nourish us both. May we both work together with great energy. May our study be enlightening and fruitful. May we never hate each other. Om Peace Peace Peace.” Aum. Yogena Cittasya Padena Vacham Malam Sarirasya Ca Vaidyakena Yopakarottam Pravaram Muninam Patanjalim Pranjaliranato Asmi. Aum. “I offer my salutations with folded hands to Patanjali, the renowned among the sages, who removed the impurity of mind through Yoga, of the speech by Grammar and of the body by Ayurveda.” Aum. Sarve Bhavantu Sukhinah Sarve Santu Niramayah Sarye Bhadrani Pasyantu Ma Kascit Duhkhabhagbhavet Aum. Shanti Shanti Shanti. Aum. “Let all become happy; let all remain free from unhappiness; Let all acquire goodness; let nobody become recipients of misery. - Om Peace Peace Peace”. Q.2. Render the Guru Gayatri of the Rishiculture Ashtanga Yoga Paramparai. Ans: Aum. Tat Paramparyaya Vidmahe Jnana Lingeshwaraya Dhimahi Thanno Guru Prachodayat. Aum. ” I am aware of the great lineage that is represented by the lingam of wisdom. I meditate upon that source of wisdom. May it illumine my entire being”.
  24. 24. PRIMER OF YOGA THEORY BY DR. ANANDA BALAYOGI BHAVANANI8 Q.3. Give the twelve names of the Sun in Mantric form? Ans: Om Hram Mitraya Namaha (Adoration to the ‘Friend of All’) Om Hrim Ravaye Namaha (Adoration to the ‘One praised by All’) Om Hrum Suryaya Namaha (Adoration to the ‘Guide of All’) Om Hraim Bhanave Namaha (Adoration to the ‘Bestower of Beauty’) Om Hroum Khagaya Namaha (Adoration to the ‘Stimulator of Senses’) Om Hrah Pushne Namaha (Adoration to the ‘Nourisher of Life’) Om Hram Hiranyagarbhaya Namaha (Adoration to ‘Promoter of Virility’) Om Hrim Marichaye Namaha (Adoration to the ‘Destroyer of Disease’) Om Hrum Adityaya Namaha (Adoration to the ‘Inspirator of Love’) Om Hraim Savitre Namaha (Adoration to the ‘Begetter of Life’) Om Hroum Arkaya Namaha (Adoration to the ‘Inspirator of Awe’) Om Hrah Bhaskaraya Namaha (Adoration to the ‘Effulgent One’)
  25. 25. WHAT IS ASHTANGA YOGA? Q.1. Who codified Ashtanga Yoga? Ans: Maharishi Patanjali. Q.2. When did he compose the Yoga Sutras? Ans: More than 2500-3000 years ago. Q.3. How many limbs are there in Ashtanga Yoga? Ans: Eight Q.4. What are the limbs of Patanjali’s Ashtanga Yoga? Ans:  Yama - Moral Restraints  Niyama - Evolutionary Observances  Asana - Steady Posture  Pranayama - Energy/Breath Control  Pratyahara - Sensory Withdrawal  Dharana - Single Minded Concentration  Dhyana - Meditative State  Samadhi - State of Complete Oneness. Q.5. How are the eight limbs divided? Ans:  Adhikara Yoga - Yama, Niyama  Kriya Yoga - Tapas, Swadhyaya, Ishwara / Atman Pranidhana  Bahiranga - Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, (+/-Pratyahara)  Antaranga - Dharana, Dhyana, Samadhi, (+/-Pratyahara)  Samyama - Dharana, Dhyana, Samadhi Q.6. What are the other names of Ashtanga Yoga? Ans: Raja Yoga, Patanjala Yoga or Yoga Darshana.
  26. 26. YAMA AND NIYAMA Q.1. What are the five Yamas (moral restraints) ? Ans:  Ahimsa - Non-Violence  Satya - Truthfulness  Asteya - Non Stealing  Brahmacharya - Controlling the Creative Principle  Aparigraha - Non Covetedness Q.2. What are the Pancha Niyamas (five evolutionary observances)? Ans:  Saucha - Cleanliness  Santosha - Contentment  Tapas - Austerity or Discipline  Swadhyaya - Self-Knowledge or Self Analysis  Ishwara or Atman Pranidhana - Surrender to Divine/Atman Q.3. What are the fruits of perfection in Ahimsa? Ans: There is no hostility in his presence Q.4. What are the fruits of perfection in Satya? Ans: Whatever he utters will come true Q.5. What are the fruits of perfection in Asteya? Ans: All the riches will flow towards him Q.6. What are the fruits of perfection in Brahmacharya? Ans: Great valour is gained and fear of death is lost Q.7. What are the fruits of perfection in Aparigraha? Ans: Knowledge of previous births and future births as well.
