Language development is a process
starting early in human life, when a
person begins to acquire language by
learning it as it is spoken and by
Children's language development moves from simple to
complex. Infants start without language. Yet by four months
of age, babies can read lips and discriminate speech
The language that infants speak is called babbling
Usually, language starts off as recall of simple words without
associated meaning, but as children grow, words acquire
meaning, with connections between words being
formed.these skill help to break up and analyze the relative
unbroken speech stream of mature speakers.
By 5 months infants can discriminate thier own language
even among others with the same prosodic pattern .
By 8 months children began to store the sound patterns for
words although meaning---beyond this sound pattern goes
with this entity----- is attached
By 9 months,children are using both the prosodic and
phonotactic clues,to discern individual speech sounds.
Most words spoken to the infant by caregivers occur in
context in the presence of entities and people to whom the
caregivers refers.As a result,the infants hear the word while
experiencing the entity or person.Up through age
2,comprehension is highly contex-dependant.
In short,infants may use
contextual cues in combination to break the speech stream
A toddler is a young child, usually defined as
being between the ages of one and four.
Toddler development refers to
the change that occur in children aged
between 1 and 4 years
Change may occur as a result of
genetic processes known as maturation,
or may be due to environmental
factors and learning. Usually it involves
an interaction between the two.
Early language development is
characterized by single-word utterances
and by early multiword combination
.Learning strategies may differ from
children who produce individual
words,mostly nouns,to those who
produce unanalyzed phrases,such as i
don't know.these phrases are called
formulas represent a whole-to-part
strategy of learning that seems to be less
efficient than learning words and building
to longer utterances.
First words fill the intentions previously served
by gestures or vocalization.
A toddler's first word most often occurs around
12 months, but again this is only an average.
The child will then continue to steadily add to his
or her vocabulary until around the age of 18
months when language increases rapidly. He or
she may learn as many as 7-9 new words a day.
Around this time, toddlers generally know about
50 words. At 21 months is when toddlers begin
to incorporate two word phrases into their
vocabulary, such as "I go", "mama give", and
"baby play". Before going to sleep they often
engage in a monologue called crib talk in which
they practice conversational skills. At this age,
children are becoming very proficient at
conveying their wants and needs to their parents
It is important to note
that toddlers not only
imitate others or name
objects.They use their
language to influence
conversational give and
Toddler seem to make 6 assumptions
about the words they hear
Words refer to entities
Words are extendable to similar
Words refer to the whole entity not to the
Words can be grouped categorically
Novel words go with previously unamed
Words are used consistently
In toddlers most words are learned receptively and
then produced expressively.
Word learning can be influenced by many
variabels .In general girls seem to begin to aquire
words earlier and have faster initial learning than
The childs's first words are simple.Most contain
one or two syllables;syllabic constructions usually
consist of VC (vowel-consonent) (EAT) .CV
(key),CVCV(mama) or CVCV (baby) .
Frequently used words would be recognized by the
child more quickly and accurately and produced
more rapidly than infrquent ones.On the other
hand high density or lots of neighbours can resut
in more confusion and slower less accurate
recognition and production
Wo r d s a r e
n o t b u i l t
p h e n o me b y
p h e n o me b u t
a r e
p e r c i e v e d ,l e
a r n e d ,a n d
p r o d u c e d a s
The toddler operate with several
constraints of attentions ,memory, and
The child's meaning encompasses a
small portion of adults' full defination.
FoR Example :
The child might hear an adult say Won't
fit,when the child tries to pull her wagon
through the door.She may later uses
the word fit to mean too big,i can't do
it.or as a general negation of an action.
In the proces of refining meanings the
child forms hypothesis and underlying
concepts and extends his current
meaning to include new examples.Some
of his concepts are restricted,while
others are extended widely.
overly restricted meanings are called
contrast,overextentions are meanings
that are too broad.
Two word combination
Children organize their early words by semantic or
meaning,categories.At the two-word stage,children
follow simple linear word-order patterns of
constructionthat indicates these semantic categories.
Within early two word combination,meaning ia
signaled by word order.Relationship are expressed
by simple word order rules rather than through
syntactic relationship.The childs' initial words reflect
her rules for each individual word involved.
With the increasing memory and processing skills,the
child is able to produce longer utterances by
recombining the semantic patterns.When
approximately half of the child's utterances contain
two words he began to use three words
The typical child produce some four-word utterance
Several learning stretgies
The toddler's language knowledge is
incresed through the use of several
Toddlers do immitate the all that the
hears,and imitation is not random.In
general imitaion serves to stablilize
forms being learned and thus is
New information is gained by :
attempting new words or forms
awaiting feed back
testing possible names
By seing a hourse , the toddler might say any of the
(evocative uterance,awaites are response )
(hypothesis testing ' awaites confirmation)
what ? that ? wassat ?
( introgative uterance , awaits answer )
KNOWLDGE IS GAINED
IN THIS WAY NOT AS A
RESULT OF DIRECT
“The principle is that the shape of
a building or object should be
primarily based upon its
intended function or purpose”
In the same way the communication
function or use is established first and
the child learns the language form to
convey this function more effectively
Children ask question very early,and the
function is well etablished.
