exterior length of 476 feet (145 metres)—23 feet (7 metres) longer than Reims Cathedral and 49 feet (15 metres)longer than Chartres Cathedral—with an interior length of 438 feet (133.5 metres). The soaring nave reaches an elevation of 139 feet (42.3 metres) at the apex of the vault, yet it is only 48 feet (14.6 metres) wide.
See Scott 2 to go over the terms of the floor plan: nave, porch etc.
Gothic Art“Let there belight!”
Spread of Gothic:black 12th Century, red 13th-14th centuries
Gothic Architecture• St. Denis in France 1stexample of EarlyGothic• Religious art, likeRomanesque, but alsoa symbol of power andwealth for the town• Not only cathedrals,but also castles,palaces, town halls,and universities• Cathedral becamecenter of the city• Not only for religiousrites, but also for guildmeetings andmunicipal government(before construction oftown hall)• Rivalries betweencities to see who couldbuild the biggest andhighest cathedral
The Abbey of St. Denis• St. Denis patron saintof France• First major stucturebuilt (partially) inGothic style• Construction began in1136• Burial site for manyFrench Monarchs• Located just north ofParis
Left: Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, Romanesque PilgrimageChurch, c. 1080-1120Right: Notre-Dame, Amiens, French Gothic Cathedral,begun 1220NaveTranseptChoirAmbulatory
Romanesque vs. Gothic(Abbey of St. Etienne, Caen)Nave (1064-1120) Choir (c. 1200)MainarcadeTriforiumClerestoryVaulting
Some Gothic Styles• Early Gothic beginning around 1140 (St.Denis).• High Gothic/Rayonnant (St. Chapelle,Paris, 1248)• Perpendicular (choir of Gloucestercathedral, begun 1330), unique to England• Flamboyant (St. Maclou, Rouen,1500-14)
Rayonnant: St. ChapelleRayonnant (called Decorated Gothic in England)was characterized by the application ofincreasingly elaborate geometrical decoration
More St. ChapelleRayonnant style• After 1250, Gothic architects were more concerned with thecreation of visual effects through decoration.• Pinnacles (upright members, often spired, that capped piers,buttresses, or other exterior elements),• Moldings• Window tracery(Some classify this as Flamboyant)• Rose Window
FlamboyantIn France the Rayonnant styleevolved about 1280 into amore decorative phase calledthe Flamboyant style.Dominant feature in stone windowtracery of a flame-like S-shaped curve.Wall space was reduced tominimumAlmost continuous expanse ofglass and tracery.St. Maclou (Rouen) 15-16th Centuries
Milan Cathedral (Duomo)The biggest and greatest late gothic architecture in Italy.1386-1577, west front 1616-1813
MilanCathedralFlyingButtress• Give horizontalstrength to thewall• Means wallscan havebiggerwindows, moredetail
Gothic Sculpture• Mostly religious:• Crucifixion of Christ• and Virgin with Child• To educate citizens• Figures more realistic and naturalthan in Romanesque• Curved and lines, movement• Expression of emotion• Mostly rock, some wood• Choir seating, tombs, gargoyles
Gothic Painting• Murals loose importance(except in Italy)• Painting over wood →Painted altarpieces• Religious subjects, alsopotraits• Movement of figures• Richness of colors• Use of gold• Introduction of background• Realism