  27. 27. WHAT IS ASANA? 17 (72) Baddha Paksheshwara Asana- Garuda posture (73) Vicitra Asana- lovely/variegated posture (74) Nalina Asana- day lotus (Nebumbium Speciousum) posture (75) Kaanta Asana- beloved posture (76) Shuddha Pakshi Asana- pure bird posture (77) Sumandaka Asana- very slow/gradual posture (78) Caurangi Asana- Caurangi Siddha’s posture (79) Krouncha Asana- heron posture (80) Dridha Asana- firm posture (81) Khaga Asana- crow posture (82) Brahma Asana- Brahma’s posture (83) Naaga Peetha Asana- serpent seat posture (84) Shava Asana- corpse posture YOGANJALI NATYALAYAM Website: www.rishiculture.org Cell: 98423-11433 E-mail: yognat2001@yahoo.com 25, IInd Cross, Iyyanar Nagar, Pondicherry-605 013. Tel: 91-413-2241561 For best instruction in Rishiculture Ashtanga Yoga, Bharatanatyam and Carnatic Music
  28. 28. PRIMER OF YOGA THEORY BY DR. ANANDA BALAYOGI BHAVANANI18 Two roads diverge, one leading to Cosmic Consciousness, upwards, marked by many positive qualities, the other leading downward, to self-indulgence and self-absorption, marked by negative characteristics. Every human being must choose the path he/she wishes to take - upwards to evolution, or downwards, to devolution. THE CHOICE IS ULTIMATELY YOURS!
  29. 29. WHAT IS PRANAYAMA? Q.1. How does Patanjali define Pranayama in the Yoga Sutras? Ans: Tasmin sati shvasa prashvasayor gati vichhedah pranayamah (Asana having been completed, cessation of inhalation and exhalation “Kevala Kumbaka” is Pranayama). Q.2. What are the benefits of Pranayama according to Patanjali? Ans:  Tatah kshiyate prakashah aavaranam. (Thereby the covering of inner light disappears).  Dharanasu cha yogyataa manasah. (The mind attains the necessary fitness for the higher practices such as concentration). Q.3. What are the eight classical Kumbhakas (Pranayamas) according to Hatha Pradipika? Ans:  Surya Bhedana - Sun Cleaving Breath  Ujjayi - The Victorious Breath  Sitkari - Hissing Breath (Cooling Breath)  Sheetali - Beak Tongue Breath (Icing Breath)  Bhastrika - Bellows Breath  Bhramari - Sound of Bee Breath  Murccha - Fainting or Swooning Breath  Plavini - Floating Breath Q.4. What are the Pancha Prana Vayus (Five Major Airs) Ans: “Hridi Prano Gude Apanah, Samano Nabhi Mandaley, Udanah Kantha Desastho, Vyanah Sarva Shariragah” - Shiva Samhita Prana ( Heart region), Apana (Anal region), Samana (Navel), Udana (Throat) and Vyana (Pervades entire body).
  30. 30. THE CHAKRAS
  31. 31. WHAT ARE THE CHAKRAS? Q.1. What are Chakras? Ans: Vortices of Pranic energy located along the pathway of Sushumna Nadi. Chakras are primarily a Tantric concept. They are usually depicted as lotuses. Q.2. How many Chakras are there? Ans: There are seven major Chakras. (Six lower Chakras plus Sahasrara). According to the teachings of Dr. Swami Gitananda Giri there are six lower (pinda) and six higher (anda) Chakras making a total of 12 Chakras. The Shiva Agamas also mention Dwadashantha in relation to Chakras. Many more minor Chakras are situated at vital junctions of the body. Q.3. Where are the Chakras located? Ans: They are located in the psychic or energy body (Pranamaya Kosha or Sukshma Sharira). They are related to major nerve plexi and endocrine glands present in the physical body (Annamaya Kosha). They are connected to a network of psychic channels (Nadis). They are fully manifest in the Anandamaya Kosha (Karana Sharira) Q.4. In which Chakra is Kundalini said to reside? Ans: Mooladhara Chakra Q.5. Which book is considered the authority on Chakras? Ans: Shat Chakra Nirupana Q.6. Name the paths of Yoga that are related to Chakras. Ans: Kundalini Yoga and Laya Yoga.
  32. 32. YOGIC TEXTS Q.1. What are some important Yoga texts Ans: Patanjala Yoga Sutras, Bhagavad Gita, Yoga Vashishta, Shiva Samhita, Gheranda Samhita, Hatha Yoga Ratnaavali, Hatha Yoga Pradipika, Shiva Swarodaya, Prasnopanishad, Yoga Upanishads, Thirumandiram, Nathamuni’s Yoga Rahasya and Shat Chakra Nirupana. Q.2. What are the humane qualities that Maharishi Patanjali advises us to cultivate? Ans: The attitudes to be cultivated (Samadhi Pada-33rd Sutra) are:  Maitri - Sukha : Friendliness towards those who are happy  Karuna - Duhkha : Compassion towards those who are miserable  Mudhita - Punya : Cheerfulness towards the virtuous  Upekshanam - Apunya : Indifference towards the wicked Q.3. How many chapters are there in the Bhagavad Gita? Ans: Eighteen Q.4. What are the names of the Padas in the Yoga Sutras? Ans:  Samadhi Pada  Sadhana Pada  Vibhuti Pada  Kaivalya Pada Q.5. How many Sutras are there in the Yoga Sutras of Maharishi Patanjali? Ans: 196 / 195 verses or sutras Q.6. How can the Chitta Vrittis be classified Ans: Klishta and Aklishta (painful and non painful)
  33. 33. PRIMER OF YOGA THEORY BY DR. ANANDA BALAYOGI BHAVANANI72 Q.11.What are some of the limitations of Yoga Therapy Ans: Though Yoga and Yoga therapy are very useful in bringing about a state of total health it is not a miracle cure for all problems. It needs a lot of discrimination on the part of both the therapist as well as the patient. It may not be useful in emergency conditions and there is a strong need to consult a qualified medical doctor where in doubt. Each patient is different and so the therapy has to be moulded to suit the individual needs rather than relying on a specific therapy plan for patients suffering the same medical condition. A very true problem is that there is a different approach of the different schools of Yoga to the same condition. It is better to follow any one system that one is conversant with, rather then trying to mix systems in a “Yogic Cocktail’. One must also be vigilant as there is a strong presence of numerous quacks pretending to be Yoga therapists and this leads to a bad name for Yoga therapy as well as Yoga in general. Premier institutions and governing bodies must take necessary action to weed out these unscrupulous operators that are in Yoga only for the money. Q.12.Name some disorders and diseases amiable to Yoga Therapy. Ans:  Psychosomatic and Stress Disorders Bronchial asthma, Diabetes mellitus, Hypertension, Irritable bowel syndrome, Gastro intestinal ulcer diseases, Atherosclerosis, Seizure disorder (epilepsy) and Headache, etc.  Physical disorders Heart disease, Lung disease, Mental retardation  Psychiatric disorders Anxiety disorders, Obsessive-compulsive disorder, Depression, Substance abuse  Musculo-skeletal disorders Lumbago, Spondylosis, Sciatica, Carpel tunnel syndrome, Rheumatism  Degenerative disorders Osteoarthritis, dementia, etc.
