PROJECT GUIDEExtensive experience in sensors and control pertaining to motion control and powerelectronics allows us to cr...
1.0.0 MOTION SENSING AND CONTROLExtensive experience with various types of motors and electromagnetic sensors andactuators...
1.1.0 PERMANENT MAGNET MACHINES              1.1.1 FIELD ORIENTED CONTROL / VECTOR CONTROL       Salient features (fairly ...
1.1.2 DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL      Almost identical performance as with field oriented control. (refer 1.0.2)      Much Le...
1.2.0 BRUSH DC MOTOR      Speed control with encoder      Position control with encoder      Torque control with curren...
1.3.0 BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR      Speed control with hall effect /encoder (pumps, fans, compressors etc)      Torque control...
1.4.0 THREE PHASE AC INDUCTION MACHINES       Sections 1.4.x pertains to 3 phase AC induction machines                    ...
   Space vector modulation      Typically 2 quadrant bi directional motoring operation      Operation beyond the rated ...
1.5.0 SERVO MOTOR CONTROL      Hi bandwidth position and velocity control (for machine tools, robots)      Hi bandwidth ...
1.6.0 STEPPER AND SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTOR      Micro stepping for smooth control of stepper motor      Switched reluct...
1.7.0 SINGLE PHASE AC INDUCTION MOTOR      Inverter control of single phase AC induction motor      Limiting the start c...
1.8.0 ELECTROMAGNETIC LINEAR ACTUATOR CONTROL      Design Control system for linear actuator (position ,speed and force c...
1.9.0 LINEAR MEASUREMENT USING ACCELEROMETER DATA      Improved accuracy in speed and position estimation      Reduced e...
1.10.0 ROTATIONAL MEASUREMENT USING GYROSCOPIC DATA      Improved accuracy in angular speed and angular position estimati...
2.0.0 POWER CONTROLExtensive experience in power conversion allows us to tackle a wide array of problems tomeet your strin...
2.1.0 DC-DC DIGITAL PWM SWITCHED MODE CONVERTERS      Optimal performance      Stability analysis      Large number of ...
2.2.0 SINGLE PHASE DIGITAL POWER FACTOR CORRECTION      Near unity power factor for Continuous conduction mode operation ...
2.3.0 THREE PHASE DIGITAL POWER FACTOR CORRECTION      Bidirectional power flow      Near unity power factor for Continu...
2.4.0 SINGLE CYCLE CONTROL PFC SW IMPLEMENTATION       Emulate in software single cycle control PFC       Lower number o...
2.5.0 PURE SINE WAVE INVERTER (HOME UPS,BACKUP)      Low distortion sine wave under all types of load ( rectifier, induct...
2.6.0 DC-DC CONVERTER/BATTERY CHARGERS      Various topologies full bridge, push pull, buck, boost, buck boost , fly back...
2.7.0 POWER LED CONTROL      Digital dimming ~ 400 hz led is turned on and off      Fast current rise      Almost any D...
2.8.0 HID LAMP BALLAST CONTROL/WELDING      Constant current control for negative resistance loadwww.controltrix.com cons...
2.9.0 HYBRID OFF GRID/ GRID CONNECTED INVERTER      MPPT solar PV inverter for feeding into the grid      SCR/thryristor...
2.10.0 MICRO GRID/ DISTRIBUTED GENERATION      Synchronization of multiple AC sources      Black start      Limiting cu...
2.11.0 DIGITAL SLOPE COMPENSATION      For peak current mode control      Dynamic Slope compensation using digital calcu...
2.12.0 THRYRISTOR/SCR BASED 3PHASE / 1PHASE POWER                        CONTROL      Motor drives      3phase and 1phas...
2.13.0        TEMPERATURE CONTROL AND THERMAL                             MANAGEMENT      Minimum overshoot/undershoot   ...
