Introduction to  Baroque Period of Music
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Introduction to Baroque Period of Music

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  • {"27":"The Bach family was made up of more than 70 composers and performers in Germany from the 16th to the early 19th centuries.\nJohann Sebastian Bach, or Sebastian as he was called by his family, was born in Eisenach, Germany on March 25, 1685.\nHis father, Johann Ambrosius Bach (1645-1695), was a renowned violinist and was employed as a court trumpeter and music director in the town of Eisenach. Bach probably learned to play the violin at an early age from his father. \nHis mother, Maria Elisabeth Lämmerhirt (1644-1694), also came from a musical family.\n","16":"The creation of ‘equal temperament’ (the division of the octave into 12 equally spaced notes) meant that composers could write in any key for the keyboard for the first time.\n","5":"Louis XIV as a young man and the picture shown in your textbook. \n","44":"Show diagram on board of the non staged event!\n","22":"all the way from ppp to perhaps mp— but what is remarkable is the variation of pitch possible by exerting pressure on the key after it has been played. Bebung was the term given by the Germans to this vibrato effect, although it was probably meant to be used with discretion like an ornament, and not an indiscriminate wallowing around on every single note. It is the degree of control allowed by this immediacy of touch, which is so lacking in all other keyboard instruments: In the clavichord, the finger is always in direct connection through the key and tangent to the sounding string. \nThe clavichord was much lighter than other keyboard instruments and was therefore portable.\n","12":"Tragedie lyrique – French form of opera\nFrench required that significant importance of ballet and drama be maintained, or they would not have accepted the new form, “opera”\nGrout says: “serious plots from ancient mythology or chivalric tales with frequent diversions, long interludes of dancing and choral singing.\n","40":"Squabbles as a child with his father over even being allowed to play at the Harpsichord. \nFather removed the harpsichord from the living quarters and put it in the attic: \nThis made for Handel his own private practice room. \n","18":"Tracker action means that all of the connections in the organ are mechanical instead of electrical\nThe positive organ was smaller than the “great” ones, for smaller churches. The portative organ was used in processions but it was also associated with secular music and it would have been used to accompany dance and other itinerant festivities. This portable organ was carried, strapped to the player who pumped with one hand and played with the other. The positive and great organs required someone other than the organist to operate the bellows. \n","52":"Attached to an orphanage for girls.\nOrchestra composer and conductor for the school.\nOutreach of the Catholic Church as a part of the Counter-Reformation.\nJesuit, Dominican, Benedictine, orders whose purpose was to educate, heal and outreach to the world. \n","41":"After a few months in Hannover Handel left for London, England, where in 1711 his first Italian opera for the English stage, Rinaldo, was enthusiastically received. Encouraged by his success, Handel visited London again shortly after returning to Hannover, but this time he did not go back to Germany. He was dismissed from his Hannover post in good standing, but when his former employer succeeded to the British throne in 1714, a formal reconciliation between the two men may have become necessary. Such a reconciliation is thought to have taken place during a party on barges on the Thames River in 1717, at which Handel’s Water Music was played. \n","30":"First page of Bach’s Sonata #1 in g minor for violin – in his own handwriting.