  34. 34. YOGA IN MODERN INDIA Q.1. Name some important Yoga scientists of India.  Dr. B.K. Anand, AIIMS, New Delhi  Prof. T.R. Anantaraman, BHU, Varanasi  Dr. K. Arunachalam, Madurai  Dr. T.K. Bera, Konavla  Dr. M.V. Bhole, Kaivalyadhama  Dr. Ramesh Bijlani, AIIMS, New Delhi  Dr. B.T. Chidanandamurthy, Pune  Dr. G.S. Chinna, New Delhi  Dr. K.K. Datey, Mumbai  Dr. T. Desiraju, NIMHANS  Dr. Ganesh Shankar, Sagar University  Dr. S.K. Ganguly, Kaivalyadhama  Dr. M.L. Gharote, Kaivalyadhama  Dr. Swami Gitananda Giri, Pondicherry  Dr. K.S Gopal, JIPMER, Pondicherry  Dr. M.M. Gore, Kaivalyadhama  Dr. K.S. Joshi, Pune  Dr. P.V. Karambelkar, Kaivalyadhama  Dr. Krishna Bhatt, Manipal  Swami Kuvalayananda, Lonavla, Maharashtra  Dr. Lajpat Rai, MDNIY, New Delhi  Dr. Madanmohan, JIPMER, Pondicherry  Dr. R. Nagarathna, sVYASA  Dr. H.R. Nagendra, sVYASA  Dr. M.V. Rajapurkar, Kaivalyadhama  Dr. Venkata Reddy, Secunderabad  Dr. B. Ramamurthy, Chennai  Dr. W. Selvamurthy, DIPAS, New Delhi  Dr. Shirley Telles, sVYASA  Dr. R.H. Singh, BHU, Varanasi  Dr. Subash Ranade, Pune  Dr. K.N. Udupa, BHU, Varanasi  Dr. S.L. Vinekar, Kaivalyadhama
  35. 35. VIVA QUESTIONS 1. Who is the codifier of ‘Yoga Darshana’? Ans: Maharishi Patanjali 2. Who is the author of the ‘Hatha Pradipika’? Ans: Yogi Swatmarama Suri 3. Where is the famous Yoga centre Kaivalyadhama located? Ans: Lonavla 4. In which city is the Sri Krishnamacharya Yoga Mandiram located? Ans: Chennai 5. Where in South India can you expect to find a depiction of Patanjali? Ans: Chidambaram 6. What year was the First International Yoga Festival held by Government of Pondicherry Tourism Dept? Ans: 1993 7. Which Mudra is used in Bhramari Pranayama? Ans: Shanmuki or Yoni Mudra 8. Which Mudra helps in cases of neck pain? Ans: Brahma Mudra 9. A topsy-turvy Mudra that is useful in Diabetes. Ans: Viparita Karani Mudra 10. According to the Hatha Pradipika the best of all Mudras is ? Ans: Kechari Mudra
  36. 36. PRIMER OF YOGA THEORY BY DR. ANANDA BALAYOGI BHAVANANI84 11. Mudra where both eyes are fixated on mid point between eyebrows? Ans: Sambhavi Mudra 12. In Sadanta Pranayama, air is inhaled via _____ and exhaled via __________. Ans: In through the teeth and out via the nose 13. In Surya Bhedana, the air is exhaled through which nostril. Ans: Left nostril 14. Name the four components of Pranayama. Ans: Puruka, Kumbhaka, Rechaka and Shunyaka 15. Name the 3 types of Kumbhakas. Ans: Antara, Bahira and Kevala Kumbhakas 16. Which Pranayama purifies all the 72,000 Nadis? Ans: Nadi Shuddhi 17. Inhalation and exhalation are through which nostril in Chandra Anuloma Pranayama? Ans: Left nostril 18. Name some important Yoga texts Ans: Patanjala Yoga Sutras, Bhagavad Gita, Yoga Vashistha, Shiva Samhita, Gheranda Samhita, Hatha Yoga Pradipika, Shiva Swarodaya, Yoga Upanishads 19. Which the Kriya can also be called a Pranayama? Ans: Kapalabhati 20. The King of Asanas is ______________________. Ans: Shirshasana 21. Who is the Goddess of Knowledge? Ans: Goddess Saraswathi