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Projects completed and value addition. controltrix.com

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List of projects of past power electronics, control system and motor drives related projects with value addition/expertise @ controltrix.com

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Projects completed and value addition. controltrix.com

  1. 1. PROJECT GUIDEExtensive experience in sensors and control pertaining to motion control and powerelectronics allows us to crack your tough specifications and tackle challenging problems.The following sections are a representative description of various past projects that havebeen undertaken and the value addition that has been possible.www.controltrix.com consulting@controltrix.com all rights reserved 1
  2. 2. 1.0.0 MOTION SENSING AND CONTROLExtensive experience with various types of motors and electromagnetic sensors andactuators allows us to tackle a large variety of problems. Below is a small representativelist of past work and where value may be added.www.controltrix.com consulting@controltrix.com all rights reserved 2
  3. 3. 1.1.0 PERMANENT MAGNET MACHINES 1.1.1 FIELD ORIENTED CONTROL / VECTOR CONTROL Salient features (fairly common knowledge)  Precise and fast torque and speed control  Optimal motor utilization (most bang for the buck)  Useful for transient and fast changing loads such as washing machines, power tools  Low noise operation  Allows the motor to be operated beyond its rated speed  Sensored and sensor less operation possible  Traditional sensor less operation is based on estimation using sliding mode controller or PLL type observer  Space vector modulation  Typically 2 quadrant bi directional motoring operation More…..  Remove any performance degradation due to low grade input power supplies with large ripple content in the input voltage. (such as front end rectifier, Power factor correction etc)  KALMAN filter based position and speed estimation for sensor less mode for accurate position and velocity control  16 bit computationally economical fixed point implementation of Kalman filter  4 quadrant operation. (regeneration/ braking and motoring operation) within the same system  Dead time compensation for smoother operation  Single shunt current sense based implementation for low cost applications  Sensor less smooth and reliable startup  Operation beyond the rated speed possible with field weakeningwww.controltrix.com consulting@controltrix.com all rights reserved 3
  4. 4. 1.1.2 DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL  Almost identical performance as with field oriented control. (refer 1.0.2)  Much Less amount of computation. (suitable for low cost application)  Sensored and Sensor less operation More….  Refer 1.1.1 (under value addition) same features applywww.controltrix.com consulting@controltrix.com all rights reserved 4
  5. 5. 1.2.0 BRUSH DC MOTOR  Speed control with encoder  Position control with encoder  Torque control with current sense  Regenerative and dynamic braking (4 quadrant operation) More…..  Sensor less Speed control (without encoder/resolver) e.g. fans ,pumps etc  Sensor less Position control (without encoder/resolver) e.g. servo drives ,robots, toys  Accurate reliable and smooth position /speed estimation and control using KALMAN filter/ Luenberger and Gopinath observer  16 bit computationally economical fixed point implementation of Kalman filterwww.controltrix.com consulting@controltrix.com all rights reserved 5
  6. 6. 1.3.0 BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR  Speed control with hall effect /encoder (pumps, fans, compressors etc)  Torque control/Torque mode (electric bicycles)  Regenerative and dynamic braking (4 quadrant operation)with most energy efficient way  Speed control (open/closed) loop in sensor less mode More…..  KALMAN filter based speed and position estimation based control  16 bit computationally economical fixed point implementation of Kalman filter  Sensored hall effect based operation with high immunity to PWM noise (useful for electric vehicle applications, High current and Hi power drives)  Improved reliability in sensor less mode of operation using filtering  Operation beyond the rated speed of the motor  Low audible noise 6 step operation (sensored and sensor less) (e.g. fans , blowers etc )  Demonstrably lower losseswww.controltrix.com consulting@controltrix.com all rights reserved 6