\n","19":"Positive OrganJohann Hencke Vienna, c. 1740\n“Angel plays portative organ\n","25":"DescriptionThis Antonio Stradivari violin is the only one in existence that has been restored to its original Baroque form. Before modification to produce a louder, more brilliant tone and to extend the left-hand technique to higher positions, Baroque violins had gut strings, a short fingerboard, and a neck angled back only slightly from the body. Today, few fine violins show these original features. \n","14":"Abbey Church at Amorbach with Pipe Organ\n","3":"The Union of Earth and Water – Rubens\nvan Rijn's Nicolaes Tulp, - Rembrandt\n","20":"Baroque Organs\n","15":"The great composers: Bach, Handel, Couperin, Vivaldi, Scarlati, Corelli were all instrumental virtuosi. \n","21":"DescriptionThis gilded case encloses an Italian harpsichord of typical design but unusual length. Decorated with a frieze depicting the Triumph of Galatea and supported by three Tritons, the harpsichord originally formed part of Michele Todini's Galeria Armonica and was described in his catalogue of 1676. The flanking figures of Polyphemus playing a bagpipe (Todini invented one like it) and Galatea, holding a lute, were displayed with the harpsichord in front of a "mountain" in which a small pipe organ was concealed. The organ simulated the bagpipe's sound and the harpsichord represented the sound of the lute. Todini designed several such lavish instruments and charged admission from the aristocrats who visited his gallery. The artistic quality of the case ranks it among the finest examples of Roman Baroque decorative art; Todini's ingenuity and search for new forms of instrumental expressivity grew out of the same musical climate that led to the invention of the piano. \n"}

Introduction to  Baroque Period of Music Introduction to Baroque Period of Music Presentation Transcript

  • BAROQUE ERA 1600-1750
  • Baroque Literature Shakespeare – Hamlet Cervantes – Don Quixote Milton – Paradise Lost Defoe – Robinson Crusoe Swift – Gulliver’s Travels
  • Baroque Art Rubens Rembrandt
  • Baroque Politics King James Bible – 1611 Galileo – 1610 Earth revolves around the sun. Thirty Years War (1618-1648) Newton – Principal Mathematica Witchcraft Trials in Salem – 1692
  • Louis XIV 1638-1715 (reigned for 72 years)
  • The Palace at Versailles Versailles Landscaping Hall of Mirrors Extravagance
  • Baroque Music Composers: Monteverdi Arcangelo Corelli Henry Purcell Antonio Vivaldi George Frideric Handel Johann Sebastian Bach
  • Baroque Orchestra 10-40 musicians Upper Strings – 1st and 2nd Violin, Viola Basso Continuo harpsichord plus cello, double bass or bassoon
  • Woodwinds flutes oboes recorders
  • Brass trumpets horns trombones Percussion timpani/kettle drums)
  • Baroque Opera began as a combo of dance scenes, lyrical music and plot based upon courtly love. a French critic, late 1600s said: “Opera is a bizarre affair made up of poetry and music, in which the poet and the musician, each equally obstructed by the other, give themselves no end of trouble to produce a wretched work.”
  • How evil is opera?? Opera was illegal in Rome in the early 1700s. an English critic, 1872: Opera is to be regarded “musically, philosophically, and ethically, as an almost unmixed evil.”
  • Baroque Instrumental Music This is the first time that we see instrumental music sharing the same stature as vocal music. For the first time, there was a clear separation of Vocal and Instrumental music
  • Baroque Instrumental Practice • There were no ‘classics’, so contemporary composers were very prolific • Virtuosity (music that shows off the technical skills of the performer)
  • Keyboard Music Equal tempered tuning
  • Keyboard Instruments Three main instruments Organ: sacred venues and some home chapels • Tracker Action • Great, positive, and portative organ Harpsichord: basso continuo for orchestra and dance music. Solo instrument. Strings plucked by a Plectrum. Clavichord: strings struck by hammers made originally from bone. Precursor to the piano.
  • Positive organ Portative organ
  • Baroque Organs
  • Harpsichord Harpsichord, ca. 1675 Harpsichord, ca. 1675 Made by Michele Todini Made by Michele Todini Rome, Italy Rome, Italy
  • Clavichord
  • Innovations Instrument building families Stradivarius, Guarneri, and Amati Strings Cat gut Slightly different playing technique….bowing Woodwinds: mellow sound as opposed to a more brassy sound in modern times.
  • Innovations Brass Originally a military instrument for signals Without valves Key changes made by inserting longer or shorter crooks in the horn.
