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Phrase Structure Rules

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Phrase Structure Rules

Phrase Structure Rules

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  • 1. PhraseStructure Rules, trees
    Constituents
    Recursion
    Conjunctions
    http://faculty.washington.edu/wassink/LING200/lect14_syntax2.pdf
  • 2. PhraseStructure
    Everywordbelongsto a lexical category
    2) Lexical categoriesformheads of phrases
    3) Thewayphrases are formedisgovernedby rules: phrasestructure rules
  • 3. Phrase Structure Rules
    • Rules that determine…
    • 4. …………what goes into a phrase (constituents)
    • 5. …………how the constituents are ordered
    • 6. Constituent: a word or group of words that function as a unit and can make up larger grammatical units
  • Noun Phrase NP
    John N
    the boy Det N
    a little boy Det Adj N
    a boy in a box Det N PP
    Phrase Structure Rule for NPs:
    NP (Det) (Adj) N (PP)
    Where ( ) indicate optionality
  • 7. PhraseStructureTrees
    NP NPNPNP
    N Det N DetAdj N Det N PP
    Johntheboya littleboya boyP NP
    in Det N
    a box
  • 8. Prepositional Phrase (PP)
    • in P
    • 9. from a boy in a box P NP
    Phrase Structure Rule for PPs
    PP P (NP)
  • 10. PhraseStructureTrees
    PP PP
    P P NP
    in fromDet N PP
    a boyP NP
    in Det N
    a box
  • 11. RECURSION
    • Some phrasal categories may appear to the left or right of the arrow
    NP (Det) N (PP)
    PP P (NP)
    • Recursion: the property of language that allows for the embedding of categories ( which can yield infinitely long phrases)
  • Thecatonthemat in thehouseonthestreet
    NP
    Det N PP
    thecatP NP
    onDet N PP
    thematP NP
    in Det N PP
    thehouseP NP
    onDet N
    thestreet
    Thecatonthemat in thehouseonthestreet
  • 12. VERB PHRASE (VP)
    • sang V
    • 13. ate the cake V NP
    • 14. ate the cake hungrily V NP Adv
    • 15. sang a song in theshower V NP PP
    • 16. fellintothepondslowly V PP Adv
    PhrasestructureruleforVPs:
    VP V (NP) (PP) (Adv)
  • 17. VPVPVP
    VV NP VNP PP Adv
    sangate Det N sangDet N P NP
    the cake a songDet N badly
    in
    theshower
  • 18. SENTENCES
    A sentence must contain an NP and a VP e.g
    S
    NPVP
    Det N VP Adv
    the dog aux V
    was barking loudly
  • 19. SENTENCES
    A sentence must contain an NP and a VP e.g
    S
    NPVP
    Det N VP Adv
    the dog aux V
    was barking loudly