  37. 37. MODEL THEORY PAPERS MODEL THEORY PAPER - I FILL IN THE BLANKS 1. Satya belongs to the Pancha________________. 2. Soucha belongs to the Pancha_______________. 3. The last three limbs of Ashtanga Yoga are known together as _______. 4. The three Gunas are Tamas, Rajas and ________________________. 5. The Yoga Sutras have ________________verses (sutras). 6. The Yoga Sutras were given by__________________________________. 7. The first Chakra is ________________________. 8. We can control the Chitta Vrittis by Abyasa and ___________________. 9. Kriya Yoga consists of _______________, Swadhyaya and Ishwara Pranidhana. 10. A Mudra is_______________for energy. 11. The mother Klesha is __________________________. 12. The Kleshas can be destroyed by ________________________. 13. The energy sheath / body is the ____________________Kosha. 14. The three bodies are the Sthula Sharira,___________ and the Karana Sharira. MATCH THE FOLLOWING 15. Ahimsa a. Memory 16. Tapas b. Non-stealing 17. Vibhuti Pada c. Niyama 18. Ekagratha d. Non-coveted ness 19. Vikshipta e. Truthfulness 20. Vikalpa f. Cleanliness 21. Smrithi g. Yama 22. Viparyaya h. Contentment 23. Anumana i. Self Analysis 24. Asteya j. Yoga Sutras 25. Aparigraha k. One pointed mind 26. Satya l. Partially distracted mind 27. Soucha m. Imagination 28. Santhosha n. Chittavritti 29. Swadhyaya o. Inference of right knowledge TRUE OR FALSE ? 30. Asana is the first step of Ashtanga Yoga.
  38. 38. A Aahara, 73 Abhaava Yoga, 4 Abhyasa, 73, 86 Abimanyu, 106, 108, 111, 112 Abinivesha, 48, 96, 115 Abyasa, 57, 96, Adam Pranayama, 119 Adhibhautika, 97 Adhidaivika, 97 Adhikara Yoga, 9, 12, 87 Adhimatra, 55, 61, 97 Adhimatratma, 55, 62, 97 Adho Mukha Swanasana, 28, 113 Adhyatma Yoga, 4 Adhyatmika, 97 Adi Shankara, 116, 117, 122 Agama, 58, 96 Agni, 36, 50, 106, 110 Agni Yoga, 4 Ahamkara, 44, 46, 59, 60, 97 Ahimsa, 11, 88 Ajapa Japa, 22 Ajna Chakra, 39 Akash, 16, 38, 49, 63, 96 Alabdhabhumikatva, 55, 96 Alasya, 55, 96 Amrtanadopanishad, 2 Anahata Chakra, 37 Ananda Ashram, 77, 78, 124 Anandamaya Kosha, 41, 63, 68, 95 Anavasthitatwa, 55, 96 Angamejayatva, 55 Anima, 57, 97 Anjali Mudra, 119 Annamaya Kosha, 33, 41, 63, 68, 95 Antah Karana, 44 Antaraaya, 55, 96- 99 Antaranga Yoga, 9, 87 Antarya Kumbhaka, 21 Anuloma, 21, 25, 31, 84 Anumana, 58, 96 Apana, 19, 88 Aparigraha, 11, 88 Apas, 35, 49, 63, 96, 115 Aprakasha Mudra, 118 Apunya, 47 Arambha Avastha, 57, 61 Ardha Matsendrasanasana, 29 Arjuna, 105-112, 121 Artha, 42, 95 Asamprajnata, 59, 96 Asana, 5-9, 13-17, 62, 78, 87, 88, 101, 114, 121 Asana Mudras, 24 Ashrams of Modern India, 77 Ashta Kumbakas,19 Ashta Siddhis, 57, 97 Ashtanga Yoga, 2-10, 62, 78, 87-93, 123 Asmita, 48, 96, 115 Asparsha Yoga, 4, 6 Asteya, 11, 88 Asthi, 43, 46, 98 Aswamedha Yagna, 110, 112 Aswini Mudra, 23, 24, 27, 98, 100, 118 Atharva Veda, 50-52, 102 Atma Prajna, 63 Atman, 1, 9, 11, 40, 46, 87-89, 93 Atman Prasadhanam, 62 Attanga Yoga, 10 Aurobindo Sri, 5, 77, 122 Avastha, 57, 61,62 Avidya, 48, 91, 93, 96, 115 Avirati, 55, 96 B Bahir Kumbaka, 21 Bahiranga Yoga, 9, 87 Balarama, 53, 98, 105, 110, 112 Bandha, 15, 23-25, 68, 114, 115, 121 Bandha Trayam, 24, 89 Basti, 29, 30, 74, 120, 121 Bhadrasana, 13, 74, 101 Bhagavad Gita,1,4,6,45-47, 62,81-87,98,109,114,116 Bhakti, 3, 4, 28, 62, 68, 71, 100 Bhastrika, 19, 20, 74, 88 Bhaya, 45, 104 Bheeshma, 105-112 Bhima, 105-111 Bhramari, 19, 22, 27, 83, 88, 118, 