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  • 1. By: Amanda Nabors
  • 2. a technique used to emphasize phonemes byusing successive words that begin with the sameconsonant sound or letter.
  • 3. A concept that encompasses best teachingpractices from two traditionally opposing readinginstruction programs: the skills-based approach,which emphasizes phonics instruction, and themeaning-based approach, which promotesreading comprehension and enrichment.
  • 4. Information surrounding a new or unusual wordor word group that can provide helpful hints onthe meaning of the unfamiliar term
  • 5. Directed Reading/ Thinking Activity is a teacher-directedstrategy helping students to establish a purpose forreading a story or reading expository writing from acontent book.1. Sample the text to develop background: Children are guided to read the title, look at pictures or any kind of visual representation, and read some sample lines from the text to develop hypothesis about the content of the text.2. Make predictions: Students make predictions based on a sample of the text.3. Confirm or correct predictions: Children read the text and engage in follow-up activities to corroborate of the predictions were correct.
  • 6. A reading strategy in which a lead reader readsaloud a section of text, and a second reader’s“echo’s” after that which was first read. Helpingstudents with fluency, reading orally, newvocabulary, and comprehension.
  • 7. Fluency is defined as the ability to read withspeed, accuracy, and proper expression.
  • 8. Individual letters represent phonemes.
  • 9. The technique helps students developcomprehension of the main idea of a story byanswering the who, what, when, where, how, andwhy questions on a diagram of a fish skeleton.
  • 10. Do not change the syntactic classification andtypically follow derivational morphemes in a word.These are native of English and always function assuffixes. Short Plural – s Long Plural –es Third person singular-s Possessive -’s Progressive – ing Regular past tense – ed Past participle –en or –ed Comparative and superlative –er and est
  • 11. Various types of journals can be used in elementary grades Personal journals- are used to record personal information and to encourage self-analysis of their experiences. Dialogue journals- promote written communication among students and between the teacher and students. The main purpose is to communicate, not to teach writing skills. Teachers can model writing when the reply. Reflective journals- are used to respond in writing to specific situations or problems. It is often shared with the teacher for input. Learning logs- are commonly used in the content areas to record elements discussed in class. In these logs, students describe what they have learned and elements in which they have difficulties. Teachers read the document and act on the request for assistance.
  • 12. A strategy that involves students in activating their schemata constructing questions about a topic, developing purposes for reading, and recording information they gleaned from the text that answers their questions about the topic.What do you know? What do you want to know? What did you learn?
  • 13. Results from the combination of innate ability,imitation of what is said and heard, and multipleenvironmental influences. Children are said to beborn with innate abilities and mechanisms todevelop language.
  • 14. The smallest representation of meaning.
  • 15. Is a story or an account. It may recount anincident or a series of incidents. The account maybe autobiographical to make a point. Thenarrative my be fiction or nonfiction.
  • 16. The teacher may make observations duringindividual or group work. The teacher makes achecklist of competencies, skills, or requirements,and then uses the list to check off the ones astudent or group displays.
  • 17. Collections of the students’ best work. They canbe used in any subject area in which the teacherwants students to take more responsibility forplanning, carrying out, and organizing their ownlearning.
  • 18. In the acronym SQ4R is a plan students use when reading text incontent areas.o Survey: the readers examine the headings, illustration, bold letters, and major components of the text to develop predictions and generate questions about the topic.o Question: students devise questions that the chapter will probably answer. The questions establish a purpose for reading.o Read (1R): students read while looking for answers.o Write (2R): students monitor comprehension as they write a summary. Creating one allows opportunities to internalize and make their own interpretation of the content.o Recite (3R): student attempts to answer orally or write the questions at the end of the chapter.o Review (4R): finally they review the text to evaluate the accuracy of their answers and to show how much they learned about the content.
  • 19. A way to assess students’ word identificationskills and fluency in oral reading. It is an informalassessments. In a running record, the teacher usesa copy of the page to mark each word the childmispronounces as the teacher listens to a studentread a page. The teacher writes the incorrect wordover the printed word, draws a line through eachword the child skips, and draws an arrow underrepeated words. http://www.readinga- z.com/guided/runrecord.html
  • 20. Stages of Reading Development Emergent Readers: understand that print contains meaningful information. They imitate the reading process and display basic reading readiness skills. Early Readers: have mastered reading readiness skills and are beginning to read simple text with some degree of success. Newly Fluent Readers: can read with relative fluency and comprehension. The are able to use several cuing systems to obtain meaning from print.
  • 21. This approach begins with the whole and thenproceeds to its individual parts. That is, the top-down approach begins with the  Whole stories  Paragraphs  Sentences  Words  Syllables  Graphemes  Phonemes
  • 22. Using Routines as Literacy Events- Several activities canbe modified to promote reading and writingdevelopment. Take attendance: Use a chart with students’ names on it. The names can be placed in alphabetical order, which uses indirect teaching to deal with that concept. Daily weather report: Use picture and word representing the climatic conditions. Today’s day: students select the appropriate card to show day of the week. Organize a calendar of events and review the plan of the day. Use notes: to communicate with students. Praise them or discuss behavior in written form.
  • 23. Incorporates the use of visual imagery to eithercomplement or supplement the message beingcarried.
  • 24. Competency 010: The teacher understands that writing tocommunicate is a developments process and providesinstruction that promotes students’ competence in writtencommunication. TEA WRITING PROGRAM1. Focus ad Coherence- how the main idea is introduced and supported 2. Organization- the organization of ideas, including connectors 3. Development of Ideas- how the ideas are presented and supported in writing 4. Voice- the uniqueness of the author and how ideas are projected 5. Conventions- the use of capitalization, punctuation, and spelling
  • 25. Refers to the vocabulary of a language. Themeanings of words change based on context andits historical framework, vocabulary is said to beone of the most variable and rich components of alanguage. Ex. HOT could mean High temperature Fashionable Lucky
  • 26. You are the one to model, teach, lead, guide, anddirect the youth of today in to leaders oftomorrow.
  • 27. Graphic organizers helpstudents improveorganizational skills andprovide a visualrepresentation of facts andconcepts and theirrelationships within anorganized framework.