ITM Shah Alam
MALAYSIA
University of Lancaster
ENGLAND
Universiti Utara Malaysia
MALAYSIA
Universiti of Exeter
ENGLAND
Uni...
LITERATUR
EREVIE
W
No matter the context,
LR is the central part of
the research process
HANDS-ON
Critiquing previously written literature
Refer HO1.
HANDS-ON REFER HO1
Critiquing a
previously
written
literature
Commo
n
QUESTION
S
FROM SUPERVISOR
What does THIS
literature
shows us?
Commo
n
QUESTION
S
FROM SUPERVISOR
How does this
literature relates
to your topics?
What does THIS
literature
shows us?
Commo
n
QUESTION
S
FROM SUPERVISOR
How does this
literature relates
to your topics?
What does THIS
literature
shows us?
Co...
A Collections of
SCHOLARLY
WRITINGS
on the topic
Books
Conference proceedings
Dissertations
Scholarly articlesVIDEO- http:...
Fundamental
Understand topic
Develop own idea & perspective
on the problem
Demonstrate knowledge about
the topic
FUNCTIO
N...
Can you solve the JIGSAW?
How did you work to solve this puzzle?
What if you knew the BIG PICTURE in
advance?
LR is a bit like putting the pieces of a large and complex jigsaw
puzzle toge...
LR IS A
STORY
You need to understand the current story before you
continue
OVERVIEW
LR IS AN
LRGOES
ANNOTATED
BEYON
DBIBLIOGRAPHY
A GOOD LR
REVIEW
METHODOLOGIES
different
that researchers
use to investigate similar questions
Critically
A GOOD LR
REVIEW
THEORY which will be needed
for analysing results
Critically
A GOOD LR
USE
RESULT of previous research
to
the
a promisingIDENTIFY
DIRECTION for future research
REFER HO3
Mindma
p on LR
basics
HOW
LITERATURE
REVIEW
IMPORTANT IS THE
HOWTO
GETSTARTE
D
TOPIC
RESEARCH
USE BRAIN
KEEP TRACK
WRITE
Choose, explore, focus
google scholar, digital
library, IEEE x...
Workwith
BRAIN
?Collect, read
x n
Workwith
BRAIN
?Collect, read
x n
Provide
overview
Workwith
BRAIN
?Discover
relationship
Workwith
BRAIN
?Discover
relationship
Identify major
concepts
Workwith
BRAIN
?
Beyond
annotated
bib.
Workwith
BRAIN
?
Beyond
annotated
bib.
Integration &
Synthesis
Workwith
BRAIN
?
Own
thoughts
and ideas
Justify
contributions
HANDS-ON
Critiquing previously written literature
Refer HO1.
HANDS-ON REFER HO4 & 5
Exercise on
writing a simple
literatur...
HANDS-ON
Critiquing previously written literature
Refer HO1.
HANDS-ON REFER HO6, HO7 (log sheet)
Converting
annotated
bibl...
THE
CHAPTE
Explain area of interest, show connections, introduce concepts, methods of selecting of
reviewed material
Guided by RQ
TF & CF
Concept A
Concept B
Concept C
(related to
method)
Develop
relationship,
own thoughts
& ideas
Use THES...
Guided by RQ
TF & CF
Concept A
Concept B
Concept C
(related to
method)
Develop
relationship,
own thoughts
& ideas
Use THES...
Guided by RQ
TF & CF
Concept A
Concept B
Concept C
(related to
method)
Develop
relationship,
own thoughts
& ideas
Use THES...
A broader scope
A narrower scope
A similar focus/approach/tone
A slightly different focus/approach/tone
Adapts
Breaks out ...
LITERATURE
REVIEW
NOTEON
“To make my work
looks GOOD, I have to
make other people’s
work look BAD”
LITERATURE
REVIEW
NOTEON
Warmly
acknowledge
Be generous
“In his inspiring paper, Ali
(2009) shows.... We
develop his found...
Be Highly SELECTIVE
Ensure that they support our
points (RQs)
Choose the most recent
Use correct formatting
Do not try to ...
&REFERENCING
40
CITE
?THE WORK HAS
CREDIBILITY
CREDITS TO ORIGINAL
AUTHORS
AVOID PLAGIARISM
Ignoranceisnotanexcuse
41
STYLE
APA, IEEE, Harvard, MLA
…
Author
Date
Title of journal/book
Title of work (if an article)
Publisher
Place of Publ...
