Modal perfects
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Modal perfects

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Some theory and examples of modal verbs followed by a perfect infinitive. I hope it helps.

Some theory and examples of modal verbs followed by a perfect infinitive. I hope it helps.

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  • 2. MODAL+HAVE+PAST PARTICIPLE• Los modales perfectos se usan parahablar de acciones y acontecimientospasados. Los empleamos para hacersuposiciones, conjeturas y sacarconclusiones sobre el pasado. Estudia lassiguientes frases con verbos modales.
  • 3. –He didn’t come yesterday. He must havebeen ill.–Andrew looks upset. He may have failed hisdriving test.–He should have taken more lessons beforethe test.–He should not have been so sure of himself.–She couldn’t have won the race. She wasn’tvery fit.
  • 4. MUST HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE• Se emplea para expresar que estamos casiseguros que algo ocurrió en el pasado o parasacar conclusiones lógicas.– Sheila was absent yesterday. She must have beenill. (debe haber estado enferma, seguro queestuvo enferma.– There is no milk left. Mary must have drunk it allas she stayed up late. (debe habérsela bebido)– Jack came prepared. He must have been informedabout the changes. (seguro que fue informado)
  • 5. COULD/MAY/MIGHT HAVE+PAST PARTICIPLE• La Se utiliza could have+past participle pasadopara indicar que se tuvo posibilidad de hacer algopero no se hizo.– He could have helped us, but he came too late.• En negativa, se emplea para expresar unadeducción de algo queque dijera estamos segurosque no ocurrió, o al menos, así lo decidimos.– She couldn’t have said those words. She never speakslike that. (no es posible que dijera esas palabras:seguro que no las dijo)
  • 6. • Se usa para expresar una suposición porqueno sabemos lo que ocurrió.– She didn’t come to the party. She could have beenill.• May/Might have+participio pasado expresa lamisma idea a la que se refiere el apartadoanterior de can, es decir, una suposición sobreel pasado.– They didn’t pick up their parcel last week. Theymay/might/could have been out of town.– Call her again. She may/might/ not have heardyou the first time.
  • 7. SHOULD/OUGHT TO HAVE+PAST PARTICIPLE• Should y ought to + have + participio pasadose puede usar indistintamente cuando no sesiguió un consejo.– She should/ought have seen a doctor last week.She looks worse than last time.– These letters should have been typed. Now, it’stoo late. (pasiva)
  • 8. • Cuando no se cumplieron las expectativas uobligaciones.– They should have been home by now.• Al referirnos a una acción que consideramospoco sensata en el pasado.– I’m very angry with her. She shouldn’t have beenso rude.