119 Bhujangasana, 13, 27, 100, 113 Bhujangini Mudra, 23, 24 Bindu, 46, 71, 89 Biochemical Effects of Yoga, 66 Brahma Mudra, 118 Brahma Sutras, 51 Brahmaanda Purana, 1 Brahmacharya, 11, 58, 88, 97 Branti-Darshan, 55 Buddhi, 44, 45, 46, 59, 82, 97, 103 Buddhi Yoga, 4 C Cardinal Principles of Yoga, 3 Chakras, 33, 46, 92 Chakrasana, 25, 29, 101 Chakshu, 24, 36, 42, 95 Chandra, 15, 16, 21, 25, 31, 84 Chandra Anuloma, 21, 120 Chandra Bhedana, 21, 31 Chatur Ashramas, 57, 97 Chatur Mahavakyam, 52 Chaturanga Yoga, 2 Chaturvidha Purusharthas, 42, 95 Chaturvimsati Tattva, 97 Chidra Chitta, 60 Chitta, 44, 69, 87, 95, 114 Chitta Prajna, 63 Chitta Vikshepa, 55 Chittavritti, 47, 58, 95, 96, 115 Classification of Diseases, 67 Cooling Pranayamas, 22 D Dama, 56 Danda Dhouti, 121 Dasa Avatara, 53, 98 Daurmanasya, 55 Dayananda Swami, 77, 103, 123 Devadutta, 20, 88, 115 Dhananjaya, 20, 88, 111, 115 Dhanurasana, 13, 29, 101, 113, 121 Dharana, 5, 6, 9, 23, 24, 58, 62, 68, 69, 87, 113 Dharma, 42, 49, 62, 93, 95 Dharmendriya, 62, 104 Dhatus, 74, 98 Dhauti, 26, 29, 30, 74, 90, 121 Dhritarashtra, 105, 106, 110, 111 Dhyana, 5, 6, 9, 24, 59, 62, 68, 69, 87, 113 Dhyana Yoga, 4 Diksha, 91 Divya Chitta, 60 Draupadi, 105-111 Drona, 106, 108-111 Dugdha Neti, 89 Duhkha, 47, 55, 97 Durvasa, 109, 110 Duryodhana, 105-109, 111 Dvaita, 100 Dvandva, 1 Dwadasha Kramas, 46 Dwesha, 48, 82, 96, 115 E Eight Clasical Kumbakas,19 Eighty Four Postures, 15 Eka Padasana, 28 Ekagra Chitta, 60 Ekagratha, 48, 95, 114 Ekendriya, 59, 60, 61, 62 Eleven Asanas (Yoga Bhasya), 14 INDEX
  39. 39. PRIMER OF YOGA THEORY BY DR. ANANDA BALAYOGI BHAVANANI152 F Fifty-Two Elements of Yoga Therapy, 70 Five Deha Doshas, 45, 104 Five Kleshas, 48 Five Koshas, 41, 63, 68, 94 Five Maha Bhutas, 49, 60, 63, 96, 115 Five Niyamas, 11 Five Prana Vayus, 19, 88 Five Upa Prana Vayus, 20, 88, 115 Five Yamas, 11 Four (Five) Fold Awareness, 2 Four Important Asanas, 13 Four States of Awareness, 44 Fourteen Lokas, 44 Fourteen Main Nadis,20 G Gaja Karani, 100, 121 Gandha, 34, 42 Gandhari, 106, 108 Ganga, 86, 107, 117 Garbha Pindasana, 25, 90, 122 Garima, 57, 97 Garudasana, 13, 100, 101 Gayatri, 7, 22, 103 Georg Feuerstein, 3, 10, 116 Ghata Avastha, 57, 61 Ghatastha Yoga, 4 Gheranda, 2, 4, 6, 84 Gheranda Samhita, 13, 23, 47, 49 Ghrta Neti, 89, 120 Gitananda Giri Swami, 2, 3, 10, 24, 33, 46, 70, 73, 75, 76, 79, 94, 98, 102, 104, 113- 116, 122-124 Goraksha, 2, 14, 16 Goraksha Paddhati, 14, 49 Grahasta, 58, 97 Grahna, 34, 42, 95 Granthi, 71, 91 Granthis, 46 Gunas, 43, 60, 95, 115 Guru, 7, 62, 70, 99, 105, 106, 122-124 Guru Yoga, 4 H Halasana, 25, 101, 113 Hamsa Mantra, 22 Hanumanasana, 28, 102 Hasta, 71, 99 Hatha (Yoga) Pradipika, 13, 19, 20, 23, 24, 47, 49, 74, 83, 88, 116, 118, 119 Hatha Ratnaavali, 15, 49 Hatha Yoga, 4, 5, 23, 49, 74, 84, 100, 120 Hiranyagarba, 4, 90 Hiranyagarba Yoga, 4 I Iccha Shakti, 44 Ida, 20, 88, 98 Indian Academy of Yoga, 78, 117, 124 Indra, 105, 108, 110, 121 Indriya Prajna, 63 Indriyas, 28, 46, 60, 61 Integrated Approach to Yoga Therapy, 67 International Yoga Festival, 83 Ishwara, 9, 11, 87, 88, 113, 115 Ishwara Pranidhana, 5, 12, 62 Isitva, 57, 97 Itihasas, 51 Iyengar BKS, 10, 76, 78, 116, 122 J Jagrat, 44, 103 Jalandhara