Schizophrenia

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Schizophrenia

  1. 1. SCHIZOPHRENIA Dr. Mansoor Rashid Chaudry MCPS, MD Academic Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences King Edward Medical University Lahore
  2. 2. Definition • is a mental disorder characterized by a breakdown of thought processes and by poor emotional responsiveness • The schizophrenic disorders are characterized in general by fundamental and characteristic : • Distortions of thinking and • Distortion of perception, and • Change in Affects (Inappropriate or blunted) Schizophrenia is defined by • a group of characteristic positive and negative symptoms • deterioration in social, occupational, or interpersonal relationships • continuous signs of the disturbance for at least 6 months Clear consciousness and intellectual capacity are usually maintained although certain cognitive deficits may evolve in the course of time
  3. 3. Schizophrenia • Schizophrenia occurs with regular frequency nearly everywhere in the world in 1 % of population and begins mainly in young age (mostly around 16 to 25 years).
  4. 4. Positive and negative symptoms • Positive symptoms are symptoms that most individuals do not normally experience but are present in the disorder. It reflects an excess or distortion of normal functions (i.e experiences and behaviors that have been added to a person’s normal way of functioning. • Negative symptoms are symptoms that are not present or that are diminished in the affected persons but are normally found in healthy persons. It reflects a diminution or loss of normal functions (i.e something that has been taken away from a person’s normal way of functioning)
  5. 5. NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS • Alogia:poverty of speech • Avolition: lack of motivation-apathy • Affective flattening • Anhedonia:inability to experience pleasure- • Asociality: lack of desire to form relationships • Attentional impairment • Affect Change: Blank facial expression/ less facial Variability • Lack of interest enjoyment in activities • Low energy/ motivation • Inability to make / keep friends • Difficulty initiating activities • Social isolation
  6. 6. POSITIVE SYMPTOMS • Disturbance of thought processes • Delusions • Hallucinations • Erratic/ extreme emotions • Very slow or fast movement catatonia • Behavioral changes • Bizarre behavior • Positive formal thought disorder
  7. 7. TYPICAL SYMPTOMS • Thought disorder • No speech relevance • Self talking • Self laughing • Decrease sleep • Aggression, passivity phenomenon • Self neglect • Don't meet people • Running comentary
  8. 8. DELUSIONS • “False believes” -thought insertion. -thought withdrawal. -thought broadcasting. IDEAS OF REFERENCE:- To blame own self.
  9. 9. HALLUCINATIONS • Perception in absence of any stimulus • Types of hallucinations:- 1. Auditory Hallucinations 2. Visual Hallucinations 3. Tactile Hallucinations 4.Command Hallucinations
  10. 10. Etiology of Schizophrenia • The etiology and pathogenesis of schizophrenia is not known • It is accepted, that schizophrenia is „the group of schizophrenias“ which origin is multifactorial: – internal factors – genetic, inborn, biochemical – external factors – trauma, infection of CNS, stress
  11. 11. Treatment of Schizophrenia • The first-line psychiatric treatment for schizophrenia is antipsychotic medication,which can reduce the positive symptoms of psychosis in about 7–14 days. • The primary treatment of schizophrenia is antipsychotic medications, often in combination with psychological and social supports. • The acute psychotic schizophrenic patients will respond usually to antipsychotic medication.
  12. 12. Schizophrenia does not only exist in adults but can also in Children

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