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Intro R F I D

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Transcript

  • 1. Introduction to RFID
  • 2. Auto-ID Technologies Biometric Systems Smart Cards RFID Optical Character Recognition (OCR) Barcode Systems Auto-ID
  • 3. Definition
    • RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) is a technology that enables the electronic and wireless labeling and identification of objects, humans and animals
  • 4. RFID Principal System Components
    • Tag (Transponder)
      • Chip
      • Antenna
    • Reader (Interrogator)
      • RF Module (Transmitter and Receiver)
      • Control Unit
      • Antenna
      • Several Interfaces (RS 232, RS 485, etc.)
    • Host Computer
      • Middleware
  • 5. RFID System Architecture
  • 6. EPC RFID Architecture
  • 7. EPC RFID System Architecture
  • 8. Carrier Frequencies
    • What is frequency?
      • Refers to the property of radio waves used to transmit data
      • Roughly speaking, it is the intensity of waves used to transmit information
  • 9. Carrier Frequency
    • RFID systems may use a particular frequency band depending on:
      • Application
      • Legislature
      • Cost considerations
  • 10. Frequency Bands Frequency Band Characteristics Typical Applications Low 100-500 kHz Short to medium read range, inexpensive, low reading speed Access control Animal/Human identification Inventory Control Medium 10-15 MHz Short to medium read range Potentially inexpensive Medium reading range Access Control Smart Cards High UHF: 850-950MHz Microwave: 2.4 – 5.8 GHz Long read range High reading speed Line of sight required (Microwave) Expensive Railroad car monitoring Toll collection systems
  • 11. Coupling
    • 100kHz – 30 MHz – inductive coupling
    • HF and Microwave systems use electromagnetic coupling
  • 12. Coupling
  • 13. Frequency and bandwidth
    • Frequency is of primary importance when determining data transfer rates (bandwidth)
    • The higher the frequency, the higher the data transfer rate
  • 14. Range
    • Range – the working distance between a tag and a reader
    Range
  • 15. Range and Power Levels
    • The range that can be achieved in an RFID system is determined by
      • The power available at the reader
      • The power available within the tag
      • The environmental conditions and structures
        • More important at higher frequencies than at lower frequencies
      • 100-500mW
  • 16. Material Propagation
    • The absorption rate for water and other non-conductive substances is lower by a factor of 100 000 at 100 kHz than it is at 1 GHz
    • LF systems are primarily used due to their high propagation of substances
  • 17. Electromagnetic Interference
    • What is electromagnetic interference?
    • LF (inductive coupling) RFID systems suffer from electromagnetic interference more than UHF and Microwave
    • Microwave systems are more likely to be used in manufacturing (auto-industry)
  • 18. Tags Characteristic
    • Means by which transponder is powered
    • Data carrying options
    • Data read rates
    • Programming options
    • Physical forms
    • Costs
  • 19. Active and Passive Tags
    • Active tags
      • Powered by an internal battery
      • Finite lifetime (because of battery)
      • Greater range
      • Better noise immunity
      • Higher data transmission rates
  • 20. Active and Passive Tags
    • Passive tags
      • Operate without battery
      • Derive power from the field generate by the reader
      • Less expensive
      • Unlimited life
      • Subject to noise
      • Require more powerful readers
      • Orientation sensitivity
  • 21. Data Carrying Options
    • A tag can contain
      • An identifier
        • 1bit – 128 bits
      • Portable data files
        • Example: 64 K
  • 22. Data Read Rate
    • Data read rate is linked to frequency
      • The higher the frequency, the higher the read rate
  • 23. Data Programming Options
    • Read-only
      • Cheap
    • Write once read many (WORM)
    • Read/write
      • Expansive
  • 24. Why Use Read/Write Tags?
    • Greater flexibility
      • Customers may change requirements
      • Standards may change
    • Database dependence
      • Ownership issues
      • Lag times
    • High risk applications
  • 25. Tag Physical Forms
    • Disk and Coins – can be attached to an item by a fastening screw
  • 26. Tag Physical Forms
    • Mount-on-Metal – special construction minimizes impact of metal in terms of interference
  • 27. Tag Physical Forms
    • Keys or Key Fobs, Watches – access control
  • 28. Smart Labels
    • A bar code can be printed on an RFID label
  • 29. Tag Physical Forms
    • Glass Transponders can be implanted under skin
  • 30. What’s so special about RFID?
    • Unifying Auto-ID technology
    • Line of sight is not required
    • Longer read ranges
    • Faster: hundreds of items can be scanned in one read
  • 31. RFID vs. Barcodes
  • 32. Principles of Profitable RFID Use
    • Bar codes are unfeasible
      • Example: rail cars
        • Damage
        • Speed
    • Counting Processes
      • Greater speed
      • Saves manual labor
  • 33. Principles of Profitable RFID Use
    • Personal responsibility doesn't match the enterprise value of data collection
      • Example: a big retailer working with a small supplier
    • The data collection process is relatively chaotic
      • Example: Battlefield
      • Making libraries chaotic
  • 34. Principles of Profitable RFID Use
    • The exact configuration of goods must be maintained
      • Example: Auto industry
    • Data must be collected from consumers outside of the retail
      • Warning: Privacy Concerns
  • 35. RFID Evolution (Gartner, 2003)
  • 36. RFID Growth
    • Several market research firms predict that ~2007 RFID market will reach ~$3 billion
  • 37.
    • Questions?