  • Violin, 1693 Made by Antonio Stradivari (1644–1737) Cremona, Italy
  • Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
  • The Life of J.S. Bach Born in Eisenach, Germany, which was also the birthplace of Martin Luther. Bach’s family supplied musicians (agents) The Bach family was made up of more than 70 composers and performers in Germany from the 16th to the early 19th centuries. Orphaned at age of 10, raised by his older brother. Brother was an organist and Bach’s first music teacher (family apprenticeship)
  • Bach as a young man
  • Bach: prolific & complex Wrote over 1000 musical pieces in every genre except opera Cantatas (1 per week for 8 years) Public complained for his flowery music Musicians felt his music too difficult
  • Bach’s Signature J.S.Bach (musical) cross. Bach signed himself with a single note (using 4 different pitches) B: Left staff (treble clef) A: Upper staff (tenor clef) C: Right staff (alto clef) H: Lower staff (treble clef)
  • Bach’s Work Church Musician Write music for services Play organ Teach choirs Teach soloists Conduct orchestra, choirs Court Musician Wrote music for entertainment Wrote commissioned pieces School teacher Organ teacher Organ construction consultant Composer—sacred & secular music Husband/father
  • This is a picture of one of the churches in Leipzig where Bach worked. He was responsible for all music in all 4 churches in the town. St. Thomas Church and School
  • “Since the best man could not be obtained, mediocre ones would have to be accepted.” -Leipzig town council member commenting on the hiring of Bach
  • In 1707, Bach married his cousin, Maria Barbara. They had 7 children. She died in 1721. The same year, he married Anna Magdalena Wilken, who was a professional singer. They ended up having 13 more children during their marriage. This brings Bach’s total of children to 20!!! It is interesting to see that Bach did not travel much during his lifetime and stayed within a small area of Germany.
  • Germany Bach’s life and work 1717-1723 1723-1750 Born 1685 1708-1717 1703-1708
  • By 1748 Bach was nearly blind from cataracts. In March and April of 1750, he was operated on by the English oculist John Taylor. The operations and the treatment that followed them may have hastened Bach's death. Johann Sebastian Bach died on July 28, 1750.
  • Did you know? Bach shares his birth year with G.F.Handel. Handel also had cataract surgery performed by oculist John Taylor. American composer, Edward MacDowell said, "Bach and Handel were in every way quite different, except that both were born in the same year and killed by the same doctor”.
  • George Frideric Handel (1685-1759)
  • George Fredric Handel born in Halle, Germany Father was a wealthy barber/surgeon that believed that Handel should never enter the music field. Born Georg Friedrich Händel, Handel anglicized the spelling of his name after becoming a British citizen in 1727. Handel never married.
  • Hanover He traveled to London to stage his opera, which was very well received The next time he went to London, he just stayed He was dismissed by the Elector of Hanover The elector of Hanover, was crowned King George I of England in 1714. Oops!
  • Handel’s Water Music 1717 An offering to King George I after irritating His Serene Highness. Music for an outing on the Thames river. His former salary (in Hanover) was doubled
  • Oratorio Baroque vocal piece. Multi-movement First oratorios were sacred operas.
  • Oratorio Eventually stripped of staging and costumes etc. At the end of the Baroque it was simply a “non-staged event.” Middle and late oratorio used no acting, staging, costumes. -- Concert version. Based upon a biblical story
  • Messiah (1742) Premiered in Dublin, Ireland. Composed in 24 days. Has been performed every year since its premiere in 1742. Libretto: Biblical verses divided in three parts: Christmas, Easter, Redemption
  • Concert etiquette for Messiah Why stand at the Hallelujah Chorus. Tradition or Religious significance? King George
  • the Top 10 (possible) reasons the king was awakened by the loud chords of the beginning of the chorus he was tired of sitting he was hard of hearing and thought they were playing “God Save the King” he had gout and stood for relief he arrived late and all stood when he entered
  • he had hemorrhoids and stood for relief he had to go to the bathroom he mistook the words “And he shall reign forever and ever” to be a personal tribute he thought the chorus was so splendid that he assumed it marked the end of the show he was actually moved and inspired to stand
  • Handel’s last years he lost his eyesight during the last years of his life He had the same physician who treated Bach!
  • Handel buried in Westminster Abbey Note the wrong date on the grave marker.
  • Handel is the greatest composer who ever lived. I would bare my head and kneel at his grave. - Ludwig Van Beethoven
  • Antonio Vivaldi: 1678 –1741 Composer in one of four of the most important music schools of Italy (and Europe) Called ‘The Red Priest’ because of his red hair
  • Vivaldi’s Musical Style Vivaldi is credited for helping to free instrumental style from vocal style. Each piece is used as a teaching tool to create virtuosity in the players of the orphanage and music school. Most famous piece: The Four Seasons