  7. 7. 1.4.0 THREE PHASE AC INDUCTION MACHINES Sections 1.4.x pertains to 3 phase AC induction machines 1.4.1 V/F CONTROL  Scalar control  Space vector modulation  Low noise  Low cost  Easy to implement More…..  Dead time compensation to ensure low distortion in current waveform  Remove any performance degradation due to low grade input power supplies with large ripple content in the input voltage. (such as front end rectifier, Power factor correction etc)  Minimize noise/harmonics due to low grade input voltage  Dynamic/regenerative braking /(4 quadrant operation)  Limiting the start current to manageable levels without significantly reducing startup torque (white goods ,solar pumps ) 1.4.2 FIELD ORIENTED CONTROL / VECTOR CONTROL  Precise and fast torque and speed control  Optimal motor utilization (most bang for the buck)  Useful for transient and fast changing loads such as washing machines, power tools  Low noise operation  Allows the motor to be operated beyond its rated speed  Sensored and sensor less operation possible  Traditional sensor less operation is based on estimation using sliding mode controller or PLL type observerwww.controltrix.com consulting@controltrix.com all rights reserved 7
  8. 8.  Space vector modulation  Typically 2 quadrant bi directional motoring operation  Operation beyond the rated speed possible with field weakening More…..  Remove any performance degradation due to low grade input power supplies with large ripple content in the input voltage. (such as front end rectifier, Power factor correction etc)  KALMAN filter/other filter based position and speed estimation for sensor less mode for accurate position and velocity control  Computationally inexpensive 16 bit fixed point implementation of KALMAN filter  4 quadrant operation. (regeneration/ braking and motoring operation) within the same system  Dead time compensation for smoother operation  Single shunt current sense based implementation for low cost applications  Sensor less smooth and reliable startup 1.4.3 DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL  Almost identical performance as with field oriented control. (refer 1.0.2)  Much Less amount of computation. (suitable for low cost application)  Sensored and Sensor less operation More…..  Refer 1.4.1 (under value addition) same features applywww.controltrix.com consulting@controltrix.com all rights reserved 8
  9. 9. 1.5.0 SERVO MOTOR CONTROL  Hi bandwidth position and velocity control (for machine tools, robots)  Hi bandwidth torque control  Reduced tracking error  Backlash error removal  Dead time compensation for reduced distortion  Repetitive control for periodic load and periodic trajectories to minimize tracking error  Smooth and low noise operationwww.controltrix.com consulting@controltrix.com all rights reserved 9
  10. 10. 1.6.0 STEPPER AND SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTOR  Micro stepping for smooth control of stepper motor  Switched reluctance motor calculations and controlwww.controltrix.com consulting@controltrix.com all rights reserved 10
  11. 11. 1.7.0 SINGLE PHASE AC INDUCTION MOTOR  Inverter control of single phase AC induction motor  Limiting the start current to manageable levels without significantly reducing startup torque (white goods ,solar pumps )  Retrofitting existing solutionwww.controltrix.com consulting@controltrix.com all rights reserved 11
  12. 12. 1.8.0 ELECTROMAGNETIC LINEAR ACTUATOR CONTROL  Design Control system for linear actuator (position ,speed and force control)  Sensor replacement algorithms using self sensing  Advanced filtering and sensor fusion algorithmswww.controltrix.com consulting@controltrix.com all rights reserved 12
  13. 13. 1.9.0 LINEAR MEASUREMENT USING ACCELEROMETER DATA  Improved accuracy in speed and position estimation  Reduced effects of drifts using advanced filtering and sensor fusion algorithms (Smart phone apps such as virtual measuring tape, inertial navigation system in toys, unmanned aerial vehicles etc.)  Compensate effect of gravitation on the fly  Gesture recognition (smart phone apps)www.controltrix.com consulting@controltrix.com all rights reserved 13
  14. 14. 1.10.0 ROTATIONAL MEASUREMENT USING GYROSCOPIC DATA  Improved accuracy in angular speed and angular position estimation  Reduced effects of drifts using advanced filtering and sensor fusion algorithms (Smart phone apps such as virtual measuring tape, inertial navigation system in toys, unmanned aerial vehicles etc.)  Gesture recognition (smart phone apps)  Handling cross coupled states  Compensation for curvature and rotation of earth in inertial navigation systems  Estimation of radius of circular motion (gyroscopic + accelerometer data)  Advanced Filtering to ensure accurate estimate of radiuswww.controltrix.com consulting@controltrix.com all rights reserved 14
  15. 15. 2.0.0 POWER CONTROLExtensive experience in power conversion allows us to tackle a wide array of problems tomeet your stringent performance requirements. The following is a representative list ofvarious past projects and value addition. In general1. Meeting performance specs2. Simulation for visulati3. Code generation for fixed point DSP implementation4. Problem solvingwww.controltrix.com consulting@controltrix.com all rights reserved 15