REFERENCE
PARENTHETICAL CITATION/IN-TEXT CITATION
According to Jones & Alford (2005) and Westlow (2009), global warming is...
Least respected Most respected
TABLOIDS
Mingguan Wanita
POPULAR
Metro
Berita Harian
News straits
times
The Star
QUASI
Scie...
TOOL
S
free citation management software
http://www.zotero.org/
http:// www.citationcreation.com/apa/book.html
A tool for developing refrence list
http://www.noodletools.com/noodlebib/citeone_s.php?style=APA
http://citationmachine.net/index2.php
http://delicious.com
A bookmarking web service
THANK YOU
A to Z about Literature Review
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A to Z about Literature Review

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This workshop is highly in demand. I conducted the workshop almost every semester for staff and students. I guess, I am tired of replying emails^^^ so here you are - you can have the whole slides. If you need the handouts too, drop me a line. InsyaAllah will provide you the material at my soonest..

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  • contemporary
  • critically review the different methodological approaches that researchers use in your field to investigate questions like yours and justify :your choice of methodology; choice of data to be collected; instruments to be used and so on.critically review the theory which will be needed for the analysis of your results (Okay, you’ve got your data, but what do they mean?).use the results of previous research to identify a promising direction for future research
  • critically review the different methodological approaches that researchers use in your field to investigate questions like yours and justify :your choice of methodology; choice of data to be collected; instruments to be used and so on.critically review the theory which will be needed for the analysis of your results (Okay, you’ve got your data, but what do they mean?).use the results of previous research to identify a promising direction for future research
  • critically review the different methodological approaches that researchers use in your field to investigate questions like yours and justify :your choice of methodology; choice of data to be collected; instruments to be used and so on.critically review the theory which will be needed for the analysis of your results (Okay, you’ve got your data, but what do they mean?).use the results of previous research to identify a promising direction for future research
  • Collect and readProvide overviewDescribeSummariseEvaluateAnalyseOrganiseDiscover relationship between sourcesIdentify maor terms and conceptsDO NOT do laundry list like annotated bibliographyPut own integration and synthesisNeed own map of literatureOwn thoughts and ideasShow significance of your research (justify your contributionle =Reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect)
  • Synthesis= The combination of ideas into a complex whoCollect and readProvide overviewDescribeSummariseEvaluateAnalyseOrganiseDiscover relationship between sourcesIdentify maor terms and conceptsDO NOT do laundry list like annotated bibliographyPut own integration and synthesisNeed own map of literatureOwn thoughts and ideasShow significance of your research (justify your contributionle =Reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect)
  • Synthesis= The combination of ideas into a complex whole =Reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect)Collect and readProvide overviewDescribeSummariseEvaluateAnalyseOrganiseDiscover relationship between sourcesIdentify major terms and concepts
  • Synthesis= The combination of ideas into a complex whole =Reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect)Collect and readProvide overviewDescribeSummariseEvaluateAnalyseOrganiseDiscover relationship between sourcesIdentify maor terms and conceptsDO NOT do laundry list like annotated bibliographyPut own integration and synthesisNeed own map of literatureOwn thoughts and ideasShow significance of your research (justify your contribution
  • Synthesis= The combination of ideas into a complex whole =Reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect)DO NOT do laundry list like annotated bibliographyPut own integration and synthesis
  • Synthesis= The combination of ideas into a complex whole =Reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect)DO NOT do laundry list like annotated bibliographyPut own integration and synthesis
  • Synthesis= The combination of ideas into a complex whole =Reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect)Collect and readProvide overviewDescribeSummariseEvaluateAnalyseOrganiseDiscover relationship between sourcesIdentify maor terms and conceptsDO NOT do laundry list like annotated bibliographyPut own integration and synthesisNeed own map of literatureOwn thoughts and ideasShow significance of your research (justify your contributionle =Reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect)
