Cultural Heritage from HungaryPresentation Transcript
Cultural Heritage from the perspective of Hungary Dr. Eszter Faragó
Elements of CH. in Hungary
Nowdays in our curricullum
Proposal for the FACE IT
Hungarian National Gallery
(Collection from the XIX.century)
The exhibition presenting 19th century art surveys with the work of almost 10 years, beginning at the late-century.
Here could meet with almost all the important works from the time of National Romanticism that have for generations determined the national visual memory.
Then we could find works of Naturalist and early plan-air paintings.
It was one of the most renowned libraries of the Renaissance world, establihed by Matthias Corvinus king of Hungary. Between 1458-1490.
The library consisted about 3.000 codices or „Corvinae”, mainly of classical Greek and Latin authors.
North of the Alp, Matthias library was the biggest in Europe. (In 1489, Bartolomeo della Fonte wrote, that Lorenzo Medici founded his own Greek-Latin Library, encouraged by the example of the Hungarian king.
The National Archives of Hungary
Celebrated the 250th. Anniversary in 2006.
We try to keep every element of archival work which is strictly connected with history and historical researches.
Nowdays, archival work has to conform to the needs of the society and the citizens in connection with scientific researches, family history or the accesibility of legal documents.
The departments fullfil more than thousand written and verbal claims in relation on the archival collections.
House of the National Traditon
Dance : „csárdás”
Music: came from traditon:
The Kodály method
THE KODALY METHOD
Zoltán Kodály was born in 1882 at Kecskemét
His father was a railway-workman, his mother worked
in a restaurant
In his childhood the family moved a lot:
Galánta -folklore studies
Nagyszombat - music studies: violin, cello, piano
big success in composing
In 1900 he finished his high school studies and he moved to Budapest
He enrolled at Academy of Music (composer) and also at faculty of arts (Hungary-German)
In 1904 and 1905 he received his diplomes (composer and teacher of Hungarian and German)
In 1905 he started to collect folksongs, became best friend with Béla Bartók
In 1907 he was appointed as teacher
at the Academy of Music
In 1910 he married Emma Sándor
In 1923 ha wrote Psalmus Hungaricus
and continued his teaching work,
he wrote for children many pieces of music
( The Straw Guy, See,
the Gypsy Munching Cheese )
In 1924 he wrote János Háry ,
which was a huge success
1926-32 he wrote Spinning Room, Dances of Galanta, Te Deum of Budavar, Missa Brevis , and many other chorals.
In 1958 his wife died.
In 1959 he married Sarolta Péczely
Till his death he received many honors, composed a lot and was interested in music education
Zoltán Kodály died in 1967 in Budapest
The Kodaly Method
Before Kodály, Hungarian music education was influenced by the German way, children didn’t know any about Hungarian folk music
Kodály’s principles started to evolve during his French and English trip
Kodály idea was to make the folk music to children’s musical mother – language, then, when the child acquired his own musical – language than he can start singing other nations melodies
Kodály thought that choral singing is important in music education, he wrote many pieces of chorals for children, and he also asked other composers to write melodies for children
According to Kodály music is accesible by anybody, music belongs to everybody
His main thoughts were:
In education music has to be in an important position (as it was in ancient Greece)
Musical illiteracy is widespred in the country, that detains the development of music culture.
Primary-school teachers have a big responsability in music education, so they should be well qualified.
Children should make difference between valuable and valueless music and teachers should help them in this work. We should start it in early age, because decisive experinces comes between the ages of 6-16. When the child had grown up, it’s too late.
School must guarantee musical experiences for children.
Children should sing every day.
Music is accessible by everybody with the help of human voice, with singing.
Kodály thoght that choral singing is also very important: it gives the children joy and it helps in the evolution of clear singing.
When the child owns his musical mother-language, he can study other melodies: first the songs of relative folks (mari, chuvash). Then the child can sing further songs (for example western) which is very important in choral singing.
In 1937 Kodály was interested especially in choral singing. His main thoughts about this were:
The piano isn’t appropriate for setting the sitch or for accompaniment, because it’s a tempered instument
Melodies should be sung, not presented on the piano.
The members of the choir should read notes well, this is the way from musical illeteracy to musical culture. That’s why piano shouldn’t show the melody.
Music in kindergarden
Kodály also dealed with little children.
In 1941 appeared his work called Music in kindergarden
He stresses the importance of musical education, because it also develops the child’s concentration, emotional and physical advancement
That’s why different areas should be combined
Music has a big importance in the expansion of mother-language
Teaching of instruments
From 1945 before a child starts learning to play on an instrument, the child should go to a preparatory class
Here the child get acquainted with elementary music cognition (rhythm, hearing ang singing exercises based on folk music, reading exercises)
Kodály thought that a musican should hear, feel the song before the musican play it on his instrument.
They should sing the song from the note without the help of the instrument.
