Communicating with others


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Communicating with others

  1. 1. Communicating With Others<br />BY ANA E CHIQUILLO<br />SPEECH 104<br />MR. MARTENEY<br />
  2. 2. What is Communication?<br />Communication is the process of communicating by one or more persons, of sending and receiving messages that are distorted by noise, context, effects, and having an opportunity for feedback.<br />
  3. 3. TRANSMISSION MODEL OF COMMUNICATION<br />Sender: is the source of the message and has the primary responsibility for the success or failure of the communication act.<br />Encoding: is the process by which the source takes an idea or thought and selects verbal and nonverbal symbols to represent that idea or thought.<br />Message: is the content of the communication that the sender wants his/her audience to know. <br />Channel: is the medium through which the message must pass. The channel of communication are our senses: sight, sound, touch, taste and smell.<br />
  4. 4. TRANSMISSION MODEL OF COMMUNICATION (Continued)<br />Receiver: is the target audience of the message for whom the message is intended and a secondary audience, all others who gain access to the communication.<br />Decoding: is the ability to translate the message code into symbols that the receiver can understand. The object is for the receiver to interpret the message as the sender encoded it.<br />Feedback: is the information that is sent back to the source. It can come in many forms, from the receiver falling asleep to a verbal message which tells the sender how accurately you have decoded the message <br />Noise: is anything that disrupts or distorts the communication process. This may include something physical or psychological. Noise can appear at any point in the communication process<br />
  5. 5. FORMS OF COMMUNICATION<br />Verbal Communication: is define as any means of communicating that uses language such as words, numbers or symbols which requires a organized language system. Such a system is composed of a group of labels used to describe people, events and things in the environment.<br />Non Verbal Communication: is the exchange of messages through non-linguistic means including kinesics (body language), facial expressions and eye contact, clothing and physical appearance, tactile communication, space and territory, culture and social system, paralanguage and the use of silence and time.<br />
  7. 7. TRUTH VS. VALIDITY<br /><ul><li>Truth is the complete accuracy of propositions, statements, sentences, assertions and beliefs.
  8. 8. The threshold for truth is measured as absolute certainty.
  9. 9. Promotes dogmatism.
  10. 10. Acquiring truth is not the goal in argumentation and critical thinking.</li></li></ul><li>WHAT IS ? <br />Validity is defined as the internal consistency of an argument. That is the conclusion reached consistent and reasonable with the information used to reach that conclusion.<br />Arguing for the most valid position promotes open-mindedness which encourages constructive argumentation.<br />How to recognize valid positions and finding out which position is the most valid one is the goal of a course in argumentation and critical thinking.<br />
  11. 11. The Continuum of Argumentative Certainty<br />The threshold for validity is measured using the entire Continuum of Certainty. Threshold refers to the degree of validity on the Continuum of Certainty that advocate must demonstrate before an audience will commit to a decision<br />0%___25%_____50%____75%____100%<br />OpinionAssertion Inference Fact<br /> Critical Thinkers use VALIDITY to make decisions instead of the TRUTH<br />
  12. 12. REMEMBER….<br />Effective communication is an<br />essential component of organizational success<br />whether it is at the interpersonal, intergroup,<br />intergroup, organizational, or external levels.<br />We use facts to argue Validity <br />Truth is absolute and it cannot be argued<br />