Bandha, 23, 24, 89 Japa, 4, 22, 55, 68, 97 Japa Yoga, 4 Jathis, 25, 30, 68 Jayadratha, 108, 109 Jihva, 35, 42, 95 Jiva Vrittis, 73 Jivanmukta, 91 Jivatman, 1, 89 Jnana, 4, 7, 24, 62, 67, 70 Jnana Shakti, 44 Jnana Yoga, 3, 4, 70 Jnanendriyas, 42, 60, 95, 97 K Kaivalya, 47, 60, 91, 93, 95 Kaivalya Pada, 47, 60, 95 Kaivalyadhama, 75, 77, 78, 83, 117, 122 Kakasana, 101, 122 Kama, 42, 43, 45, 81, 95, 104 Kamavasayita, 57 Kambaliswamigal, 76, 123 Kanakananda Swami, 76, 124 Kapalabhati, 20, 29, 30, 31, 74, 84, 120 Kapha, 43 Kapotasana, 101, 113 Karana Sharira, 41 Karma, 4, 6, 62, 68, 121 Karma Yoga, 3, 4, 6, 68 Karmendriya, 42, 60, 95, 97, 114 Karna, 105-112 Karuna, 47, 69 Kathopanishad, 1 Kaula Yoga, 4 Kechari Mudra, 23, 88, 99, 118 Kevala Kumbaka, 19, 20, 21, 88, 120 Kleshas, 48, 49, 93, 96, 115 Kleshma, 43 Kokilasana, 101, 113 Kouravas, 105, 110 Krikara, 20, 88, 115 Krishna, 1, 2, 45, 50, 53, 75, 79, 82, 87, 98, 104-112 Krishnamacharya, 76, 78, 83, 117, 122 K r i s h n a m a c h a r y a Yo g a Mandiram, 78, 83, 117 Kriya, 21, 26, 71, 84, 90, 113, 115, 120, 121 Kriya Mudras, 24 Kriya Shakti, 44 Kriya Yoga, 5, 9, 49, 62, 87, 96, 113, 115 Krodha, 43, 45, 81, 95, 104 Kshipta, 48, 95, 114 Kukkutasana, 13, 101, 113 Kumbhaka, 19-21, 84, 88, 119, 120 Kundalini, 4, 5, 6, 33, 91 Kundalini Yoga, 5, 33 Kunthi, 106, 107, 108, 110 Kurma, 16, 20, 53, 88, 98, 115 Kurmasana, 13, 28, 100, 122 Kuvalayananda Swami, 75, 76, 122 L Lagima, 57, 97 Lambika Yoga, 5 Laya Yoga, 5, 33 Limitations of Yoga Therapy, 72 Linga Purana, 57 Linga Sharira, 43, 95 Lobha, 43, 95 Loka, 44, 46 Lokeshana, 56 M Maamsa, 43, 46, 98 Maatsarya, 43, 95 Mada, 43, 95 Madyama, 55, 97 Maha Mudra, 24, 118 Maha Yoga, 5 Mahabharata, 51, 86, 103, 106, 109 Mahima, 57, 97 Maitri, 47, 69 Maitri Upanishad, 1 Majjaa, 43, 46, 98 Manas, 4, 39, 44-46, 60, 62, 103 Mandala, 39, 40, 46, 92, 94 Manipura Chakra, 36, 94, 115 Mano Prajna, 63 Manomaya Kosha, 41, 63, 68 Mantra Yoga, 5, 71 Mark of a Yogi, 2 Marman, 92 Matsyasana, 13, 25, 27, 35, 113 Mayurasana, 13, 28, 74, 101, 122 Meda, 46 Medas, 43, 98 Meru Asana, 28
  40. 40. INDEX 153 Mimamsa Darshana, 49 Moha, 43, 82, 95 Moksha, 42, 91, 95 Moola Bandha, 5, 23, 24, 89, 118 Mooladhara Chakra, 33, 34, 91, 94, 115 Mother Klesha, 48 Mridu, 55, 61, 97 Mudha, 48, 95, 114 Mudhita, 47 Mudra, 23, 24, 74, 83, 84, 88, 98, 99, 114, 116, 118, 119 Mumukshatwa, 56, 99 Murccha, 19, 88, 119 N Naada Yoga, 5 Nadi Shodhana, 92 Nadi Shuddhi, 21, 84, 98, 119, 120 Nadis, 20, 33, 46, 84, 88, 92, 98, 120 Naga, 20, 88, 106, 115 Names of the Sun, 8, 89 Narayana Arpana Bhava, 56 Narayana Bhava, 56 Nasarga Mudra, 24 Nauli, 25, 29, 30, 74, 120, 121, Nava Dhushyas, 46 Navasana, 28, 101 Neti, 25, 26, 29, 30, 74, 90, 120 Neti-Neti, 92 Nidra, 45, 58, 95, 104, 114 Nihsvasa, 45, 104 Nimitta Bhava, 56 Nirbija, 59 Nirguna, 43 Nirmana Chitta, 60 Nirodha Chitta, 60 Niruddha, 48, 95, 114 Nirvichara, 59 Nirvitarka, 59 Nishpatti Avastha, 57, 62 Niyama, 5, 9, 10, 11, 62, 87, 113 Noukasana, 113 Nyaya Darshana, 49 P Pada, 24, 34, 42, 47, 95, 114 Padmasana, 13, 25, 28, 34, 39, 40, 101 Padottanasana, 28 Pancadashaanga Yoga, 5 Pancha Deha Doshas, 45, 104 Pancha Kleshas, 48 Pancha Koshas, 41, 63, 68, 94 Pancha Maha Bhutas, 49, 60, 63, 