  16. 16. 2.1.0 DC-DC DIGITAL PWM SWITCHED MODE CONVERTERS  Optimal performance  Stability analysis  Large number of topologies  Excellent line and load regulationwww.controltrix.com consulting@controltrix.com all rights reserved 16
  17. 17. 2.2.0 SINGLE PHASE DIGITAL POWER FACTOR CORRECTION  Near unity power factor for Continuous conduction mode operation  Improved voltage response to fast changing load  Achieving low THD and high PF @ Low load (discontinuous conduction mode) (ever stringent specs) e.g. 10% THD @ 10% load  Advanced non linear techniques to improve THD in discontinuous mode  Consistent performance across a wide input and output voltage range  Single phase and interleaved operation  Fixed on-time hysteresis PFC controlwww.controltrix.com consulting@controltrix.com all rights reserved 17
  18. 18. 2.3.0 THREE PHASE DIGITAL POWER FACTOR CORRECTION  Bidirectional power flow  Near unity power factor for Continuous conduction mode operation  Improved voltage response to fast changing load  Unbalanced voltage source handling  Voltage following  Sine table look up with PLL for low THDwww.controltrix.com consulting@controltrix.com all rights reserved 18
  19. 19. 2.4.0 SINGLE CYCLE CONTROL PFC SW IMPLEMENTATION  Emulate in software single cycle control PFC  Lower number of ADC required  Phase Voltage measurement not required  Only unidirectional operation  Unbalanced voltage source handling  Voltage follower operationwww.controltrix.com consulting@controltrix.com all rights reserved 19
  20. 20. 2.5.0 PURE SINE WAVE INVERTER (HOME UPS,BACKUP)  Low distortion sine wave under all types of load ( rectifier, inductive, capacitive)  Low overshoot and undershoot  Dead time compensation  Inductor saturation  Syncing with AC source and switchover  Sine table lookup ,variable frequency ,amplitude and phase  Low tracking errorwww.controltrix.com consulting@controltrix.com all rights reserved 20
  21. 21. 2.6.0 DC-DC CONVERTER/BATTERY CHARGERS  Various topologies full bridge, push pull, buck, boost, buck boost , fly back, forwardly resonant series/parallel  Low overshoot/undershoot  Current source and voltage source  Current sink and voltage sink  Controlled regulation operation  Voltage mode control, current mode control, peak current mode control  Remote sense  Paralleling/load sharing  Optimizing thermal stress by load sharing based on temperature  Ideal diode software implementation  Charge profiling, charge termination and state of charge controlwww.controltrix.com consulting@controltrix.com all rights reserved 21
  22. 22. 2.7.0 POWER LED CONTROL  Digital dimming ~ 400 hz led is turned on and off  Fast current rise  Almost any DC –DC converter topologies  Almost perfect square wave current wave shape  Minimal spikes/overshoots/undershoots @ start and stop of the on –timewww.controltrix.com consulting@controltrix.com all rights reserved 22
  23. 23. 2.8.0 HID LAMP BALLAST CONTROL/WELDING  Constant current control for negative resistance loadwww.controltrix.com consulting@controltrix.com all rights reserved 23
  24. 24. 2.9.0 HYBRID OFF GRID/ GRID CONNECTED INVERTER  MPPT solar PV inverter for feeding into the grid  SCR/thryristor based inversion  PLL and synching with the AC grid  Current source topology  Lower computationwww.controltrix.com consulting@controltrix.com all rights reserved 24
  25. 25. 2.10.0 MICRO GRID/ DISTRIBUTED GENERATION  Synchronization of multiple AC sources  Black start  Limiting current based on power electronic devices  Protection schemeswww.controltrix.com consulting@controltrix.com all rights reserved 25
  26. 26. 2.11.0 DIGITAL SLOPE COMPENSATION  For peak current mode control  Dynamic Slope compensation using digital calculations instead of a constant ramp addition  Optimal choice of slope for any given operating conditions  Best convergence  Minimal degradation to voltage mode control (contrast traditional slope compensation)  Useful for wider range input and output voltage systemswww.controltrix.com consulting@controltrix.com all rights reserved 26
  27. 27. 2.12.0 THRYRISTOR/SCR BASED 3PHASE / 1PHASE POWER CONTROL  Motor drives  3phase and 1phase SCR/Thryristor phase angle control  Validation of conditions  Starters for motor  Light dimming  Harmonic analysiswww.controltrix.com consulting@controltrix.com all rights reserved 27
  28. 28. 2.13.0 TEMPERATURE CONTROL AND THERMAL MANAGEMENT  Minimum overshoot/undershoot  Smooth continuous control emulated through on off  Modeling using MATLAB and obtaining predictable resultswww.controltrix.com consulting@controltrix.com all rights reserved 28

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