  • Synthesis= The combination of ideas into a complex whole =Reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect)Collect and readProvide overviewDescribeSummariseEvaluateAnalyseOrganiseDiscover relationship between sourcesIdentify maor terms and conceptsDO NOT do laundry list like annotated bibliographyPut own integration and synthesisNeed own map of literatureOwn thoughts and ideasShow significance of your research (justify your contributionle =Reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect)
  • send the draft to the ORIGINAL AUTHOR saying “could you help me ensure that I describe your work fairly?”.Please note:how the writer avoids a ‘black and white’, right/wrong type of judgement of the positions he reviewsthe comparison the writer establishes in the reviewthe language the writer uses to comment the works he reviews (positive/approval and negative features)how the writer achieves balance between perspectives by, e.g., conceding a point in order to make a stronger point (using ‘while’ & ‘although’)
  • How to identify peer-reviewed articlesMany databases will allow you to limit your search to articles from peer-reviewed journals. Some databases have only peer-reviewed sources. But there will be times when you won't be able to rely on a database to determine whether a journal is peer-reviewed or not. Here are a few characteristics that will help you recognize them on your own:The journal in which the article appears identifies itself as a peer or refereed journal.Articles are reviewed by an editorial or advisory boardAuthors are affiliated with universities, colleges, or prestigious research centers.References are cited at the end of articlesImages are only used when essential to content, rather than as "filler"Sources NOT peer-reviewedNewspapers and popular magazines (Time, U.S. News and World Report) are not peer reviewed.Quasi-scholarly publications, such as Smithsonian, Discover, and National Geographic, may be written by experts, but these publications are not peer reviewed.Internet sources, such as Wikipedia, are not peer reviewed and represent opinion, not necessarily fact.Publications become more respected the further you move from left to right in the following chart:
  • A to Z about Literature Review

    1. 1. ITM Shah Alam MALAYSIA University of Lancaster ENGLAND Universiti Utara Malaysia MALAYSIA Universiti of Exeter ENGLAND Universiti Utara Malaysia MALAYSIA University of Saskatchewan CANADA Universiti Sains Malaysia MALAYSIA Multimedia Synergy Corporation MALAYSIA Universiti Utara Malaysia MALAYSIA ZULIKHA BINTI JAMALUDIN
    2. 2. LITERATUR EREVIE W No matter the context, LR is the central part of the research process
    3. 3. HANDS-ON Critiquing previously written literature Refer HO1. HANDS-ON REFER HO1 Critiquing a previously written literature
    4. 4. Commo n QUESTION S FROM SUPERVISOR What does THIS literature shows us?
    5. 5. Commo n QUESTION S FROM SUPERVISOR How does this literature relates to your topics? What does THIS literature shows us?
    6. 6. Commo n QUESTION S FROM SUPERVISOR How does this literature relates to your topics? What does THIS literature shows us? Connect your ideas to the literature
    7. 7. A Collections of SCHOLARLY WRITINGS on the topic Books Conference proceedings Dissertations Scholarly articlesVIDEO- http://guides.lib.washington.edu/content.php?pid=55083&sid=1284098
    8. 8. Fundamental Understand topic Develop own idea & perspective on the problem Demonstrate knowledge about the topic FUNCTIO N of LR
    9. 9. Can you solve the JIGSAW? How did you work to solve this puzzle?
    10. 10. What if you knew the BIG PICTURE in advance? LR is a bit like putting the pieces of a large and complex jigsaw puzzle together without the benefit of a “picture on the box” to indicate where the pieces might or should go!
    11. 11. LR IS A STORY You need to understand the current story before you continue
    12. 12. OVERVIEW LR IS AN
    13. 13. LRGOES ANNOTATED BEYON DBIBLIOGRAPHY
    14. 14. A GOOD LR REVIEW METHODOLOGIES different that researchers use to investigate similar questions Critically
    15. 15. A GOOD LR REVIEW THEORY which will be needed for analysing results Critically
    16. 16. A GOOD LR USE RESULT of previous research to the a promisingIDENTIFY DIRECTION for future research
    17. 17. REFER HO3 Mindma p on LR basics
    18. 18. HOW LITERATURE REVIEW IMPORTANT IS THE
    19. 19. HOWTO GETSTARTE D TOPIC RESEARCH USE BRAIN KEEP TRACK WRITE Choose, explore, focus google scholar, digital library, IEEE xplore, ACM portal, annualreviews.org… Read, take notes, shape ideas, analyse and critique… Write-re-write,revise, proof-read + bibliography/reference of citations
    20. 20. Workwith BRAIN ?Collect, read x n
    21. 21. Workwith BRAIN ?Collect, read x n Provide overview
    22. 22. Workwith BRAIN ?Discover relationship
    23. 23. Workwith BRAIN ?Discover relationship Identify major concepts
    24. 24. Workwith BRAIN ? Beyond annotated bib.