96, 115 Pancha Prana Vayus, 19, 88 Pancha Niyama, 11 Pancha Yama, 11 Pandavas, 106-112 Pani, 35, 42, 95, 114 Paramatman, 1, 89 Paravairagya, 59 Parichya Avastha, 57, 61 Paschimottanasana, 13, 25, 26, 89, 113 Pashupata Yoga, 5 Patanjala Yoga, 4-6, 9, 47, 84 Patanjali Maharishi, 1, 2, 5, 7, 9, 10, 12-14, 19, 47-49, 55, 58-60, 83, 86-88, 93, 104, 114-117, 122 Payu, 36, 42, 95, 114 Physiological Benefits of Yoga, 65 Pillars of Yoga Sadhana, 63 Pingala, 20, 88, 98 Pitta, 43 Plavini, 19, 88, 119 Pondicherry, 75-80, 103, 117, 118, 123, 124 Prajna, 45, 63, 93 Prakmamyam, 57, 97 Prakrithi, 1, 48, 60, 93 Pramada, 55, 96 Pramana, 58, 95, 96, 114 Prana, 4, 5, 19, 20-24, 46, 73, 88, 114 Prana Bindus, 46 Prana Granthis, 46 Prana Nadis, 46 Prana Prajna, 63 Prana Vahaka, 46 Prana Vahana, 46 Prana Vana, 46 Prana Vayus, 46, 73 Pranamaya Kosha, 33, 41, 63, 68, 94 Pranayama, 9, 19-26, 57, 62, 68-70, 83, 84, 87, 90, 92, 100, 116, 118-120 Pranayama Mudra, 24 Pranayama Sadhana, 57 Pranidhana, 9, 11, 87, 88, 113, 115 Prapti, 57, 97 Prasupta, 48, 96, Pratyahara, 5, 6, 9, 28, 62, 68, 69, 87 Pratyaksha, 58, 96 Pritvi, 34, 49, 63, 96 Psychological Attitudes, 69 Psychological Benefits of Yoga, 66 Punya, 47 Puraka, 21 Purana, 4, 5, 51, 52, 86 Purna Yoga, 5 Purpose of Ashtanga Yoga, 10 Puruka, 84, 119 Purusha, 48, 59, 93, 96 Putreshana, 56 R Raaga, 48, 82, 115 Raja Yoga, 3, 5, 6, 9, 10 Rajakapotasana, 25, 29 Rajas, 43, 95, 115 Rakta, 43, 46, 98 Ramana Maharishi, 76, 86, 123 Ramayana, 116 Rasa, 43, 46, 98 Rasana, 35, 42 Rechaka, 21, 84, 119, 120 Rig Veda, 50, 51, 52, 102 Rishi, 15, 51, 94, 101, 104 Rishikesh, 77, 78, 117, 123 Rupa, 36, 42 S Sabija, 59 Sadanta, 22, 84, 119 Sadhana Chathustaya, 56, 99 Sadhana Pada, 12, 47, 95 Sahasrara Chakra, 40, 91, 94 Sama, 56 Sama Veda, 50, 51, 52, 102 Samadhana, 56 Samadhi, 5, 6, 9, 12, 47, 59-63, 87, 95-97, 113, 115, 117, 122, 123 Samadhi Pada, 47 Samadhi Yoga, 6 Samana, 19, 88, Samatvam, 1, 82, 87, 93, 114 Sambhavi Mudra, 23, 118 Samkhya Darshana, 49 Samkhya Yoga, 6, 81 Samnyasa Yoga, 6 Samprajnata, 59, 96, 97 Samputa Yoga, 6 Samrambha Yoga, 6 Samshya, 55, 96, 99 Samyama, 9, 60, 87, 113 Sananda, 59, 97 Sankalpa, 73 Santosha, 11, 12, 88 Sanyasa, 58, 97, 123 Sapta Dhatus, 43 Sapta Rishi, 94,104 Saptanga Yoga, 2, 6 Sarvangasana, 27, 38, 91, 113 Sashahasana, 100, 113 Sasmita, 59, 97 Satsangha, 68, 69, 92 Sattva, 43 Satya, 11, 88, Savichara, 59 Savitarka, 59 Seven Dhatus, 43 Seven Types of Prajna, 63 Shabda, 38, 42 Shadanga Yoga, 2, 6 Shakuni, 108 Shanka Prakshalana, 120 Shanmuki Mudra, 24, 119 Shanta Chitta, 60 Sharada Devi, 123 Sharira, 43, 63, 89, 95 Sharira Prajna, 63 Shat Chakra Nirupana, 33, 47
  41. 41. Shat Darshanas, 49,96 Shat Karmas, 24, 68, 120, 121 Shat Kriya, 121 Shat Ripus, 43, 95 Shat Sampatti, 56, 99 Shavasana, 13, 27, 82, 101 Sheetali, 19, 22, 74, 88 Shirasasana, 27-29, 84, 101 Shitileekarana Vyayama, 30, 68 Shiva Purana, 6 Shiva Samhita, 19, 47, 49, 55, 84, 97, Shotra, 38, 42, 95 Shraddha, 56, 63 Shunyaka, 21, 84, 119 Shushupthi, 44, 103 Siddha Yoga, 6 Siddhasana, 13, 15 Siddhis, 12, 57, 60, 61 Simhasana, 13, 100 Sitkari, 19, 22, 74, 88 Sivananda Swami, 117, 123 Smrithi, 58, 95, 114 Soma, 46 Soucha, 11, 12, 88 Sparsha, 4, 37, 42 Sparsha Yoga, 