Hypothesis testing---a word stated with rising
intonation ,as in horsie?----becomes yes no
Interogative utternaces -----wassat----becomes
In general introgatives becomes longer
more complex and more specific.
Negative statement :
Negative statement offer 2nd example
of Form Following function.Infants
will protest over actions they do not like
and may make a stronger statement by
IT IS NOT SURPRISING THEN
THAT NEGETIVE WORDS
SUCH AS "NO" ARE OFTEN
PRESENT IN THE FIRST 50
WORDS OF TODDLER.
At first ,the negetive word is placed at the
begining of the utternace.Around the age
of 2 the child begans placing the negetive
element between the subject and
predicate as in daddy dont ride bike . By
the next few year other negetive forms
such as isn't aren't doesn't couldn't wasn't
shouldn't are added gradually.
Bootstrapping or booting refers
to a group of metaphors that
share a common meaning: a
self-sustaining process that
proceeds by itself.
Bootstrapping refers to the
question of how language
acquisition "gets started”
" A child gradually acquires a great deal
of interlocking knowledge about the
structure and vocabulary of his or her
language. It has sometimes been
proposed that some specific type of
linguistic knowledge can be acquired
early, and that this enables the child to
analyze words or sentences well enough
to acquire further knowledge from them.
Metaphorically, this early knowledge
would serve as bootstraps by which
the child pulls himself or herself up.
Before their 2nd birthday,toddlers use
form such as action+agent(daddy eat)
and action+object (eat cookei)this
information is used to interpret dominant
english sentance form of
The child assume that the first noun in
the sentence is causing some action and
so on.This strategy will aid in the
interpretation some but not all english
In the sentence i am healthy , there is no
action and therefore, no agent.
Semantic bootstrapping in linguistics
refers to the hypothesis that children
utilize innately-known conceptual
knowledge to create grammatical
categories when acquiring their first
Preschoolers are actively analyzing
incoming information,searching for
rules,and synthesizing there own
sentences based on these rules. As a
restult,preschoolers often use the full
form of structure first, even thought
the adult model may be contracted.
Most childern will use the doggiee is
running before the doggiee’s
Fast mapping :
Word are added rapidly by a process
called fast mapping in which the child
assume the meaning from context and
then produce the word in a similar
context gradually the meaning is
Words may be fast mapped using one or more stratgies
1. the range of possible meaning may be constraint by
the situation and also by the meaning already possed
by the child. The child may assume that the new
word’s definition cannot be the same as one already
2. possibility is that the child uses an association
startegies in which the regularity in the language,
such as word order and bound morphemes, give the
child clues as to the meaning.
3. the child may use phonetectic probablity or the
likelyhood of accurance of different sound seqences
to aid rapid re-call of newly learned words.
4. hypothesized meanings come from both the linguistic
and non lingustic context
Contrast and Conventionality :
These two strategies can be used to
determine word meaning.
Using a contrast stragetity child asume
that each word is differerent from or
contrast with every other , this strategy
occur concurruntly with the conventially
In conventially strategy child assume that
certain forms will be used to convey
Using both,the child assume that speaker
will use conventional forms that clearly
contrast with eachother.
Complexity And Utterance
Length Relation :
Childerens begin to speak in single word
utterance whice expand at 18 months of
age into two words. In quick succession two
word utterances are combined to form three
and four words utterances. By the age of
two the pre-schooler is begning to add
more morphological endings,articels and
Embedding and Conjoining :
Conjoining and embedding also
demonstrate the length complexity
Embedding is a placement of a phrase
or a clause with another clause.(kuch
In conjoining two independent clauses
are joind.(i went to school but my
sister stayed at home with flu.)
Obviously the two processes of
embedding and joining will
lengthen the indiviual
sentence and increase
Avoid Exceptions :
Anyone who has taken a foreign language
knows that rules are easier to learn then
exceptions this is also true for preschoolers.
Preschoolers seem to follow a rule that
when you find a form that works , use it .
It takes time for preschoolers to learn to
invert the verb in interogative.
i know what are you doing.
i remember where we went.
overgeneralizing from interrogatives,the
child may produce the following.
I know what are you doing.
I remember where did we go.
Finally around age five the
child learn severals
indefinate negitive forms
such as nobdy, no one ,
Word Order is A Guide
In english the predominat SVO word
order is very important and severs as
a guide for sentence comprehension
The order of mention is order of accurance
in other words those things mentioned first ,
Avoid deviation from intruption
of standard word order
Rearrangement of the word as in
interrogatives or additions that may
interrupt the sequence as in negetives and
embedding are restricted.
Caregivers modify conversations to
maximize child participation:
Caregivers facilitate participation in
conversation for the child in general
care giver discuss topics of interest to
the child and encourage the to
There is a corresponding increase in
talkativeness of childern at around 36
A turnabout is usually a comment
or reply to the child’s utterance ,
followed by a question that serves
as a cue.
Child: I got a bike for my birthday
Adult: Oh,how special . can u ride all by urselgf ?
Child: No , dady helps me.
Adult: That’s probablly good until you get use to it ,
does he let go every onece in a while?
The adult provide an opertunity
for the child and gives the
signal that it is the child’s
turn. In this way the child
learn to develop a topic in
All aspects of language are
Language features are
not learned in a
context that include all
stories also illustrate