    25. 25. Workwith BRAIN ? Beyond annotated bib. Integration & Synthesis
    26. 26. Workwith BRAIN ? Own thoughts and ideas Justify contributions
    27. 27. HANDS-ON Critiquing previously written literature Refer HO1. HANDS-ON REFER HO4 & 5 Exercise on writing a simple literature from 3 articles’ snippets. 1. Form group 2. Read snippets 1,2,3 from HO4 3. Fill up the strengths & weaknesses 4. Write answer on the board 5. Analyse the answers, conclude in your own notebook 6. Answer HO5 – write your LR 7. One from each group-read the LR to all participant
    28. 28. HANDS-ON Critiquing previously written literature Refer HO1. HANDS-ON REFER HO6, HO7 (log sheet) Converting annotated bibliography into a compound LR Use your own LR, now edit and change them
    29. 29. THE CHAPTE
    30. 30. Explain area of interest, show connections, introduce concepts, methods of selecting of reviewed material
    31. 31. Guided by RQ TF & CF Concept A Concept B Concept C (related to method) Develop relationship, own thoughts & ideas Use THESE words/phrase Explain area of interest, show connections, introduce concepts, methods of selecting of reviewed material Soreadandwritewithpurpose
    32. 32. Guided by RQ TF & CF Concept A Concept B Concept C (related to method) Develop relationship, own thoughts & ideas Use THESE words/phrase Explain area of interest, show connections, introduce concepts, methods of selecting of reviewed material Soreadandwritewithpurpose REFERENCES Parenthetical citation
    33. 33. Guided by RQ TF & CF Concept A Concept B Concept C (related to method) Develop relationship, own thoughts & ideas Use THESE words/phrase Summary of major themes & controversies Summary of strengths & weaknesses Summary that pulls together the entire review Insight into relationship between topics & larger field of discipline Explain area of interest, show connections, introduce concepts, methods of selecting of reviewed material Soreadandwritewithpurpose REFERENCES Parenthetical citation
    34. 34. A broader scope A narrower scope A similar focus/approach/tone A slightly different focus/approach/tone Adapts Breaks out the paradigm Bypasses the debate Confuses Contrary to Contributes to the research on Criticizes Elaborates Enters the debate Explores/investigates Goes beyond In a different sphere In agreement with THESE WORDS/PHRASES are usef They express specific types of relationship between ideas
    35. 35. LITERATURE REVIEW NOTEON “To make my work looks GOOD, I have to make other people’s work look BAD”
    36. 36. LITERATURE REVIEW NOTEON Warmly acknowledge Be generous “In his inspiring paper, Ali (2009) shows.... We develop his foundation in the following ways...” Accurate
    37. 37. Be Highly SELECTIVE Ensure that they support our points (RQs) Choose the most recent Use correct formatting Do not try to impress by over-referencing LITERATURE REVIEW NOTESON
    38. 38. &REFERENCING
    39. 39. 40 CITE ?THE WORK HAS CREDIBILITY CREDITS TO ORIGINAL AUTHORS AVOID PLAGIARISM Ignoranceisnotanexcuse
    40. 40. 41 STYLE APA, IEEE, Harvard, MLA … Author Date Title of journal/book Title of work (if an article) Publisher Place of Publication
    41. 41. REFERENCE PARENTHETICAL CITATION/IN-TEXT CITATION According to Jones & Alford (2005) and Westlow (2009), global warming is caused by the emissions from cans of spray cheese. Recent studies claim that global warming is caused by the emissions from cans of spray cheese (Jones & Alford, 2005; Westlow, 2009). According to Jones and Alford (2005) and Westlow (2009), global warming is caused by the emissions from cans of spray cheese. OR Recent studies claim that global warming is caused by the emissions from cans of spray cheese (Jones & Alford, 2005; Westlow, 2009). Jone, A. J. & Alford, K. (2005). Global warming and the current climate. Climate Trends. 25(3). 56-64. Westlow, S. R. (2009). The world is warmer. New York: Thomson. REFER HO10
    42. 42. Least respected Most respected TABLOIDS Mingguan Wanita POPULAR Metro Berita Harian News straits times The Star QUASI Science News Solusi PEER-REVIEWED Journal With impact factors With SJR value With Eigen Factor With Copernicus value …
    43. 43. TOOL S
    44. 44. free citation management software http://www.zotero.org/
    45. 45. http:// www.citationcreation.com/apa/book.html
    46. 46. A tool for developing refrence list http://www.noodletools.com/noodlebib/citeone_s.php?style=APA
    47. 47. http://citationmachine.net/index2.php
    48. 48. http://delicious.com A bookmarking web service
    49. 49. THANK YOU
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