4, 6 Stages of Vairagya, 59 States of The Chitta, 48 States of The Kleshas, 48 Sthula Sharira, 41, 43, 95 Sthira Sukham Asanam, 13, 14, 114 Stitha Prajna, 45, 82, 114 Stress, 27, 65-68, 81, 82 Stress Management Programmes, 82 Structural Systems in Yoga, 46 Styaan, 55, 96, 99 Sukha, 47 Sukha Pranayama, 21 Sukra, 43, 46, 98 Sukshma Sharira, 33, 41, 43, 95 Surya Anuloma, 21, 90 Surya Bhedana, 19, 21, 25, 31, 74, 84, 88, 90, 119 Surya Namaskar, 23, 119 Sushumna, 20, 33, 88, 91, 98 Sutra, 47, 104 sVYASA, 75, 78, 116, 117 Swadhisthana Chakra, 35, 94, 115 Swadhyaya, 5, 9, 11, 12, 62, 68, 69, 87, 88, 113 Swapna, 44, 103 Swasha Praswasha, 55 Swatmarama, 2, 74, 83,116 T Taaraka Yoga, 6 Tamas, 30, 43, 95, 115 Tanmatras, 42, 60 Tantra, 6, 91, 92 Tanu, 48, 96 Tapas, 5, 9, 11, 12, 60-62, 87, 88, 113, 121 Tejas, 36, 46, 49, 63, 96 Thirumoolar, 10 Thuriya, 44, 103 Tirumandiram, 10, 47, 57, 97, 98 Titiksha, 56 Tittibasana, 100 Tolasana, 99 Trataka, 29, 30, 31, 68, 69, 74 Tri Doshas, 43, 73 Trigunas, 43, 73, Trikonasana, 27, 101 Tri Sharira, 41, 95 Trivikramasana, 102, 122 Tvak, 37, 42, 95, Types of Disciples, 55, 97 Types of Kumbhakas, 84, 120 U Udaaranaam, 48, 96 Udana, 19, 88 Uddiyana Bandha, 24, 89, 120, 121 Ujjayi, 19, 74, 88, 119 Upa Prana Vayus, 20, 88, 115 Upanishad, 2, 5, 6, 50, 52, 53, 102 Upanishad Brahmayogi, 97 Upanishads, 4, 47-52, 84, 89 Uparti, 56 Upastha, 37, 42, 95, 114 Upekshanam, 47, 69 Ushtrasana, 13, 25, 26, 100, 121 V Vairagya, 56-61, 69, 86, 96, 99 Vaisheshika Darshana, 49 Vajrasana, 13, 26, 34, 35, 90, 101, 121 Vak, 38, 42, 95, 114 Vaman Dhouti, 120 Vanaprastha, 58, 97 Vashikara, 59, 60, 62 Vasitva, 57, 97 Vata, 43, 74 Vatayanasana, 100, 113 Vayu, 37, 49, 63, 96 Veda Vyasa, 52, 86, 105, 106, 111, 116 Vedanta Darshana, 49 Vedas, 49, 50, 51, 52, 102 Vibhaga Pranayama, 119 Vibhuti Pada, 47, 95 Vichara, 59, 97, Vichinna, 48, 96, Vijnana Prajna, 63 Vijnanamaya Kosha, 41, 63, 68 Vikalpa, 58, 95, 114, Vikshipta, 48, 95, 114 Viparita Buddhi, 73 Viparita Karani, 23, 24, 26, 74, 83, 90, 118 Viparyaya, 58, 95, 114 Viranchasana, 26, 90, 102 Vishnu Mudra, 119 Vishnu Purana, 6, 100 Vishnudevananda Swami, 76, 99, 123 Vishuddha Chakra, 38, 94 Vitarka, 59, 97 Viteshana, 56 Viveka, 10, 44, 56, 86, 99 Viveka Khyati, 10 Vivekananda Swami, 76-78,117, 122, 123 Vyadhi, 55, 96 Vyana, 19, 88 Vyasa, 10, 48, 86, 108, 111 Vyatireka, 59, 60, 61 Vyutthana Chitta, 60 W What Is Yoga, 1 Y Yajnavalkya, 1 Yajur Veda, 50, 52 Yama, 5, 9, 10, 62, 87 Yantra Yoga, 6 Yatamana, 59, 60, 61 Yoga Bhashya, 14, 48, 86 Yoga Darshana, 5, 9, 49,71, 83,93, 115 Yoga Institutions, 78 Yoga Life, 116 Yoga Margas, 3 Yoga Masters of Modern India, 76 Yoga Research in India, 77 Yoga Roodha,2, 87, Yoga Sadhana, 55, 86, 96, 97, 99 Yoga Scientists of India, 75 Yoga Shikha Upanishad, 1 Yoga Sport, 79, 80, 103, 104 Yoga Sutra, 5, 9, 10, 12, 14, 19, 47, 48, 86, 93, 98, 104, 114, 120 Yoga Therapy, 65-72 Yoga Vashistha, 1, 84 Yogachudamani Upanishad, 2 Yogah ChittavrittiNirodhah, 1,114 Yogah Karmasu Koushalam, 1, 114 Yogic Prayers, 7 Yogin, 93 Yogini, 93 Yoni Mudra, 23, 119 Yudhishthira, 105-112 Yuj, 1, 85, 114 PRIMER OF YOGA THEORY BY DR. ANANDA BALAYOGI BHAVANANI154

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