He conceived what are the virtues of a good musican:
good hearing, big intelligence, good heart, good hand
He emphasized the importance of Bach’s fugues and he also wrote exercies fer piano ( 24 Little Canons on the Black Keys )
Use of the Kodaly Method
Three important tools:
This is not a Hungarian invention, Guido Arezzo used a Latin hymn to name
With a little changes came into being the following sol–fa names:
DOH, REY, ME, FAH, SOH, LAH, TE
Sharpened FAH becomes FE, and flattened TE becomes TA
France Emile Chevé used sol-fa in France
Kodály uses relative sol–fa:
DOH considered to be the keynote in all maxor keys
LAH considered to be de keynote in all minor keys
It focuses on the relationship among pithces
Children get used to the sound of DOH – SOH so later it will be easy for them to recognize a quint
Little children always start with SOH – ME and SOH – LAH sol–fa names because of their range of voice, after come more difficult exercises
With our five fingers we can demonstrate the five line of a sheet-music.
2. Hand signs We can also use our hands on other way too. Fallowing Curwen, Kodály uses nahd signs to demonstrate the sol-fa names
Rhythmic duration syllables
Rhythm is taught with the help of vocals’ natural duration. This system comes from French Chevé.
We use it with a little change.
International use of the Kodaly Method
In 1958 at the ISME conference Ádám Jenő kept a presentation about Hungarian music aducation
First Heino Kaljuste, than Russian Weisz, Helen Richars, Chailley Hani Kjoko adopted thet method
From 1965 music teachers come to Hungary to learn the new method
In some country there were difficultes with the names of the sol – fa. In Russia they use the following names:
JO – LE – MI – NA – SO – RA – DI
Examples of Kodály - adaptation
1. Greek music lesson:
Evangelor Fangar before presenting a song, taugth the students to the rythm of 7/8, with a clapping exercise
When there was no problem with the rythm the teacher sang the melody (while childre are clapping)
Finally the teacher played the guitar while the children were dancing and singing
2. Brazilian music lesson:
C. Gerson music teacher taught a folk – song
First he presented it with clapping exercises
When the students get used to it, he claped an other ostinato
Then he taught some dance steps of folk – dance
The student were saying the rythm names and dancing
After they sang it with sol–fa names, than finally with the lyrics
Pictures about international adaptations
Tokaj The historic wine region
Blessed Tokaj wine, how good you are, your mere fragrance is enough to send death running; for many ill people have been cured by drinking you, though they were about to be taken away. Drink of the gods, immortal nectar, the land is blest where you grow!
The place of Tokaj
The Tokaj wine region is located 125 miles east of Budapest, the capital city of Hungary.
is a historical t own in Borsod-Abaúj-Zempl én county, Northern Hungary, 54 kilometers from county capital Miskolc .
is the centre of the famous Tokaj-Hegyalja wine district which got its name after the town .
consists of 28 named villages and 7,000 hectares of classified vineyards, of which an estimated 5,000 are currently planted .
The wine-growing area was first mentioned by the name Tokaj in 1067. The town itself was first mentioned in documents in 1353. Its first castle was a motte, which was destroyed during the Mongol invasion of Hungary. By the 14th century the town already had a stone castle, belonging to the Diósgyőr estate.
After 1450 Tokaj was the property of the Hunyadi family, so after Matthias Hunyadi became king, the town became royal estate. In 1705 Francis II Rákóczi ordered the castle to be destroyed.
After the Ausgleich (1867) the town prospered, but when the world wars came, it suffered a lot, lost its importance and its town status. Even its role in wine trade was taken over by Sátoraljaújhely.
Tokaj was granted town status again in 1986 and it started to prosper again. Now the town is a popular tourist attraction.
Places of interest
The historically downtown
The cellars of wines
The center of culture and conference
The Galery of Tokaj
The House of Wines in Tokaj
The town hall
The look-out tower on Financ Hill
The bridge of Queen Elizabeth
The Residence of Rákóczi-Dessewffy
n a i r a g n u H Goulash Gulyás = herdsman Gulyás (the meal) Goulash
How to prepare?
Beefchunks with salt, pepper, paprika browned on oil
Sliced on ions, hot red peppers and g arlic are added
Diced potatoes are added as well
Other herbs, e.g.: bay leaf, thyme and ground carawa y
Small amount white wine or wine vinegar could be added
Can be added flour or cornstarch and a bit of tomatoe
Can be eaten with bread or so called Csipetke
History of Goulash
Until the 19th century only herdsmen prepared goulash
Joseph II became king in 1780, and wanted Hungary to merge into Austria, so the Hungarian nobles started to emphasize more and more the independence of the Hungarians by aything that heightened the cultural identity
They picked a meal that comes from the less Austrian part of the country
Goulash was artificially but very successfully made a „Magyar” characteristic
By the end of the 19th century it became famous and popular everywhere in the country
By the 1950ies it became the number one dish of Hungary, a must-try for all the tourists visiting our country
Proposal for the structure
Example: (history of education)
Aims:The course establishes student” attitud towards the history of education in order to develop their knowledge about the history and practice of pedagogy.
Requirements: Students have to create seminar essays on the topics that are selected by the professor, which is requirement oral examination.